Radium (Evan Clark)


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Radium (Evan Clark)

  1. 1. Radium Evan Clark
  2. 2.  Discovered in 1898 by Nobel Laureate Marie Curie in the mineral pitchblende. Isolated in 1911. There is approximately 1 gram of radium in 7 tons of pitchblende. Origin of name is fromLatin word radius,meaning ray.History of Radium
  3. 3.  Atomic Number- 88 Atomic Mass- 226.02 amu Color: Silvery White when cut, blackens on exposure to air. Melting Point- 973 K Boiling Point- 1413 K Density- 5g per cubic centimeterProperties of Radium
  4. 4.  Abundance in Nature- 99% Half-life- 1600 years Radiation Emitted- Mainly Alpha, also Beta and Gamma Formed from the decay of Uranium 238 Decays into Radon 222 Gamma radiation emitted is highly dangerousRa 226 Isotope
  5. 5.  Abundance in Nature- <1% Half-life- 5.8 years Radiation Emitted- Beta Dangerous if parent material Thorium 232 is presentRa 228
  6. 6.  Radium is found in Uranium and Throrium minerals. Its concentration in Uranium ores is about one part radium to 3 million parts uranium. Today’s cost is unknown, Radium is not commercially available. In 1923, the cost for one gram was $100,000. With inflation, the cost today would be over $1,000,000 for one gram.Availability
  7. 7.  Historically, it was used as luminous paint on the dials of watches, clocks, and other instruments. It is no longer used for this purpose, due to radiation. Today, it is used in the treatment of cancer, via Brachytherapy (Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed sources are used to deliver a radiation dose at a distance of up to a few centimeters by surface, intracavitary, or interstitial application.) *Argonne National LabroatoryUses
  8. 8.  Radium is one million more times radioactive than Uranium Today, Marie Curie’s notebooks are too highly contaminated to be handled.Health Risks
  9. 9.  External Gamma radiation makes shielding necessary when handling waste Exposure can lead to tumors, especially in the bonesHealth Risks
  10. 10.  Inhalation of radium can occurs when it decays into gaseous radon. Radon can settle on mucous membranes and emit alpha radiation. This can lead to damage of cells lining the airways leading to cancer.Health Risks
  11. 11.  Radiation Protection. Radium United States EPA. http://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/radium.html It’s Elemental. The Element Radium Jefferson Lab. http://www.education.jlab.org/pub/doc/itselemental/el088. html Human Health Fact Sheet Radium Argonne National Laboratory. http://www.evl.anl.gov/pub/doc/Radium.pdf Radium. Royal Society of Chemistry. http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/pdf/rad ium.pdf Inflation Calculator. http://www.westegg.com/inflation Radium- the Benchmark. Los Alamos Science, Nov. 23 1995. http://library.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/getfile?23-10.pdfBibliography