K.V.SinghBTRA
Lets have a look of Ring spun yarn           How to measure the size………??
Yarn SizeLinear density or reciprocal of linear density,are used to calculate yarn size…………because the length and mass of ...
Count CalculationDirect System  Tex- weight in grams of 1000 m of yarn  Denier- weight in grams of 9000 m of yarn         ...
If 1,000 meters of yarn weighs 50 grams, it is  a 50 tex yarn.             Denier = 9 texSo…. Same yarn is of 450 denier
Indirect System (English System)  Number of Hanks in one pound  The length of a hank depends upon the  spinning system:Cot...
If there are 10 hanks of cotton yarn that weigh  one pound, this is 10s yarnSo what does a 20s count yarn mean ??...... it...
Conversion System                            5315              590.6   5906 English cotton count =                 =      ...
Folded yarn calculation   Indirect system     1 / R = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1/ R3 +………where, R is the resultant count in indir...
Direct system               R = R1 + R2 + R3 +……..Where R is the resultant count in direct system,And R1, R2, R3 are the c...
Formation of Fabrics Weaving Knitting Braiding Nonwovens
WEAVINGInterlacement of   Warpyarns                                    Weft                      Plain Weave
Different Types of WeavesDifferent arrangement of        Plain   threads………   Plain   Twill   Satin   Sateen   Diamond   H...
AIM……… Quality Production Minimum loss of energyand material
To achieve these aims…….. Good quality of yarns Proper maintenance of machinery Skilled worker
Material flow    Winding    Warping     Sizing   Drawing in   Weaving
WindingObjective To produce a good package that contains long length of yarn and unwound well during warping. To remove ob...
Requirement of winding The fault level in the yarn must be reduced to an acceptable level. The yarn must not be damaged in...
Yarn Passage
Yarn clearerCapacitance based yarn clearer
Requirement of knotting Be easy to tie, Have good resistance to slippage, and Be of a size and shape that gives it little ...
A high degree of yarn quality is impossible throughknot…..as the knot itself is objectionable due to itsphysical dimension...
Knot and Splice
SplicingJoining two yarn ends by intermingling the constituent fibres
WarpingObjective-To arrange a convenient number numbers of warpyarns so that they can be collected on a singlewarper’s bea...
Beam Warping
Sectional Warping
Producing An Even and Uniform Sheet Of Yarn   The packages in the warper creel must be uniform in   density, size, and win...
SizingObjective   To improve the abrasion resistance, and   incidentally, the tensile strength of the yarn1. Strengthen th...
Beam Creel   Size Box   Drying Unit     Warp                                      Separation                              ...
Size Box
Yarn appearance………..
During slashing the exact no. of warp yarnsrequired in the fabric is wound onto theweavers beam .The warp ends are then pa...
Drawing-in This is the process of drawing every warp end through its drop wire, heald eye and reed dents.
WeavingDifferent motions Shedding Picking Beating Take-up Let-off Warp stop weft stop
SheddingTo separate the warp threads into two layers, one israised and other is lowered.
SheddingReed                  shed
PickingTo insert a weft thread across the warp endsthrough the shed
Picking
Beat-upTo push the weft thread that has beeninserted across the warp ends, upto the clothfell
Beat-up
Take upTo pull the cloth forward after the beat-up ofweft, maintaining the same pick density andspacing throughout weaving...
Let off  To allow the warp to unwind from the warp  beam during weaving of a cloth and also to  maintain an average consta...
Warp StopTo stop the loom when a warp thread breaksor get loose.
Weft stopTo stop the loom when a weft breaks or theweft runs out of the package
Weaving MachinesClassification on basis of Weft Insertion Conventional Loom (shuttle loom) Unconventional Loom ( shuttlele...
Weft insertion device in conventional loomsIn conventional loomsa shuttle weighingaround half a Kg isinserted through warp...
Limitations of Conventional Looms1. Small weft package size, requiring frequent     replenishment2.   Heavy consumption of...
Unconventional LoomsShuttleless loomsCertain features of unconventional looms:- Large weft package supply, mostly in forms...
Different methods of weft insertion Projectile Rapier Air Water
Projectile loom Projectile weaving machines use projectile equipped with a gripper to insert the weft yarn across the shed...
Projectile weft insertion……..
