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    Information visualization: case studies Information visualization: case studies Presentation Transcript

    • 28/03/14 pag. 1 Information visualization lecture 6 case studies Katrien Verbert Department of Computer Science Faculty of Science Vrije Universiteit Brussel katrien.verbert@vub.ac.be
    • 28/03/14 pag. 2 Case study 1: small interactive calendars
    • 28/03/14 pag. 3 DateLens
    • 28/03/14 pag. 4 design philosophy … much of the groundwork for this design was laid by earlier work … while individual features of FishCal [=DateLens] represent only variations of existing approaches, the primary contribution here is the integration of a host of techniques to create a novel application that is both usable and useful in an important domain.
    • 28/03/14 pag. 5 11Sun 12 Mon 13 Tue 14 Wed 15 Thur 16 Fri 17Sat Fly LA Kathy to airport Model Maker Check slides, notes. Family barbeque Fly LHR Kathy to collect Chapter 2/ see Dave March JulyJuneMayAprilMar Aug Sept Oct Flight to SFO Tutorial set-up Tutorial United flight Heathrow Pointer Color OHs Jane+John Call Kathy Background: the first bifocal calendar (1980)
    • 28/03/14 pag. 6 9 - 10 1 - 4 15 Thu 15 Thu 16 Fri 8 - 9 9 - 10 12 - 1 3 - 4 Conference trip/who ? Lecture EE 2.23 Rudzinski visit Promotions discuss Clinic Optimisation prt alarm 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Mon Mon Mon Mon Tue Tue Tue Tue Wed Wed Wed Wed Thu Thu Thu Thu Fri Fri Fri Fri Sat Sat Sat Sat Sun Sun Sun Sun Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 19 Mon Sun 25 Sun 4 Sun 11 Sun 18 Sun 25Sat 17 Sun 18 Wed 14 Tue 13 Mon 12 FEBRUARY MARCH Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Align ICON Tue 16 Fri 8 - 9 9 - 10 12 - 1 3 - 4 Conference trip/who ? Lecture EE 2.23 Rudzinski visit Promotions discuss Clinic Optimisation prt alarm 15 Thu Meet RCA group/merge Ph.JB/RA + BTG/sg Accounts MoD Section meeting Check finance DD Tutorial 9 - 10 1 - 4 alarm prt (a) (b) The tectonic calendar. (a) Successive suppression of detail by masking; (b) the resulting tectonic calendar
    • 28/03/14 pag. 7 maximise!maximise!maximise! minimise! minimise! minimise! tap! Tiny view! Agenda view! Full Day view! Appointment! detail! The four views offered, and some of the interactions involved in transitions between them
    • 28/03/14 pag. 8 Movement of the lower scrollbar thumb controls the range of days displayed Use of the scrollbar thumb control to adjust the visible time span h"p://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/datelens/    
    • 28/03/14 pag. 9 Search
    • 28/03/14 pag. 10
    • 28/03/14 pag. 11 Usability study •  6 male and 5 female subjects •  Each subject performed 11 tasks with the interface •  Limit of two minutes to complete each task •  Typical tasks: –  Find  the  date  of  a  specific  calendar  event   –  Find  how  many  Mondays  a  par<cular  month  contains   –  View  all  birthdays  for  the  next  three  months   –  Find  free  <me  to  schedule  an  event  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 12 Observations •  performance measures: –   <me  needed  to  complete  task   –  Success  in  comple<ng  a  task   •  User satisfaction and preference – by quantitative value (1=very difficult, 5 = very easy)
    • 28/03/14 pag. 13 Average task completion times for the two calendars
    • 28/03/14 pag. 14 Task success The percentage of tasks completed by participants for each task (blue = datelens, red = Pocket PC) avg datelens: 88.2%, avg pocket pc: 76.3% 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Task Average Percent Completed
    • 28/03/14 pag. 15 Usability •  Several usability issues: –  Default  day  view  from  9am  to  5pm   –  Strong  concerns  about  readability  of  text   –  Desirability  of  seFng  own  default  views   •  6 out of 11 users preferred traditional calendar •  1 subject abstained •  4 subjects preferred datelens
    • 28/03/14 pag. 16 “Achieving positive results for first-time users of novel visualization systems is rare” (Kent Wittenburg)
    • 28/03/14 pag. 17 references •  Bederson, B., Clamage, A., Czerwinski, M., Robertson, G. (May 2002) DateLens: A Fisheye Calendar Interface for PDAs. Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction [ Published Version] •  Bederson, B. B., Clamage, A., Czerwinski, M. P., & Robertson, G. G. (2003, April). A fisheye calendar interface for PDAs: Providing overviews for small displays. In CHI'03 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 618-619). ACM.
