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Mega-Whats 2012The 4th National Open Quizzing Championships                 Conducted by  The Karnataka Quiz Association  ...
Be Careful!These Are the Answer Slides
In association withQuiz Foundation of India, ChennaiBombay Quiz Club, MumbaiBoat Club Quiz Club, PuneKutub Quizzers, New D...
The Rules1. No negatives.2. No part points.3. Last names will suffice.4. Write legibly.5. Use of electronic devices prohib...
The DesignThree sections leading to 100 points:    Section 1  40 x 1 = 40    Section 2  25 x (1 + 1) = 50    Section 3 ...
Section 140 questions – 1 point for each
1 Variants of this contraption havebeen used for centuries. One version,built in 1818 by English civil engineerSir William...
1
1   Treadmill.
2     This practice was started to counterthe anti-India propaganda following theWar of 1965. It gained prominence in 1973...
2   Hajj subsidy.
3 What is special about this testmatch – the only time in test matchhistory this has happened?                            ...
3    
3
3 All the players, except for thewicket-keepers, on each team bowled!
4     In a rare, retrospective critique in the 11August 2011 edition of Nature, written by EmmaMarris upon the 40th annive...
4   The Lorax by Dr. Suess.
5 These radio-controlled, electricmini-Mini Coopers were used at theLondon 2012 Olympics to save valuabletime during compe...
5
5 To carry javelin/discus/shot/hammer back to the athletes.
6 The first public apology came in2012 during the unveiling of thisbronze statue in the west German cityof Stolberg. Haral...
6
6   The Thalidomide tragedy.
7     According to legend, this phrase stems froma meeting in 1680 between the powerful Frenchfinance minister Jean-Baptis...
7   Laissez-faire.
8 The first known attestation of thisphrase/usage is in a letter from theAdmiral of the Fleet Lord John Fisher toWinston C...
8
8   OMG (Oh My God!).
9     Considered a key Hellenic social institution, thesedrinking parties were held by men of good family todebate, plot, ...
9 Symposia/Symposium (meaning"drink together").
10 There are in excess of 1500 of theseaccording to the gazetteer which maintains thislist. Most of these result from high...
10 Lunar craters or Impact craters onMoon.
11 It started off with the American CivilLiberties Union (ACLU) announcing that it wouldfinance a test case challenging th...
11 Scopes Trial or Scopes Monkey Trialwhere John T. Scopes was accused ofteaching evolution.
12 Which landmark work begins thus: "Dr.P. was a musician of distinction, well-knownfor many years as a singer, and then, ...
12 The Man Who Mistook His Wife for aHat by Oliver Sacks.
13 A bit of 19th century sentimentalism isattached to the decision of "the first Tuesday afterthe first Monday in November...
13 The voting day for the US federalelections.
14 If 2 Roman Gods, 2 RomanGoddesses, the Estrucan god of death,the numbers 7 to 10 and other makeup the original list, wh...
14 Julius Caesar and Augustus wholend their names to months (July andAugust). The remaining are Janus(January), Februus (F...
15 This tree is cultivated in Spain,Portugal, Algeria, Morocco, France, Italyand Tunisia and can be harvested every9 to 12...
15
15 Cork oaks.
16 The design of this complex wasinspired by "War of the Sons of LightAgainst the Sons of Darkness". Itsconstruction was f...
16
16 Dead Sea Scrolls.
17 Given that the name of a famousgeographical entitys name translates to"sulphur island" in Japanese, what is theJapanese...
17 Iwo (as in Iwo Jima).
18 It is the term for a salmon fillet whichhas been cured. In fact, it comes from theGerman/Yiddish words for "salmon".Typ...
18 Lox.
19 If one kind are composed of these(three pictures below), then what arethe other kind composed of?
19 Sugar and Spice and all things Nice."What are little boys made of?What are little boys made of?     Slugs and snails   ...
20 General Sheridan, who laterbecame the general-in-chief of the USArmy, camped at a particular location in1882 along with...
20 Old Faithful geyser in YellowstoneNational Park.
21 Take a look at the next slide andtell us the area whose name is blankedout. You could say that it has a closerrelation ...
21
21 SoHo (in Hong Kong).
22 If you take a look at Cricinfos list ofthe 20 players with the highest runaggregates in Test matches, you willfind an e...
22 ICC.
23 He served in the army in 1965 to fulfill theone year compulsory military service required atthat time for all 18-year-o...
23   Arnold Schwarzenegger.
24 How Democratic is the AmericanConstitution is a book by political scientistRobert A. Dahl. In it he lists 23 countries ...
24   Israel.
25 The term refers to a type of organism whose cells dont have a nucleus or any other organelles with a membrane. So all o...
25 Prokaryote (meaning "before kernel" i.e. before nucleus).
26 This family of birds breeds in south-eastern Siberia and Northern China, wintering in Southern Africa. About 120,000 to...
26     
26
26   Amur Falcon.
27 In 1978, this brand was launchedwith 16 generic items in black andyellow packaging. This packaging hadonly text with a ...
27
27   No Name.
28 Its scientific name, Procyon lotor,means "before-dog washer" or "dog-like washer". Carl Linnaeus had placed itin the ge...
28   Raccoon.
29 The whole shoreline of Namibiaused to be known by this name, whichcomes from the remains of whales andseals on its beac...
29
29   Skeleton Coast.
30 These Oxidation Paintings werecreated by Andy Warhol spreadingmetallic copper paint on canvases andthen oxidizing the m...
30
30   Urine: he peed on them.
31 This logo consists of twenty dots orcircles. Eight of them form a line at 45oto the horizontal. From the third dotfrom ...
31   IndiGo.
32 This is a set of numbers which goesfrom 100 to 1599 in nine categories.Numbers 100-199 are allotted tocolours, 700-799 ...
32  E Numbers or Food Additives.Numbers 200-299 are forpreservatives and 600-699 for flavourenhancers.
33 The documented story of the birth of a physics unit. Allblanks are the same – fill up."Some time in December of 1942, t...
33   Barn.The story that it was chosen becausesomeone said "you couldnt hit thebroad side of a barn" is apocryphalbut made...
34    The Schiehallion experiment was a famousexperiment to determine the mean density of theEarth. Funded by the Royal So...
34  Charles Mason and JeremiahDixon of the Mason-Dixon Line fame.
35 Ram Dass Katari was the first Indian tohold the office of the Chief of the Naval Staff.He also led the Indian Navy in t...