Rapier loomsA flexible or rigid solid element called rapier is used toinsert the weft yarn and carries it across the shed.
Classification of Rapier looms Number of rapiers Type of rapier Type of insertion
Single rapierDouble rapier
Type of rapier            Rigid & flexibleSingle rigidDouble rigidSingle flexibleDouble flexible
Type of insertionTip transferLoop transfer
Features of rapier loom The rapier loom can weave very light fabric of 20 gsm to heavy 850 gsm The gripper head can take a...
Air Jet loom High speed weaving machines Insertion of weft yarn into the warp shed with compressed air.
Earlier air jet wet insertion              Buckling of weft yarnMaximum width 110 cm
Relay nozzles• With relay nozzles it is possible to propel the weft thread across  the greater width• Machine upto 400 cm ...
.....relay nozzle
Water jet loomWeft is inserted into shed with highly pressurizedwater.Hydrophobic warp and weft.  The range of jet and the...
Demerits of water jet loomsLeast flexible as compared to other shuttlelessloomsMaximum width of 3 m.
Making of Terry TowelRequired properties of yarns which are used in   towel are:1. High absorbency2. High wet strength3. A...
Why cotton……..??HydrophilicHigh wet strengthHypoallergenicEasy availabilityMost economical fiber among other natural fibers
Four group of yarn are used in terry towel  Pile warp  Ground warp  Weft  Border weft
Pile warp  100% cotton yarns  16 and 20 Ne  When high quality of towel is needed……two or more  ply yarn are used  Rotor sp...
Weft 100% cotton Carded 16s and 20s Ne Rotor spun yarns are also usedBorder Decorative, shinny and bulky yarns of rayon, v...
Construction of Terry Towel                    Pile warpGround Warp                                Weft
Physical properties of towel Absorbency Heat Insulation Crease Resistance Dullness
Terry weaving
Cover Factor
Cloth cover factor calculation
Fabric weightWEIGHT OF WARP IN LB.warp length in yds* Ends per inch * Reed width (“)           840 * Count of warpWEIGHT O...
Theoretical Loom Production  Loom production in yards per hour  Loom Speed (or picks per min)                 60  Pick den...
Weaving
Weaving
Weaving
Weaving
Weaving
Weaving
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Weaving

  1. 1. K.V.SinghBTRA
  2. 2. Lets have a look of Ring spun yarn How to measure the size………??
  3. 3. Yarn SizeLinear density or reciprocal of linear density,are used to calculate yarn size…………because the length and mass of theyarn can each be accurately measured. Linear density = weight/length
  4. 4. Count CalculationDirect System Tex- weight in grams of 1000 m of yarn Denier- weight in grams of 9000 m of yarn Denier = 9 Tex
  5. 5. If 1,000 meters of yarn weighs 50 grams, it is a 50 tex yarn. Denier = 9 texSo…. Same yarn is of 450 denier
  6. 6. Indirect System (English System) Number of Hanks in one pound The length of a hank depends upon the spinning system:Cotton system: 1 hank = 840 yardsWorsted system: 1 hank = 560 yards
  7. 7. If there are 10 hanks of cotton yarn that weigh one pound, this is 10s yarnSo what does a 20s count yarn mean ??...... it measures 20 hank or 16800 yards in 1 pound
  8. 8. Conversion System 5315 590.6 5906 English cotton count = = = denier tex dtex 7972 885.8 8858English worsted count = = = denier tex dtex 0.111 Tex = = 0.1 dtex denier Denier = 9 tex = 0.9 dtex
  9. 9. Folded yarn calculation Indirect system 1 / R = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1/ R3 +………where, R is the resultant count in indirect systemR1, R2, R3 are the count of single yarn in indirect systeme.gWhen two cotton yarns are of 24 and 36 Ne are folded, 1/R = 1/24 +1/36 R = 14.4 Ne so the resultant count of 24 and 36 Ne folded cotton yarn is 14.4 Ne
  10. 10. Direct system R = R1 + R2 + R3 +……..Where R is the resultant count in direct system,And R1, R2, R3 are the count of single yarn in direct systeme.gWhen two polyester filament yarns of 40 and 76 denier are plied together, their resultant count, R = 40 + 76 = 116 Denier
  11. 11. Formation of Fabrics Weaving Knitting Braiding Nonwovens
  12. 12. WEAVINGInterlacement of Warpyarns Weft Plain Weave
  13. 13. Different Types of WeavesDifferent arrangement of Plain threads……… Plain Twill Satin Sateen Diamond Honeycomb And many more…………… Satin Twill
  14. 14. AIM……… Quality Production Minimum loss of energyand material