    • 28/03/14 pag. 18 case study 2: web browsing through a keyhole
    • 28/03/14 pag. 19 Seeking news
    • 28/03/14 pag. 20 Source: Courtesy Oscar de Bruijn and Chieh Hao Tong removal of graphic content to provide a complete menu in the display area, without the need for scrolling
    • 28/03/14 pag. 21 The sequential presentation of link previews, each occupying the full available display area
    • 28/03/14 pag. 22 The sequential presentation of link previews, each occupying the full available display area
    • 28/03/14 pag. 23 Schematic diagram of the operation of the RSVP Browser
    • 28/03/14 pag. 24 Source: Courtesy Oscar de Bruijn and Chieh Hao Tong Link preview and associated news item
    • 28/03/14 pag. 25 Source: Courtesy Oscar de Bruijn and Chieh Hao Tong RSVP-Browser itv NEWS History-bar Link-bar Main viewing area Info-bar 1 System design
    • 28/03/14 pag. 26 Navigational controls of the RSVP Browser
    • 28/03/14 pag. 27 Evaluation •  Comparative study with pocket version of Internet Explorer •  30 subjects: –  15  subjects  used  RSVP  browser   –  15  subjects  used  Pocket  IE   •  Tasks: each subject answered 8 questions •  Example:   The  cross-­‐border  train  between  Belfast  and  Dublin  has  been  closed  aPer   several  explora<ons  were  heard  near  the  line.  Has  the  cause  of  these   explosions  been  iden<fied?     •  Data acquisition –   video  recordings     –   preferences  expressed  by  users  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 28 Advice available to subjects taking part in the experimental evaluation of the RSVP Browser Q1   Q2 to Q6   Q7 and Q8   No instruction   given   Subject could ask   experimenter for advice   No advice available to   subject   Procedure
    • 28/03/14 pag. 29 The average times needed to answer questions 1, 7 and 8 for subjects using the RSVP Browser compared with Pocket IE 100 24 2522 24 25 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 7 8 Question Time(seconds) RSVP-Browser Pocket IE Time to solution
    • 28/03/14 pag. 30 The mean number of extra (unnecessary) steps taken by subjects in finding the answers to questions 1, 7 and 8 using either the RSVP Browser or Pocket IE 1.7 0.4 0.40.3 0.8 0.4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 1 7 8 Question Extrasteps RSVP-Browser Pocket IE Number of steps
    • 28/03/14 pag. 31Satisfactory Fast Too fastSlowToo slow 19 9 2 Subjects’ perception of the speed of the RSVP presentation
    • 28/03/14 pag. 32 Discussion •  Initially disadvantage because of unfamiliarity •  Initial disadvantage disappeared •  Advantages: –  Reduc<on  of  efforts  to  scroll     –  Li"le  training  required   •  Debate about best approach •  Many open questions •  But viable alternative
    • 28/03/14 pag. 33 Reference de Bruijn, O., & Tong, C. H. (2004). M-RSVP: Mobile Web browsing on a PDA. In People and Computers XVII—Designing for Society (pp. 297-311). Springer London.