35 The first Indian cryptic crossword setter (for an English newspaper). Newspapers used to run only re-prints of British ...
36 His first book was The Philosophy ofRabindranath Tagore (1918) and he believedTagores philosophy to be the "genuinemani...
36   Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Hisbirthday is celebrated as Teachersday.
37 This work, which the author probablyhesitated to publish until he was in his deathbed,contains the warning "Let no one ...
37 Nicolaus Copernicus. The work wasDe revolutionibus orbium coelestium(On the Revolutions of the CelestialSpheres).
38 His first names were Sidney Luxton, and he wrote a number of texts including some on statics and dynamics. His name is ...
38 Loney. The Indian was of course Srinivasa Ramanujan, who came across a trigonometry textbook by S.L. Loney.
39    Some time back The Guardian ran a competitionto find a replacement name for what they termed"the most wince-inducing...
39   One can only imagine that this "physicsconnection" is in the celebration following thediscovery of a new particle. Fi...
39 Champagne Bottle (Boson).
40 Italian Fosco Mariani argues thatwhile it owes its name to chance andprobably because it is not visible fromthe nearest...
40   Mt. K2.
Section 225 questions with 2 parts – 1 point for each                   part
1 Shown here is a scene from 17 July1717 as painted by Edouard JeanConrad Hamman.(a) Identify the occasion.(b) Identify th...
1
1(a) Premiere of the Water Music.(b) George Frideric Handel.
2     Its classical name (also the name of thespecies) was coined by Greek botanistTheophrastus, and means "divine flower"...
2
2(a) Carnation.(b) Dianthus.
3       Indologist Professor Philip Lutgendorf draws parallelsbetween these 2 movies: "Both concern orphans of uncertainba...
3(a) Shree 420 (1955).(b) Satya (1998).Answers can be in any order.
4      This anthropometric scale of proportions wasdeveloped as a visual bridge between twoincompatible scales, the Imperi...
4
4(a) Modulor.(b) Le Corbusier.
5    One of the earliest appearances of thisphrase was in a 1926 book regarding the MiddleEast by Basil Mathews, Young Isl...
5
5(a) Samuel P. Huntington.(b) The Clash of Civilizations.
6   (a) Who wrote this sonnet with thisaccompanying illustration? (b) What is hecomplaining about?"Ive grown a goitre by d...
6My loins into my paunch like levers grind:My buttock like a crupper bears my weight;My feet unguided wander to and fro;In...
6
6(a) Michelangelo.(b) About painting the Sistine Chapelceiling.
7     An 1806 invention by RalphWedgewood lead to it being used in manyprofessional transactions till the last fewdecades ...
7(a) Carbon paper.(b) Cc or Bcc in e-mails.
8 We know this class of creatures bya shortened form of a Latin wordwhich means "cut into" because theirbody is divided in...
8(a) Insectum OR Insect.(b) Entomon OR Entomology.
9    Metal works company (a) was started in 1942 as ajoint venture between the Nizams Hyderabadgovernment and Alladin & Co...
9(a) Hyderabad Allwyn.(b) Godrej.
10 Irish-American writer LeonardWibberley wrote a novel satirizing the ColdWar about an imaginary country in Europewhich t...
10(a) The Mouse That Roared.(b) The Wrath of Grapes.
11The A in the football clubs name is thesame as the pattern on the right. (a) What isit? Note the object in the clubs log...
11(a) Argyle.(b) "Pilgrims".The club is Plymouth Argyle and theobject in the logo is the Mayflowerwhich set off from Plymo...
12    This is an exhaustive list of people who haveheld a certain post in a movement – fill up.1. __(a)__, from 1920 till ...
12 The post was specifically created for (a)(who started the movement), while (b) is theyoungest ever to hold it. The extr...
12(a) Lord Baden-Powell.(b) Bear Grylls.This is the list of Chief Scouts of thescout movement.
13 There are fourteen of them, eachbeing a portrayal of someone. Mosthave names like C.A.E., H.D.S.-P., R.B.T.,W.M.B. and ...
13(a) Nimrod.(b) Edward Elgar himself.These are the Enigma Variations.
14 To most of the world, Keirin was largelyan unknown type of sport but was verypopular in Japan for gambling. It becamewe...
14(a) Cycling.(b) A pace bike.
15 Michael Chabons The YiddishPolicemans Union and Philip Roths ThePlot Against America are two of thenovels that have won...
15(a) Sidewise award.(b) Alternate History fiction.
16 A type of two-colour (usuallyblack and white) pattern using pointedshapes instead of squares, said to benamed for what ...
16
16(a) Houndstooth OR dogstoothpattern.(b) Cooks OR chefs.
17 Excerpt from a 1967 letter:"March 22, 1967 Dear WW:Goodie Ace told some unemployed friend ofmine that you were disappoi...
17 Your play, I trust, will still be running when Iarrive in New York the first or second week inApril. This must be terri...
17(a) Groucho Marx.(b) Woody Allen.Answers can be in any order.
18 This is the cross-section of a 2000year old building. As shown here, it isdesigned so that a sphere can fitexactly unde...
18
18(a) Pantheon.(b) Emperor Hadrian.
19 This is a Punch cartoon from 1894depicting the little guy as a giant-killer.(a) What two entities do the two peoplein t...
19
19(a) Japan and China.(b) Possession of Korea. (Japanwrested Korea from China in this war.)
20 In 1855 a scholar asked someone whom heused to know from childhood as chacha, towrite a taqriz (a laudatory foreword) f...
20(a) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.(b) Mirza Ghalib.
21 2nd October is celebrated as GandhiJayanti in India. Many other interestingpeople share the same birthday, likeGroucho ...
21(a) Lal Bahadur Shastri(b) First person to be awarded theBharat Ratna posthumously.
22 In ancient times the Greeks fed theone on the left (a) to their horses before arace, believing it would help them to ru...
22 Want a clue? Both have been used indifferent ways as deterrents, one in fictionand one in comics.
22(a) Parsley.(b) Garlic.Parsley was used by CacofonixsRoman captors to avoid hearing hissinging. Garlic was used by vanHe...
23 A bacteriologist was studying staining, aprocedure that is used in many microscopicstudies to make fine biological stru...
23(a) Blood Brain Barrier.(b) Paul Ehrlich.
24 Nowadays it is a tourist resort andpart of the Arcipelago Toscano NationalPark. Its flag, featuring 3 or 4 goldenbees o...
