• Its name is derived from the Latin
cadmia and the Greek kadmeia
• First discovered by Friedrich
Strohmeyer, a German chemist,
• While studying calamine(ZnCO3),
it was noticed that when heated
some samples glowed yellow
while others did not.
• After later examination, he
concluded that the calamine that
changed color contained a new
• Atomic Number: 48
• Atomic Weight: 112.411
• Melting Point: 594.22 K (321.07°C or
• Boiling Point: 1040 K (767°C or 1413°F)
• Density: 8.69 grams per cubic centimeter
• Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
• Element Classification: Metal
• PeriodNumber:5 GroupNumber:12
• Nine major radioactive isotopes of
cadmium exist, of which only three
– cadmium-109, cadmium-113,
and cadmium-113m– have half-
lives long enough to warrant
potential concern. The half-lives of
the other six are less than 45 days.
• There are 5 stable isotopes
Cadmium 108 Cadmium 110
Cadmium 111 Cadmium 112
• Most in the U.S. used in nickel-
• Also used as an anticorrosive coating
for steel and cast iron, and used as
component of certain specialty alloys.
• Used in semiconductors (such as
cadmium selenide and telluride), in
dyes and pigments, as a stabilizer in
plastics such as polyvinyl chloride,
and as a neutron absorber in nuclear
reactor control rods and shields.
• Cadmium has negative effects on
• In the human body, cadmium
accumulates mainly in the
kidneys. At high levels, it can
reach a critical threshold and can
lead to serious kidney failure.
• Cadmium is generally taken into
the body through smoking as well
as trace amount sin food and
water which has came from the
• Cadmium intake by the general
population has decreased in the
past 60 years.
• Cadmium is found in rare ores such as sphalerite
and greenockite, and it is formed as a byproduct
during production of zinc, copper, and lead.
• The United States is among the top ten
producers, refining over 1,000 metric tons of
cadmium a year.
• Isolating cadmium consists of the
following series of reactions.
ZnO + C → Zn + CO
ZnO + CO → Zn + CO2
CO2 + C → 2CO
• Cadmium is an extremely toxic
metal, which is why it has its
negative effects on the human