    • 28/03/14 pag. 34 Case study 3: archival galaxies
    • 28/03/14 pag. 35 InfoSky •  Designed to explore or search large collections of documents –  personal  collec<ons     –  collec<ons  maintained  by  news  organiza<ons   •  Attention to value of algorithms to organize data spatially •  Case study: 109.000 news articles – organized in hierarchy •  Requirements: –  Scalability   –  Hierarchy  plus  similarity   –  Focus+context   –  Stability   –  Explora<on  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 36 A landscape representation of data about a collection of documents Queries Haptic Navigation Video Interaction Cognition Earlier work: BEAD
    • 28/03/14 pag. 37A themescape representation of 700 articles related to the financial industry Earlier work: SPIRE
    • 28/03/14 pag. 38 Earlier work: hyperbolic browser
    • 28/03/14 pag. 39 h"p://portal.mace-­‐project.eu    
    • 28/03/14 pag. 40 The cone tree, tilted to allow the text associated with each node to be readable. Selective distortion could be applied to allow focus on any part Earlier work: cone tree
    • 28/03/14 pag. 41View of the entire Galaxy, showing collection boundaries and titles at the top level Design decisions Metaphors   •  Galaxy  of  stars      …  to  represent  repository   •  Telescope      …  to  support  seman<c  zoom  
    • Design decisions
    • 28/03/14 pag. 43 View of the sub-collection Bundeslander Deutschlands Interaction and search
    • 28/03/14 pag. 44 The result of clicking on the title Bayern. The mouse now hovers over Wirtschaftsraum Bayern Interaction
    • 28/03/14 pag. 45 The result of selecting Wirtschaftsraum Bayern Interaction
    • 28/03/14 pag. 46 At the lowest level titles are visible Interaction
    • 28/03/14 pag. 47 Highlighting of both relevant regions and documents follows the entry of a keyword Search
    • 28/03/14 pag. 48 Representation of collections at two levels of the hierarchy and, for the lower level, the layout of the collections (A, B, C, etc.) and their centroids (C1, C2, C3) Layout
    • 28/03/14 pag. 49 Evaluation •  Evaluated in comparison with conventional tree viewer •  Eight subjects divided in two groups –  First  group  used  InfoSky  first,  then  tree  viewer   –  Second  group  vice  versa   •  Five tasks •  Video recording and interview •  Time recorded •  On average tree performed sign. better •  Potential reasons: –  Many    hours  of  experience  with  tree   –  Early  stage  of  development  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 50 Reference Andrews, K., Kienreich, W., Sabol, V., Becker, J., Droschl, G., Kappe, F., ... & Tochtermann, K. (2002). The infosky visual explorer: exploiting hierarchical structure and document similarities. Information Visualization, 1(3-4), 166-181.
    • 28/03/14 pag. 51 Case study 4: Student Activity Meter (SAM)
    • 28/03/14 pag. 52 Student activity meter
    • 28/03/14 pag. 53 Design Based Research Methodology •  Rapid prototyping •  Evaluate Ideas in short iteration cycles of design, implementation & evaluation •  Focus on usefulness & usability –  Think-aloud evaluations –  User satisfaction (SUS, desirability toolkit)
    • 28/03/14 pag. 54 System Usability Scale h"p://www.measuringusability.com/sus.php    
    • 28/03/14 pag. 55 Desirability toolkit Benedek,  J.,  &  Miner,  T.  (2002).  Measuring  Desirability:  New  methods  for  evalua<ng  desirability   in  a  usability  lab  seFng.  Proceedings  of  Usability  Professionals  Associa<on,  2003,  8-­‐12.    