24
24(a) Elba.(b) Napoleon.
25 Complete this list with two place names from India: Childhood, ____, Forest, ____, Beauty, War. Some people might want ...
25(a) Ayodhya.(b) Kishkindha.These are the kandas (books) in Ramayana– Bala kanda, Ayodhya kanda, Aranyakanda, Kishkindha ...
Section 35 pairs of questions – each pair of answers    are anagrams – 1 point per answer
1 (a) Jared Diamond argues in Guns,Germs and Steel that this African animal,seemingly an obvious choice fordomestication, ...
1
1(a) Zebra.(b) Braze.
2   (a) The spot price of this Rajasthanicrop crashed 40% over six weeks inSeptember-October 2012, on concern ofhigh outpu...
2(a) Guar.(b) Ragu.
3 (a) The ____ languages are relatedlanguages derived from Vulgar Latinand forming a subgroup of the Italiclanguages withi...
3
3(a) Romance.(b) Cremona. (The statue isStradivarius.)
4 (a) In ancient times, an obolus ordanake was used as a fee for servicesrendered during a "journey". Who wasthe intended ...
4(a) Charon.(b) Anchor.
5 (a) A chemist named EugeneRimmel developed a variety of thisusing petroleum jelly. It becamepopular and the name Rimmel ...
5 (b) They are usually played in pairs.Often one is pitched high, and theother is pitched low. They used to bemade with dr...
5
5(a) Mascara.(b) Maracas.
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Transcript of "Mega-Whats 2012"

  1. 1. Mega-Whats 2012The 4th National Open Quizzing Championships Conducted by The Karnataka Quiz Association Est. 1983 Set by Arun Hiregange and Kiran Vijayakumar
  2. 2. Be Careful!These Are the Answer Slides
  3. 3. In association withQuiz Foundation of India, ChennaiBombay Quiz Club, MumbaiBoat Club Quiz Club, PuneKutub Quizzers, New DelhiSunday Evening Quiz Club, GoaHyderabad Quiz Club and K-Circle, HyderabadGrey Cells, KeralaCoimbatore Quiz CircleAnd the quizzing communities in Bhubaneshwar,Chandigarh, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur,Kolkata and Guwahati
  4. 4. The Rules1. No negatives.2. No part points.3. Last names will suffice.4. Write legibly.5. Use of electronic devices prohibited.
  5. 5. The DesignThree sections leading to 100 points: Section 1  40 x 1 = 40 Section 2  25 x (1 + 1) = 50 Section 3  5 x (1 + 1) = 10 indicates that the question continueson the next slide.
  6. 6. Section 140 questions – 1 point for each
  7. 7. 1 Variants of this contraption havebeen used for centuries. One version,built in 1818 by English civil engineerSir William Cubitt, was used in prisonsto crush grains. This form of hardlabour was discontinued in the late19th century, but the name survivedthanks to a health fad in the 1960s.What 9-letter term are we talkingabout? 
  8. 8. 1
  9. 9. 1 Treadmill.
  10. 10. 2 This practice was started to counterthe anti-India propaganda following theWar of 1965. It gained prominence in 1973when the Indian government discouragedsea travel and began providing thedifference between sea and air fares. It costthe government in excess of 900 crores(covering about 125,000 people) last year.The Supreme Court has ordered the practiceto be stopped saying that the originalpurpose has changed with the passage oftime. What are we talking about?
  11. 11. 2 Hajj subsidy.
  12. 12. 3 What is special about this testmatch – the only time in test matchhistory this has happened? 
  13. 13. 3 
  14. 14. 3
  15. 15. 3 All the players, except for thewicket-keepers, on each team bowled!
  16. 16. 4 In a rare, retrospective critique in the 11August 2011 edition of Nature, written by EmmaMarris upon the 40th anniversary of thepublication of this work, it was described as "akind of Silent Spring for the playground set". Thearticle described its central character to be "aparody of a misanthropic ecologist: He wasshortish. And oldish. And brownish. And mossy.And he spoke with a voice that was sharpish andbossy." The work was adapted into a movie thisyear and grossed nearly $350 million. Identify thework.
  17. 17. 4 The Lorax by Dr. Suess.
  18. 18. 5 These radio-controlled, electricmini-Mini Coopers were used at theLondon 2012 Olympics to save valuabletime during competition. Roughly aquarter scale of the full-sized car withsunroof, these battery-powered carscan carry up to about 18 pounds each.They were used as replacements forwhat task done by humans earlier intrack and field events? 
  19. 19. 5
  20. 20. 5 To carry javelin/discus/shot/hammer back to the athletes.
  21. 21. 6 The first public apology came in2012 during the unveiling of thisbronze statue in the west German cityof Stolberg. Harald Stock said, "We askfor forgiveness that for nearly 50 yearswe didnt find a way of reaching out toyou from human being to humanbeing. We ask that you regard our longsilence as a sign of the shock that yourfate caused in us." What are we talkingabout? 
  22. 22. 6
  23. 23. 6 The Thalidomide tragedy.
  24. 24. 7 According to legend, this phrase stems froma meeting in 1680 between the powerful Frenchfinance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert and agroup of businessmen led by a certain M. LeGendre. When the eager mercantilist ministerasked how the state could be of service to themerchants and help promote their commerce, LeGendre replied simply to the effect of "Leave usbe". The incident was related in a 1751 article inthe Journal Oeconomique by the French ministerand champion of free trade, René de Voyer,Marquis dArgenson — which happens to be thephrases first known appearance in print. Identify.
  25. 25. 7 Laissez-faire.
  26. 26. 8 The first known attestation of thisphrase/usage is in a letter from theAdmiral of the Fleet Lord John Fisher toWinston Churchill. It makes frequentappearances in social media and othermodern day communication. Also thetitle of a critically and commerciallysuccessful 2012 Bollywood movie. Whatis blanked out here? 
  27. 27. 8
  28. 28. 8 OMG (Oh My God!).
  29. 29. 9 Considered a key Hellenic social institution, thesedrinking parties were held by men of good family todebate, plot, boast, or simply to revel with others. Theywere frequently held to celebrate the introduction ofyoung men into aristocratic society. Usually held in theandrōn, the mens quarters of the household, poetry andmusic were central to these events. They frequentlyfeatured a game called kottabos, in which players swirledthe dregs of their wine in a kylix, a platter-like stemmeddrinking vessel, and flung them at a target. Rhetoricalcontests were sometimes a part of them and thus theword for these events passed on to the English language.Identify.
