The element Vanadium is named after Vanadis, the Scandinavian goddess of Beauty because the element has beautiful multi-colored chemical compounds. Vanadium was originally discovered by the Spanish mineralogist Andres Manuel del Rio at Mexico City in 1801. He prepared salts from the mineral vanadinite (then called brown lead) but did not isolate the pure metal. Rediscovered by Nils Sefstrom of Sweden in 1830. Metallic vanadium was first isolated by Henry E. Roscoe in 1867, by reducing vanadium chloride (VCl3) with hydrogen.
Symbol of Element : V Atomic Number of Vanadium : 23 Atomic Mass: 50.9415 amu Melting Point: 1890.0 °C - 2163.15 °K Boiling Point: 3380.0 °C - 3653.15 °K Crystal Structure: Cubic Density @ 293 K: 5.8 g/cm3 Color of Vanadium : bright white Vanadium is solid at room temperature.
Vanadium has good structural strength It possesses good corrosion resistance to alkali metal, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and salt water It oxidizes readily at temperatures greater then 660°C
There are two naturally occurring isotopes -vanadium- 50 and vanadium-51. Vanadium-51 is much more common, making up about 99.75 percent of all naturally occurring vanadium. Other Isotopes include V-48 Half Life of15.98 days V-49 Half life 337.0 days V-50 Half Life of1.4E17 years V-51 Stable V-52 Half Life of 3.76 minutes
Cost, pure: $220 per 100g Cost, bulk: $2.70 per 100g Vanadium is not found free in nature but is found combined in about 65 different minerals. Vanadium is also found in bauxite and in fossil fuel deposits. Commercially, production of the metal is by calcium reduction of the pentoxide.
The main use of vanadium is to make alloys, especially with steel. When a small amount of vanadium is added it increases strength, toughness, and heat resistance. Vanadium steel alloys are used in gears, axles and crankshafts. It is also made into ferrovanadium, a vanadium-iron alloy. This form of vanadium is used in surgical instruments
Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft. Vanadium foil is used to cover titanium to bond it with steel. Vanadium-gallium tape is used in superconducting magnets. Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. Vanadium pentoxide is also a potential new source of battery power.