Cobalt (Samantha Johnson)

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Cobalt (Samantha Johnson)

  1. 1. Samantha Johnson
  2. 2. What’s in a name? Named and discovered by Swedish Scientist Georg Brandt in 1739  The blue color given to glass was previously attributed to Bismuth. Brandt was trying to prove that it was due to a different element, which was discovered to be Cobalt. The name cobalt derives from the German word “kobald”, which means evil spirit or goblin and the Greek word “cobalos”, which means mine.  Difficult to mine and adverse health implications
  3. 3. General Properties Atomic Number: 27 Atomic Weight: 58.933200 g State at Room Temperature: Solid Appearance: Silver-gray metal Melting Point: 2723 ˚F, 1495 ˚C, 1768 K Boiling Point: 5198˚F, 2870˚C, 3143 K Density: 8.9 grams per cubic centimeter
  4. 4. Isotopes One main isotope—Cobalt-60 ○ Most radioactive form of cobalt ○ Most exposure from medical tests and treatment ○ Produced from weapons testing ○ Cancer radiotherapy ○ Irradiate (sterilization) of food—controversial topic as to safety of this process ○ Sterilize medical instruments ○ Test welds and casting industrially
  5. 5. Compounds Containing Cobalt Combined with…  Salts—carbonate, sulfate, nitrate, acetate (catalysts)  Oxide, hydroxide, carbonate (dyes)  Component of Alnico along with aluminum and nickel  Magnetic Compounds (mainly composed of Iron and Cobalt) ○ Permendur 49 ○ Permendur 24 ○ Rotelloy 3 ○ AFK 524 ○ Alcomax and Columax (iron, aluminum, nickel, and copper)
  6. 6. Key Functional Properties Resistant to oxygen Resistant to corrosion and damage Hard Produces blue color in salts Ductile Ferromagnetic
  7. 7. Common Uses Very broad window of uses  Deep blue color of glass, ceramics, pottery, enamel, tile, porcelain  Wear resistant coatings  Formation of alloys ○ Permanent magnets  Alnico ○ Forms Stellite—high temperature, high speed cutting tools ○ Jet engines ○ Magnetic Steels ○ Stainless Steels  Forms part of Vitamin B 12  Radiation Therapy (Cobalt-60)  Batteries
  8. 8. Proportionality of UseMarket Percentage Common UseSuperalloy 19.0% Jet enginesHardfacing and Other 6.0% ProtectiveAlloysMagnets 7.0% Magnetic SteelHard Materials 13.0% Diamond ToolingCatalysts 9.0% Salts (carbonate, sulfate…)Color 10.0% (Glass, Enamel, Plastic, Tiling, Fabric)Feedstuffs, Recording 4.0 Mainly CarbonateMedia, ElectrolysisBatteries 27.0 Rechargeable batteries— portable devicesAdhesives, Soaps, Driers 5.0 Paints and inksIn other words…most people encounter at least one use of Cobalt on adaily basis!
  9. 9. Supply and Demand Mainly imported Naturally occurring in fairly small amounts By-product of other metals—nickel and copper  ~ 55% from nickel industry  ~ 35% from copper industry  ~ 10% from primary cobalt operations
  10. 10. Where it’s found and refined Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Australia, Brazil, Cuba, Russia, China Source Percentage Africa ~52% Americas ~17% Australia ~24% Asia ~7%
  11. 11. Cost 2 forms are sold: HG—minimum 99.8% cobalt and LG—minimum 99.3% cobalt Similar trends are seen in the price of the two  99.80% tends to cost more  Average 2010 Values ○ 99.8% (HG) = $20.56/lb ○ 99.3% (LG) = $18.74/lb
  12. 12. Pricing Trends Pricing spiked at the same time for both
  13. 13. Bibliography A conglomerate of the information on the following websites was used: http://www.mii.org/Minerals/photocobalt.html http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele027.html http://www.chemicool.com/elements/cobalt.html http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementfacts/a/cobalt.htm http://len7288.hubpages.com/hub/Uses-of-Cobalt-in-Medicine- and-Industrial-Manufacturing http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele027.html http://www.thecdi.com/cdi/images/documents/facts/COBALT_FA CTS-Properties_and_Main_Uses.pdf http://www.metalprices.com/freesite/metals/co/co.asp http://www.thecdi.com/cobaltfacts.php http://www.evs.anl.gov/pub/doc/Cobalt.pdf http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/contaminants/radiation/pdf s/cobalt.pdf

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