  30. 30. 9 Symposia/Symposium (meaning"drink together").
  31. 31. 10 There are in excess of 1500 of theseaccording to the gazetteer which maintains thislist. Most of these result from high velocityimpacts, natural or manmade. They are generallynamed after deceased scientists, scholars, artistsand explorers who have made outstanding orfundamental contributions to their field. Indianswho have been accorded the honour includeHomi J. Bhabha, J.C. Bose, Amil Kumar Das, SisirKumar Mitra, C.V. Raman, Meghnad Saha andVikram Sarabhai. What are we talking about?
  32. 32. 10 Lunar craters or Impact craters onMoon.
  33. 33. 11 It started off with the American CivilLiberties Union (ACLU) announcing that it wouldfinance a test case challenging theconstitutionality of the Butler Act. A bunch ofbusinessmen in Dayton, Tennessee, led byengineer and geologist George Rappleyea, sawthis as an opportunity to get publicity for theirtown and approached the Rhea County HighSchools football coach who occasionally filled inas substitute teacher when regular members ofstaff were off work. George William Hunters 1914work A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems wasused. What 1925 event are we talking about?
  34. 34. 11 Scopes Trial or Scopes Monkey Trialwhere John T. Scopes was accused ofteaching evolution.
  35. 35. 12 Which landmark work begins thus: "Dr.P. was a musician of distinction, well-knownfor many years as a singer, and then, at thelocal School of Music, as a teacher. It washere, in relation to his students, that certainstrange problems were first observed.Sometimes a student would present himself,and Dr. P. would not recognise him; or,specifically, would not recognise his face.The moment the student spoke, he wouldbe recognised by his voice."?
  36. 36. 12 The Man Who Mistook His Wife for aHat by Oliver Sacks.
  37. 37. 13 A bit of 19th century sentimentalism isattached to the decision of "the first Tuesday afterthe first Monday in November" which seems tomake no sense now. Monday was out becausepeople would have to travel in their buggies onSunday, the Sabbath (this is where the buggiescome in). In a mostly farming society, Wednesdaywouldnt work because that was often market day.So, Tuesday was the day, and that seemed towork great—there was a lot of hoopla, there wereparades. Whole families would come on wagonsfrom the farms, people would get dressed up forthe occasion. What are we talking about?
  38. 38. 13 The voting day for the US federalelections.
  39. 39. 14 If 2 Roman Gods, 2 RomanGoddesses, the Estrucan god of death,the numbers 7 to 10 and other makeup the original list, which 2 lateradditions (also related to each other)would complete it?
  40. 40. 14 Julius Caesar and Augustus wholend their names to months (July andAugust). The remaining are Janus(January), Februus (February), Mars(March), Other (April), Maia Maiestas(May), Juno (June), 7 – septem(September), 8 – octo (October), 9 –novem (November), 10 – decem(December). Give points for July andAugust also.
  41. 41. 15 This tree is cultivated in Spain,Portugal, Algeria, Morocco, France, Italyand Tunisia and can be harvested every9 to 12 years. Harvesting starts once atree reaches about 25 years of age anda tree can be harvested about twelvetimes in its lifetime. Identify. 
  42. 42. 15
  43. 43. 15 Cork oaks.
  44. 44. 16 The design of this complex wasinspired by "War of the Sons of LightAgainst the Sons of Darkness". Itsconstruction was funded by the familyof David Samuel Gottesman to househis most famous gift to a country. Whatgift are we talking about? 
  45. 45. 16
  46. 46. 16 Dead Sea Scrolls.
  47. 47. 17 Given that the name of a famousgeographical entitys name translates to"sulphur island" in Japanese, what is theJapanese word for "sulphur"?
  48. 48. 17 Iwo (as in Iwo Jima).
  49. 49. 18 It is the term for a salmon fillet whichhas been cured. In fact, it comes from theGerman/Yiddish words for "salmon".Typically served as shown below. Name it.
  50. 50. 18 Lox.
  51. 51. 19 If one kind are composed of these(three pictures below), then what arethe other kind composed of?
  52. 52. 19 Sugar and Spice and all things Nice."What are little boys made of?What are little boys made of? Slugs and snails And puppy-dogs tails,Thats what little boys are made of.What are little girls made of?What are little girls made of? Sugar and spice And everything nice,Thats what little girls are made of."
  53. 53. 20 General Sheridan, who laterbecame the general-in-chief of the USArmy, camped at a particular location in1882 along with his troops. Theyexperimented with a novel way ofgetting their laundry done. They foundthat linen and cotton garments werecleaned without any harm. Howeverwoolen fabrics got shredded. Whatspecific location?
  54. 54. 20 Old Faithful geyser in YellowstoneNational Park.
  55. 55. 21 Take a look at the next slide andtell us the area whose name is blankedout. You could say that it has a closerrelation to its namesake in New Yorkthan to the one in London. 
  56. 56. 21
  57. 57. 21 SoHo (in Hong Kong).
  58. 58. 22 If you take a look at Cricinfos list ofthe 20 players with the highest runaggregates in Test matches, you willfind an extra annotation for a fewplayers: Virender Sehwag, Rahul Dravid,Graeme Smith, Jacques Kallis, BrianLara, Inzamam-ul-Haq. Simple: what 3-letter annotation?
  59. 59. 22 ICC.
  60. 60. 23 He served in the army in 1965 to fulfill theone year compulsory military service required atthat time for all 18-year-old males in his country.He went AWOL during basic training so that hecould take part in an all-Europe competition atthe junior level. This earned him a week in militaryprison, but it helped that he had won the title. Ina couple of years he became the worlds youngestever title winner at the senior level. Now, manyyears later, he has a star on the Hollywood Walkof Fame. Name him.
  61. 61. 23 Arnold Schwarzenegger.
  62. 62. 24 How Democratic is the AmericanConstitution is a book by political scientistRobert A. Dahl. In it he lists 23 countries asbeing steadily democratic since at least1950. A large number of Europeancountries plus USA, Canada, Australia andNew Zealand make the list. No country inAfrica or South America is represented. Theonly Latin American country in the list isCosta Rica. Only three countries from Asia:India, Japan and one more, which you haveto name.
  63. 63. 24 Israel.