  15. 15. To achieve these aims…….. Good quality of yarns Proper maintenance of machinery Skilled worker
  16. 16. Material flow Winding Warping Sizing Drawing in Weaving
  17. 17. WindingObjective To produce a good package that contains long length of yarn and unwound well during warping. To remove objectionable yarn faults
  18. 18. Requirement of winding The fault level in the yarn must be reduced to an acceptable level. The yarn must not be damaged in any way in the winding process. Unwinding in the following process with minimum difficulty. Package size, shape, and built must be most technologically suitable
  19. 19. Yarn Passage
  20. 20. Yarn clearerCapacitance based yarn clearer
  21. 21. Requirement of knotting Be easy to tie, Have good resistance to slippage, and Be of a size and shape that gives it little chance of catching or jamming in narrow openings
  22. 22. A high degree of yarn quality is impossible throughknot…..as the knot itself is objectionable due to itsphysical dimension, appearance and problems duringdownstream processes.The knots are responsible for 30 to 60% of stoppagesin weaving.
  23. 23. Knot and Splice
  24. 24. SplicingJoining two yarn ends by intermingling the constituent fibres
  25. 25. WarpingObjective-To arrange a convenient number numbers of warpyarns so that they can be collected on a singlewarper’s beam.An operation where yarn is transferred from singlepackages of yam to an even sheet of yam representinghundreds of ends and then wound onto a warp beam
  26. 26. Beam Warping
  27. 27. Sectional Warping
  28. 28. Producing An Even and Uniform Sheet Of Yarn The packages in the warper creel must be uniform in density, size, and wind configuration. Tension applied in warping must be uniform throughout. Contact surfaces which the yarn passes must be smooth and must not impede the progress of the yam.
  29. 29. SizingObjective To improve the abrasion resistance, and incidentally, the tensile strength of the yarn1. Strengthen the yarn2. Make outer surface of yarn smoother3. Lubricate the yarnIt causes fibers mutually to adhere in such a way as to make the warp yarn stronger, smother and better lubricatedAdhesives : Starch and gumLubricants : Fatty and Oily substance
  30. 30. Beam Creel Size Box Drying Unit Warp Separation Weaver’s Beam
  31. 31. Size Box
  32. 32. Yarn appearance………..
  33. 33. During slashing the exact no. of warp yarnsrequired in the fabric is wound onto theweavers beam .The warp ends are then passed through thedrop wires of the warp stop motion, thehealds of the harness frames and the dentsof the reed.
  34. 34. Drawing-in This is the process of drawing every warp end through its drop wire, heald eye and reed dents.
  35. 35. WeavingDifferent motions Shedding Picking Beating Take-up Let-off Warp stop weft stop
  36. 36. SheddingTo separate the warp threads into two layers, one israised and other is lowered.
  37. 37. SheddingReed shed
  38. 38. PickingTo insert a weft thread across the warp endsthrough the shed
  39. 39. Picking
  40. 40. Beat-upTo push the weft thread that has beeninserted across the warp ends, upto the clothfell
  41. 41. Beat-up
  42. 42. Take upTo pull the cloth forward after the beat-up ofweft, maintaining the same pick density andspacing throughout weaving of a cloth andwinding the woven cloth on to a roller
  43. 43. Let off To allow the warp to unwind from the warp beam during weaving of a cloth and also to maintain an average constant tension of warp as it weaves downTypes:- Negative let off- Positive let off
  44. 44. Warp StopTo stop the loom when a warp thread breaksor get loose.
  45. 45. Weft stopTo stop the loom when a weft breaks or theweft runs out of the package
  46. 46. Weaving MachinesClassification on basis of Weft Insertion Conventional Loom (shuttle loom) Unconventional Loom ( shuttleless loom) Projectile loom Rapier loom Air Jet loom Water Jet loom
  47. 47. Weft insertion device in conventional loomsIn conventional loomsa shuttle weighingaround half a Kg isinserted through warpshed to insert a lengthof weft weighing only afew grams. Shuttle For weft insertion in conventional looms
  48. 48. Limitations of Conventional Looms1. Small weft package size, requiring frequent replenishment2. Heavy consumption of spare parts, particularly of picking and checking motions3. Limited scope for increase in the speed and performance4. Complicated mechanism for multi colour weft5. High noise level.