    • 28/03/14 pag. 56 Iteration one •  usability and user satisfaction evaluation •  12 CS students, using a twitter-based time tracker •  2 evaluation sessions: –  task based interview with think aloud (after 1 week of tracking) –  user satisfaction (after 1 month)
    • 28/03/14 pag. 57 Learnability, errors & efficiency
    • 28/03/14 pag. 58 User satisfaction •  average SUS score: 73%
    • 28/03/14 pag. 59 User satisfaction
    • demo- graphics evaluation goal design changes negative positive I. 12 CS students usability, satisfaction, preliminary usefulness 1st iteration small usability issues • ↑learnability • ↓errors • good satisfaction • usefulness positive II. 19 teachers &TA s assessing teacher needs, use & usefulness help function resource recomm. not useful • provides awareness • all vis. useful • many uses • 90% want it III. 12 participan ts assessing teacher needs, expert feedback, use & usefulness re-orderable PC with histograms most addressed needs are indecisive • provides awareness and feedback • many uses • 66% want it • recomm. can be useful IV. 11 teachers &TA s use, usefulness & satisfaction filter & search, icons, zooming in line chart, editing PC axes conflicting visions of students doing well or at risk • provides time overview • provides course overview • PC assist with detecting problems • many uses & insights • 100% want it
    • 28/03/14 pag. 61 References Govaerts, S., Verbert, K., Duval, E., & Pardo, A. (2012, May). The student activity meter for awareness and self-reflection. In CHI'12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 869-884). ACM.
    • 28/03/14 pag. 62 Case study 5: TalkExplorer
    • 28/03/14 pag. 63 Recommender systems 63  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 64 User-based CF Sam   Ian   Neil   A   B   C   high  correla+on  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 65 TalkExplorer •  Purpose: visualizing recommendations to support –  explora<on   –  transparency     –  controllability   •  Context: academic conferences
    • 28/03/14 pag. 66 Problem statement •  Complexity prevents users from comprehending results –  Trust issues when recommendations fail –  Aggravated with contextual recommendation •  The black box nature of RS prevents users from providing feedback •  Algorithms typically hard-wired in the system code –  generate a list of top-N recommendations –  little research has been done to study more flexible approaches 66  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 67 Approach •  Using set relevance visualization –  One dimension of relevance = one set •  Agent metaphor to mix user- tag- and engine-based relevance –  recommender systems are shown as agents –  in parallel to real users collecting talks –  tags are also agents collecting talks –  users can interrelate entities to find items
    • 28/03/14 pag. 68 Conference Navigator 68
    • 28/03/14 pag. 69 TalkExplorer 69  
    • 28/03/14 pag. 70 John  O'Donovan,  Barry  Smyth,  Brynjar  Gretarsson,  Svetlin  Bostandjiev,  and  Tobias  Höllerer.  2008.  PeerChooser:  visual  interac<ve   recommenda<on.  CHI  '08   Related work: PeerChooser
    • 28/03/14 pag. 71 Related work: Smallworlds Gretarsson, B., O'Donovan, J., Bostandjiev, S., Hall, C. and Höllerer, T. SmallWorlds: Visualizing Social Recommendations. Comput. Graph. Forum, 29, 3 (2010), 833-842.
    • 28/03/14 pag. 72 Related work: TasteWeights Bostandjiev,  S.,  O'Donovan,  J.  and  Höllerer,  T.  TasteWeights:  a  visual  interac<ve  hybrid  recommender  system.  In  Proceedings  of  the  sixth  ACM  conference  on   Recommender  systems  (RecSys  '12).  ACM,  New  York,  NY,  USA  (2012),  35-­‐42.    
    • 28/03/14 pag. 73 TalkExplorer
    • 28/03/14 pag. 74 Evaluation •  Setup –  supervised user study –  21 participants at UMAP 2012 and ACM Hypertext 2012 conferences •  Procedure –  Tasks •  interact with users and their bookmarks •  interact with agents •  interact with tags –  Post-questionnaire 74
    • 28/03/14 pag. 75 Evaluation •  Data collection –  recordings of voice and screen using camtasia studio –  system logs •  Measurements –  effectiveness: number of explorations/number of selections
    • 28/03/14 pag. 76 Effectiveness 76
    • 28/03/14 pag. 77 Summary results
    • 28/03/14 pag. 78 Post-questionnaire
    • 28/03/14 pag. 79 Post-questionnaire
    • 28/03/14 pag. 80 Reference Verbert, K., Parra, D., Brusilovsky, P. and Duval, E. Visualizing recommendations to support exploration, transparency and controllability. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’13), IUI’13, pages 1-12, New York, NY, USA, 2013. ACM
    • 28/03/14 pag. 81 Questions?
    • 28/03/14 pag. 82 Readings •  Chapter 6