  64. 64. 25 The term refers to a type of organism whose cells dont have a nucleus or any other organelles with a membrane. So all of the matter in the cell is just enclosed by the cell membrane. Most current theories hold that the first living organisms were this type of organism. What is the term?
  65. 65. 25 Prokaryote (meaning "before kernel" i.e. before nucleus).
  66. 66. 26 This family of birds breeds in south-eastern Siberia and Northern China, wintering in Southern Africa. About 120,000 to 140,000 of them are killed in Nagaland during an annual two-week hunt every fall, during their passage between breeding and wintering grounds. Identify this species which shares a part of its name with a river bordering Russia and China. 
  67. 67. 26 
  68. 68. 26
  69. 69. 26 Amur Falcon.
  70. 70. 27 In 1978, this brand was launchedwith 16 generic items in black andyellow packaging. This packaging hadonly text with a basic productdescription and name, such as "freshlyground coffee" or "fabric softener," on asolid background. By the mid 80s, ithad become the largest selling brand inCanada. Now there are more than 2900different products under this brandname. Name it. 
  71. 71. 27
  72. 72. 27 No Name.
  73. 73. 28 Its scientific name, Procyon lotor,means "before-dog washer" or "dog-like washer". Carl Linnaeus had placed itin the genus Ursus, calling it Ursus lotor("washer bear"). Its English name hassimilar origins and comes from a nativeIndian word, incidentally also recordedby Captain John Smith of Pocahontasfame, meaning "one who rubs, scrubsand scratches with its hands". Whichanimal?
  74. 74. 28 Raccoon.
  75. 75. 29 The whole shoreline of Namibiaused to be known by this name, whichcomes from the remains of whales andseals on its beaches. The large numberof rusted hulls of wrecked ships onlyadds to the name. The Bushmen calledthis area "The Land God Made inAnger" and the Portuguese knew it as"The Gates of Hell". But what has beenblanked out in the tourism ad here? 
  76. 76. 29
  77. 77. 29 Skeleton Coast.
  78. 78. 30 These Oxidation Paintings werecreated by Andy Warhol spreadingmetallic copper paint on canvases andthen oxidizing the metal. What did heuse to cause the oxidation? 
  79. 79. 30
  80. 80. 30 Urine: he peed on them.
  81. 81. 31 This logo consists of twenty dots orcircles. Eight of them form a line at 45oto the horizontal. From the third dotfrom the top, four dots each form twolines at 45o to the first line. So as youcan guess, these sets of four form aright angle. Similarly, starting from thebottom dot, but with two dots each. Allthis forms a simple representation ofthe contraption which the companyuses. Name the company.
  82. 82. 31 IndiGo.
  83. 83. 32 This is a set of numbers which goesfrom 100 to 1599 in nine categories.Numbers 100-199 are allotted tocolours, 700-799 to antibiotics and soon. What categorization is this? Youcan give either the specific name or thepurpose.
  84. 84. 32 E Numbers or Food Additives.Numbers 200-299 are forpreservatives and 600-699 for flavourenhancers.
  85. 85. 33 The documented story of the birth of a physics unit. Allblanks are the same – fill up."Some time in December of 1942, the authors, being hungry anddeprived temporarily of domestic cooking, were eating dinner inthe cafeteria of the Union Building of Purdue University… In thecourse of the conversation it was lamented that there was noname for the unit of cross sections of 10-24 cm2… The tradition ofnaming a unit after some great man closely associated with thefield ran into difficulties… The "Oppenheimer" was discardedbecause of its length… The "Bethe" was thought to lend itself toconfusion because of the widespread use of the Greek letter... The"John" was considered, but was discarded because of the use ofthe term for purposes other than as the name of a person. Therural background of one of the authors then led to the bridging ofthe gap between the "John" and the "_____." This immediatelyseemed good, and further it was pointed out that a cross sectionof 10-24 cm2 for nuclear processes was really as big as a _____. Suchwas the birth of the _____."
  86. 86. 33 Barn.The story that it was chosen becausesomeone said "you couldnt hit thebroad side of a barn" is apocryphalbut made the unit popular, given thedifficulty of hitting a nucleus with aneutron.
  87. 87. 34 The Schiehallion experiment was a famousexperiment to determine the mean density of theEarth. Funded by the Royal Society, it involvedmeasuring the tiny deflection of a pendulum dueto the gravitational attraction of a nearbymountain. It was conducted in 1774 around theScottish mountain of Schiehallion, which wassuggested by one of a pair of people as the ideallocation after a search for candidate mountains,thanks to its isolation and almost symmetricalshape. Identify the pair who had noticed someanomalies, that were one trigger for thisexperiment, during their famous survey about 10years earlier.
  88. 88. 34 Charles Mason and JeremiahDixon of the Mason-Dixon Line fame.
  89. 89. 35 Ram Dass Katari was the first Indian tohold the office of the Chief of the Naval Staff.He also led the Indian Navy in the conflictduring the liberation of Goa against thePortuguese Navy. At the behest of the thenThe Hindu editor Gopalan Kasturi, he startedon a quest on 15 February, 1971 which hesingle-handedly continued almost till the endof the decade without any public recognition.Some of the by-products of his creativity areon display at the Katari Memorial Hall inSainikpuri near Secunderabad. What is hislesser known claim to fame?
  90. 90. 35 The first Indian cryptic crossword setter (for an English newspaper). Newspapers used to run only re-prints of British crosswords till then.
  91. 91. 36 His first book was The Philosophy ofRabindranath Tagore (1918) and he believedTagores philosophy to be the "genuinemanifestation of the Indian spirit". In 1929, hedelivered the prestigious Hibbert Lecture,subsequently published in book form as AnIdealist View of Life. Tagore himself would deliverit the next year. He was nominated for the NobelPrize in Literature by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld(Dags father) continuously from 1933 to 1937. Heis perhaps best known among the currentgeneration for suggesting a humble way tocelebrate his birthday in 1962. Who?
  92. 92. 36 Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Hisbirthday is celebrated as Teachersday.
  93. 93. 37 This work, which the author probablyhesitated to publish until he was in his deathbed,contains the warning "Let no one untrained ingeometry enter here" (inspired by the inscriptionabove Platos Academy entrance) on the titlepage. Historians long believed that, at its firstpublication, it had not been widely read. OwenGingerich spent 35 years examining everysurviving copy of the first two editions todisprove this. Due largely to Gingerichsscholarship, it is believed to be researched andcatalogued better than any other first-editionhistoric text except for the original GutenbergBible. Identify the author.