  49. 49. Unconventional LoomsShuttleless loomsCertain features of unconventional looms:- Large weft package supply, mostly in forms of cheese/cone- Improved weft insertion system- Unconventional selvedge formation
  50. 50. Different methods of weft insertion Projectile Rapier Air Water
  51. 51. Projectile loom Projectile weaving machines use projectile equipped with a gripper to insert the weft yarn across the shed It allows use of any yarn cotton, wool, mono or multifilament and even hard fibers like jute and linen. Projectile weaving m/c are available in two or four color with working width of 190-540 cm.
  52. 52. Projectile weft insertion……..
  53. 53. Rapier loomsA flexible or rigid solid element called rapier is used toinsert the weft yarn and carries it across the shed.
  54. 54. Classification of Rapier looms Number of rapiers Type of rapier Type of insertion
  55. 55. Single rapierDouble rapier
  56. 56. Type of rapier Rigid & flexibleSingle rigidDouble rigidSingle flexibleDouble flexible
  57. 57. Type of insertionTip transferLoop transfer
  58. 58. Features of rapier loom The rapier loom can weave very light fabric of 20 gsm to heavy 850 gsm The gripper head can take a wide range of yarn count ranging from 5 to 1000 tex. Upto 16 different weft yarn can be inserted
  59. 59. Air Jet loom High speed weaving machines Insertion of weft yarn into the warp shed with compressed air.
  60. 60. Earlier air jet wet insertion Buckling of weft yarnMaximum width 110 cm
  61. 61. Relay nozzles• With relay nozzles it is possible to propel the weft thread across the greater width• Machine upto 400 cm width are available
  62. 62. .....relay nozzle
  63. 63. Water jet loomWeft is inserted into shed with highly pressurizedwater.Hydrophobic warp and weft. The range of jet and the width of water jet loomdepends on the water pressure and the diameter ofthe jet.………..Modern looms have speed of 1500 ppm
  64. 64. Demerits of water jet loomsLeast flexible as compared to other shuttlelessloomsMaximum width of 3 m.
  65. 65. Making of Terry TowelRequired properties of yarns which are used in towel are:1. High absorbency2. High wet strength3. Ability to dye well4. Good colour fastness5. Wash-ability6. Soft hand7. Hypoallergenic
  66. 66. Why cotton……..??HydrophilicHigh wet strengthHypoallergenicEasy availabilityMost economical fiber among other natural fibers
  67. 67. Four group of yarn are used in terry towel Pile warp Ground warp Weft Border weft
  68. 68. Pile warp 100% cotton yarns 16 and 20 Ne When high quality of towel is needed……two or more ply yarn are used Rotor spun yarns are also used.Ground warp 100% cotton Carded yarn 20/2 or 24/2 are generally used Two ply yarns are preferred Sometimes cotton/polyester blend is used for greater strength
  69. 69. Weft 100% cotton Carded 16s and 20s Ne Rotor spun yarns are also usedBorder Decorative, shinny and bulky yarns of rayon, viscose, polyester, and mercerized cotton are used with different yarn sizes
  70. 70. Construction of Terry Towel Pile warpGround Warp Weft
  71. 71. Physical properties of towel Absorbency Heat Insulation Crease Resistance Dullness
  72. 72. Terry weaving
  73. 73. Cover Factor
  74. 74. Cloth cover factor calculation
  75. 75. Fabric weightWEIGHT OF WARP IN LB.warp length in yds* Ends per inch * Reed width (“) 840 * Count of warpWEIGHT OF WEFT IN LB.Cloth length in yds.* Picks per inch * Reed width (“) 840 * Count of weftWEIGHT OF FABRIC IN LB. Warp weight in lbs . + Weft weight in lbs.
  76. 76. Theoretical Loom Production Loom production in yards per hour Loom Speed (or picks per min) 60 Pick density (or picks per inch) 36Production in square yards per hourLoom Speed (or picks per min) 60 loom width (inch) Pick density (or picks per inch) 36 36

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