Cadmium (Jeremy Willett)


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Cadmium (Jeremy Willett)

  1. 1. Cadmium By: Jeremy Willett
  2. 2. History • Its name is derived from the Latin cadmia and the Greek kadmeia • First discovered by Friedrich Strohmeyer, a German chemist, in 1817. • While studying calamine(ZnCO3), it was noticed that when heated some samples glowed yellow while others did not. • After later examination, he concluded that the calamine that changed color contained a new element, Cadmium
  3. 3. Properties • Atomic Number: 48 • Atomic Weight: 112.411 • Melting Point: 594.22 K (321.07°C or 609.93°F) • Boiling Point: 1040 K (767°C or 1413°F) • Density: 8.69 grams per cubic centimeter • Phase at Room Temperature: Solid • Element Classification: Metal • PeriodNumber:5 GroupNumber:12
  4. 4. Major Isotopes • Nine major radioactive isotopes of cadmium exist, of which only three – cadmium-109, cadmium-113, and cadmium-113m– have half- lives long enough to warrant potential concern. The half-lives of the other six are less than 45 days. • There are 5 stable isotopes Cadmium 108 Cadmium 110 Cadmium 111 Cadmium 112 Cadmium 114
  5. 5. Uses • Most in the U.S. used in nickel- cadmium batteries • Also used as an anticorrosive coating for steel and cast iron, and used as component of certain specialty alloys. • Used in semiconductors (such as cadmium selenide and telluride), in dyes and pigments, as a stabilizer in plastics such as polyvinyl chloride, and as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactor control rods and shields.
  6. 6. Concerns • Cadmium has negative effects on human health • In the human body, cadmium accumulates mainly in the kidneys. At high levels, it can reach a critical threshold and can lead to serious kidney failure. • Cadmium is generally taken into the body through smoking as well as trace amount sin food and water which has came from the soil. • Cadmium intake by the general population has decreased in the past 60 years.
  7. 7. Availability • Cadmium is found in rare ores such as sphalerite and greenockite, and it is formed as a byproduct during production of zinc, copper, and lead. • The United States is among the top ten producers, refining over 1,000 metric tons of cadmium a year.
  8. 8. Miscellaneous • Isolating cadmium consists of the following series of reactions. ZnO + C → Zn + CO ZnO + CO → Zn + CO2 CO2 + C → 2CO • Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal, which is why it has its negative effects on the human body.
  9. 9. Sources • • • • • • • • m.html • yerbio.htm •