  94. 94. 37 Nicolaus Copernicus. The work wasDe revolutionibus orbium coelestium(On the Revolutions of the CelestialSpheres).
  95. 95. 38 His first names were Sidney Luxton, and he wrote a number of texts including some on statics and dynamics. His name is quite well- known in certain circles in India, and one Indian in particular found his life changed forever in the late 1890s because of this scholar. Just give us the authors surname.
  96. 96. 38 Loney. The Indian was of course Srinivasa Ramanujan, who came across a trigonometry textbook by S.L. Loney.
  97. 97. 39 Some time back The Guardian ran a competitionto find a replacement name for what they termed"the most wince-inducing nickname" in physics. Oneperson suggested "Your Mother", as in "Your Motheris so fat, she has a mass greater than 114.4 GeV at95% confidence level." Another went all Prince onthem with "The particle formerly known as the Godparticle". Rockon, Mastodon, Esperon, Non-existonwere some of the less exciting entries. The winnerwas chosen because "the bottom of a _______ is in theshape of the Higgs potential, and is often used as anillustration in physics lectures. So its not anembarrassingly grandiose name, it is memorable andit has a physics connection." 
  98. 98. 39 One can only imagine that this "physicsconnection" is in the celebration following thediscovery of a new particle. Fill up. (Pictures of theHiggs potential below.)
  99. 99. 39 Champagne Bottle (Boson).
  100. 100. 40 Italian Fosco Mariani argues thatwhile it owes its name to chance andprobably because it is not visible fromthe nearest villages to the north andthe south, it is appropriate: "... just thebare bones of a name, all rock and iceand storm and abyss. It makes noattempt to sound human. It is atomsand stars. It has the nakedness of theworld before the first man – or of thecindered planet after the last." What?
  101. 101. 40 Mt. K2.
  102. 102. Section 225 questions with 2 parts – 1 point for each part
  103. 103. 1 Shown here is a scene from 17 July1717 as painted by Edouard JeanConrad Hamman.(a) Identify the occasion.(b) Identify the gentleman (in thecentre) holding the hat in his arms. Theother gentleman is King George I incase it helps. 
  104. 104. 1
  105. 105. 1(a) Premiere of the Water Music.(b) George Frideric Handel.
  106. 106. 2 Its classical name (also the name of thespecies) was coined by Greek botanistTheophrastus, and means "divine flower". Somescholars believe that the common name comesfrom the Greek for "flower garlands" as it was oneof the flowers used in ceremonial crowns. Othersthink the name stems from the Latin for "flesh",which refers to the original colour of the flower orthe divine embodiment of flesh. In a split form, itcould even be a tongue-in-cheek sobriquetapplied to the USA for its over-dependence onprivately-owned automobiles. (a) Identify thecommon name of the flower and (b) the species. 
  107. 107. 2
  108. 108. 2(a) Carnation.(b) Dianthus.
  109. 109. 3 Indologist Professor Philip Lutgendorf draws parallelsbetween these 2 movies: "Both concern orphans of uncertainbackground who come to Mumbai and initially take demeaningjobs, from which they gradually advance into more lucrative butillegal pursuits. Each falls in love with an innocent middle-classyoung woman named Vidya (knowledge), who is struggling tomake ends meet as the sole support of her family. Each Vidyahas a wheelchair-bound father to whom she is devoted, andeach awakens in the hero the hope for a better life. Each man,at one point, takes his Vidya out to see Diwali illuminations andfor a meal in a streetside restaurant. Each becomes involvedwith a corrupt politician who spouts Hindu nationalist rhetoric,and rises to a position of great power and influence, beforeultimately falling. Each then has a final opportunity to flee thecountry before the police close in on him. Each one returns, inone way or another, to Vidya in the end." Identify both movies,each a classic in its own way.
  110. 110. 3(a) Shree 420 (1955).(b) Satya (1998).Answers can be in any order.
  111. 111. 4 This anthropometric scale of proportions wasdeveloped as a visual bridge between twoincompatible scales, the Imperial system and theMetric system. Based on human measurements (theheight of an English man with his arm raisedbecause "in English detective novels, the good-looking men, such as policemen, are always six feettall!"), the double unit, the Fibonacci numbers, andthe golden ratio, its creator described it as a "rangeof harmonious measurements to suit the humanscale, universally applicable to architecture and tomechanical things". Codified in 2 volumes publishedin 1948 and 1955, it can be seen here on 2 currencyspecimens. (a) Identify the scale and (b) its creator. 
  112. 112. 4
  113. 113. 4(a) Modulor.(b) Le Corbusier.
  114. 114. 5 One of the earliest appearances of thisphrase was in a 1926 book regarding the MiddleEast by Basil Mathews, Young Islam on Trek: AStudy in ____. The theory associated with thephrase was originally formulated in a 1992 lectureat the American Enterprise Institute, which wasthen developed in a 1993 Foreign Affairs article ofthe same name in response to Francis Fukuyamas1992 book, The End of History and the Last Man.The proponent expanded his thesis in a landmark1996 book. (a) Identify him and (b) the work. Thefollowing visual may help you in identifying both. 
  115. 115. 5
  116. 116. 5(a) Samuel P. Huntington.(b) The Clash of Civilizations.
  117. 117. 6 (a) Who wrote this sonnet with thisaccompanying illustration? (b) What is hecomplaining about?"Ive grown a goitre by dwelling in this den–As cats from stagnant streams in Lombardy,Or in what other land they hap to be–Which drives the belly close beneath the chin:My beard turns up to heaven; my nape falls in,Fixed on my spine: my breast-bone visiblyGrows like a harp: a rich embroideryBedews my face from brush-drops thick and thin. 
  118. 118. 6My loins into my paunch like levers grind:My buttock like a crupper bears my weight;My feet unguided wander to and fro;In front my skin grows loose and long; behind,By bending it becomes more taut and strait;Crosswise I strain me like a Syrian bow:Whence false and quaint, I know,Must be the fruit of squinting brain and eye;For ill can aim the gun that bends awry.Come then, Giovanni, tryTo succour my dead pictures and my fame;Since foul I fare and painting is my shame. " 
  119. 119. 6
  120. 120. 6(a) Michelangelo.(b) About painting the Sistine Chapelceiling.
  121. 121. 7 An 1806 invention by RalphWedgewood lead to it being used in manyprofessional transactions till the last fewdecades of the 20th century. Itsmanufacture was formerly the largestconsumer of montan wax or lignite wax. Itsusage has almost come to an end thesedays, but the name of the associatedpractice has survived and is an integral partof a form of modern-day communications.(a) Identify the invention. (b) How does itsurvive now?
  122. 122. 7(a) Carbon paper.(b) Cc or Bcc in e-mails.
  123. 123. 8 We know this class of creatures bya shortened form of a Latin wordwhich means "cut into" because theirbody is divided into parts. We may notknow it, but we all know the Greekword for these creatures quite well, inthe answer to a quiz question. Eitherthe Latin and Greek words please, orthe two English words.
  124. 124. 8(a) Insectum OR Insect.(b) Entomon OR Entomology.
  125. 125. 9 Metal works company (a) was started in 1942 as ajoint venture between the Nizams Hyderabadgovernment and Alladin & Company while company (b)was the first Indian company to have manufactured asafe, in 1902. Parliamentary records note that "Duringthe general elections held in 1962, it was noticed that the__(a)__ type of ballot boxes had a mechanical defectwhich permitted the box being opened without breakingthe paper seal by banging it in a special way. Since thedefect could not be removed by the manufacturers, allboxes of this type which were in use in the States ofAndhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Madras werediscarded and replaced by the __(b)__ type of ballotboxes procured from other States having surplus stock."Name both companies.
  126. 126. 9(a) Hyderabad Allwyn.(b) Godrej.
  127. 127. 10 Irish-American writer LeonardWibberley wrote a novel satirizing the ColdWar about an imaginary country in Europewhich takes action when the United Statesstops buying its Pinot Grand Fenwick andstarts producing a counterfeit of its own. Itwas later made into a movie with PeterSellers playing three roles. (a) Name thenovel. (b) Also provide the title of its Britishedition that used the authors originalintended title, a play on the title of a JohnSteinbeck novel.
  128. 128. 10(a) The Mouse That Roared.(b) The Wrath of Grapes.
  129. 129. 11The A in the football clubs name is thesame as the pattern on the right. (a) What isit? Note the object in the clubs logo and (b)work out the clubs nickname.
  130. 130. 11(a) Argyle.(b) "Pilgrims".The club is Plymouth Argyle and theobject in the logo is the Mayflowerwhich set off from Plymouth with thepilgrims bound for America.
  131. 131. 12 This is an exhaustive list of people who haveheld a certain post in a movement – fill up.1. __(a)__, from 1920 till his death in 19412. Arthur Somers-Cocks, 6th Baron Somers, from 19423. Thomas Corbett, 2nd Baron Rowallan, from 19454. Sir Charles Maclean, later Lord Maclean, from 19595. Sir William Gladstone, from 19726. Major-General Michael J. H. Walsh, from 19827. Sir Garth Morrison, from 19888. George Purdy, from 19969. Peter Duncan, from 200410.__(b)__, from 2009 
  132. 132. 12 The post was specifically created for (a)(who started the movement), while (b) is theyoungest ever to hold it. The extremely aptnickname everyone knows (b) by was given tohim by his sister when he was just a week old.Get (a) and (b).
  133. 133. 12(a) Lord Baden-Powell.(b) Bear Grylls.This is the list of Chief Scouts of thescout movement.
  134. 134. 13 There are fourteen of them, eachbeing a portrayal of someone. Mosthave names like C.A.E., H.D.S.-P., R.B.T.,W.M.B. and so on, usually but notalways representing the initials of theperson portrayed. You have to name (a)the ninth one and (b) who thefourteenth one (E.D.U.) is named for.
  135. 135. 13(a) Nimrod.(b) Edward Elgar himself.These are the Enigma Variations.
  136. 136. 14 To most of the world, Keirin was largelyan unknown type of sport but was verypopular in Japan for gambling. It becamewell-known when it was introduced in the2000 Olympics. In Japan, all the contraptionsused in Keirin are required to have beenmade in Japan to promote the local industry.Keirin involves the use of a "derny", now usedas a generic name, though originally aproduct made by Roger Derny et fils of Paris.(a) Name the sport. (b) What is a derny, thatmakes Keirin rather unique within this sport?
  137. 137. 14(a) Cycling.(b) A pace bike.
  138. 138. 15 Michael Chabons The YiddishPolicemans Union and Philip Roths ThePlot Against America are two of thenovels that have won an award that hasbeen given since 1995. The award getsits evocative name from a 1934 shortstory by Murray Leinster. (a) Name theaward. (b) What kind of fiction is itgiven for?
  139. 139. 15(a) Sidewise award.(b) Alternate History fiction.
  140. 140. 16 A type of two-colour (usuallyblack and white) pattern using pointedshapes instead of squares, said to benamed for what the basic shaperesembles. People of a particularoccupation quite often have trousersand cuffs of this design, because itapparently hides stains well. (a)Identify the pattern and (b) theoccupation. 
  141. 141. 16
  142. 142. 16(a) Houndstooth OR dogstoothpattern.(b) Cooks OR chefs.
  143. 143. 17 Excerpt from a 1967 letter:"March 22, 1967 Dear WW:Goodie Ace told some unemployed friend ofmine that you were disappointed or annoyed orhappy or drunk that I hadnt answered the letteryou wrote me some years ago. You know, ofcourse, there is no money in answering letters --unless theyre letters of credit from Switzerland orthe Mafia. I write you reluctantly, for I know youare doing six things simultaneously -- fiveincluding sex. I dont know where you get thetime to correspond. 
  144. 144. 17 Your play, I trust, will still be running when Iarrive in New York the first or second week inApril. This must be terribly annoying to the criticswho, if I remember correctly, said it wouldnt gobecause it was too funny. Since its still running,they must be even more annoyed. ... The moral is:dont write a comedy that makes an audiencelaugh."When the person who wrote this died 10years later, the recipient admonished TIMEmagazine for their all too short obit. Identifyboth.
  145. 145. 17(a) Groucho Marx.(b) Woody Allen.Answers can be in any order.
  146. 146. 18 This is the cross-section of a 2000year old building. As shown here, it isdesigned so that a sphere can fitexactly under its large dome. (a)Identify the building. (b) Also namethe Roman emperor, whom we knowfor other constructions, who re-built itin its current form. 
  147. 147. 18
  148. 148. 18(a) Pantheon.(b) Emperor Hadrian.
  149. 149. 19 This is a Punch cartoon from 1894depicting the little guy as a giant-killer.(a) What two entities do the two peoplein the cartoon represent? (b) What hadthey gone to battle over? 
  150. 150. 19
  151. 151. 19(a) Japan and China.(b) Possession of Korea. (Japanwrested Korea from China in this war.)
  152. 152. 20 In 1855 a scholar asked someone whom heused to know from childhood as chacha, towrite a taqriz (a laudatory foreword) for hisrevision of Ain-e-Akbari. The venerable chachainstead wrote a Persian poem in which he tookthe writer to task for worshipping a deadempire and their obsolete institutions. It wasperhaps this jolt coming from an intellectuallyhonest giant that forced the writer to undergoa metamorphosis from a conservative to arationalist reformer. Identify (a) the scholar and(b) the chacha.
  153. 153. 20(a) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.(b) Mirza Ghalib.
  154. 154. 21 2nd October is celebrated as GandhiJayanti in India. Many other interestingpeople share the same birthday, likeGroucho Marx, Yokozuna and GrahamGreene. It doesnt seem to be wellknown that another famous Indianstatesman was born on 2nd October, butin the year 1904. (a) Who? (b) Thisperson also holds a distinction as far asthe Bharat Ratna is concerned. Whatdistinction?
  155. 155. 21(a) Lal Bahadur Shastri(b) First person to be awarded theBharat Ratna posthumously.
  156. 156. 22 In ancient times the Greeks fed theone on the left (a) to their horses before arace, believing it would help them to runfaster. They also ate it to reduce the effectsof eating a part of a plant whose flower isshown here on the right (b). In fact evennow in the West, dishes and spreads whichinclude (b) tend to include the leaf (a) forthe same reason the ancient Greeks did,though the effect is only temporary. Justname both plants. 
  157. 157. 22 Want a clue? Both have been used indifferent ways as deterrents, one in fictionand one in comics.
  158. 158. 22(a) Parsley.(b) Garlic.Parsley was used by CacofonixsRoman captors to avoid hearing hissinging. Garlic was used by vanHelsing to protect Lucy from thevampire Count by placing it in herroom and around her neck.
  159. 159. 23 A bacteriologist was studying staining, aprocedure that is used in many microscopicstudies to make fine biological structures visibleusing chemical dyes. When he injected some ofthese dyes (notably the aniline dyes that werethen widely-used), the dye would stain all of theorgans of some kinds of animals except for oneorgan. At that time, he attributed this lack ofstaining to that organs simply not picking up asmuch of the dye. (a) This was actually the firstevidence of what alliterative phenomenon? (b)Who was the bacteriologist?
  160. 160. 23(a) Blood Brain Barrier.(b) Paul Ehrlich.
  161. 161. 24 Nowadays it is a tourist resort andpart of the Arcipelago Toscano NationalPark. Its flag, featuring 3 or 4 goldenbees on a diagonal stripe, dates fromthe early 1800s when it was adopted bythe person who was grantedsovereignty over this place. The flagand a map of sorts are on the followingslide. (a) Name the place. (b) Who wasits sovereign who adopted this flag? 
  162. 162. 24
  163. 163. 24(a) Elba.(b) Napoleon.
  164. 164. 25 Complete this list with two place names from India: Childhood, ____, Forest, ____, Beauty, War. Some people might want to call this list exhaustive, but some might prefer adding Last to the end of the list to make it exhaustive.
  165. 165. 25(a) Ayodhya.(b) Kishkindha.These are the kandas (books) in Ramayana– Bala kanda, Ayodhya kanda, Aranyakanda, Kishkindha kanda, Sundara kandaand Yudha kanda. Some versions haveUttara kanda as well.Answers can be in any order.
  166. 166. Section 35 pairs of questions – each pair of answers are anagrams – 1 point per answer
  167. 167. 1 (a) Jared Diamond argues in Guns,Germs and Steel that this African animal,seemingly an obvious choice fordomestication, has remained wild becauseof its bad temper. He said they "have theunpleasant habit of biting a person and notletting go". Which animal?(b) To ______ is to use heat to join metallicobjects by applying nonferrous solders tokeep the parts together. The picture showsa bad example of it. Fill up. 
  168. 168. 1
  169. 169. 1(a) Zebra.(b) Braze.
  170. 170. 2 (a) The spot price of this Rajasthanicrop crashed 40% over six weeks inSeptember-October 2012, on concern ofhigh output and a drastic decline in importorders from USA, the Gulf and Europe, thethree biggest destinations. The crop isexported either as a gum or as seeds. What?(b) A sauce of meat, poultry, or acombination of the two and finely dicedvegetables seasoned and simmered for along time in liquids, such as water, milk,cream, wine, broth or stock. Name it.
  171. 171. 2(a) Guar.(b) Ragu.
  172. 172. 3 (a) The ____ languages are relatedlanguages derived from Vulgar Latinand forming a subgroup of the Italiclanguages within the Indo-Europeanlanguage family. The five most widelyspoken of these are Spanish,Portuguese, French, Italian andRomanian. Fill up.(b) In which European city can you findthis statue of a master craftsman? 
  173. 173. 3
  174. 174. 3(a) Romance.(b) Cremona. (The statue isStradivarius.)
  175. 175. 4 (a) In ancient times, an obolus ordanake was used as a fee for servicesrendered during a "journey". Who wasthe intended recipient?(b) Mushroom, Danforth, grapnel, Hall,Northill, Admirality, Stockless, Bruce,Union, Spek, Pool, Kedge and ploughare types of what?
  176. 176. 4(a) Charon.(b) Anchor.
  177. 177. 5 (a) A chemist named EugeneRimmel developed a variety of thisusing petroleum jelly. It becamepopular and the name Rimmel becamesynonymous with the substance andstill translates to it in the Italian,Portuguese, Spanish, Greek, Turkish,Romanian, and Persian languagestoday. The company founded by him1834 still exists with the tag line "Getthe London look". What product?
  178. 178. 5 (b) They are usually played in pairs.Often one is pitched high, and theother is pitched low. They used to bemade with dried calabash or gourdshell or coconut shell filled with seedsor dried beans, but these days aremade of leather, wood or plastic. Whatare they called? 
  179. 179. 5
  180. 180. 5(a) Mascara.(b) Maracas.
  181. 181. The End
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