The French Revolution1789-1815 WORDS TO KNOW bourgeoisie- the urban middle class including merchants, manufacturers and Professionals like doctors and lawyers coup d’etat-seizure off power by force conservative-group that does not want to change existing conditions nationalism- love of one’s country rather than of one’s native region. estate-the social classes of France—see below guerilla warfare- military technique relying on swift raids by small bands of soldiers radicals-person’s who want broad changes made in the government and are willing to use force to get these changes. legitimacy-principle involving restoring former ruling families to their thrones
THE TEN PHASES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION The Old Regime—Rule of the King and Queen The Tennis Court Oath Storming of the Bastille Declarations of the Rights of Man Arrest and Death of the King and Queen The Committee of Public Safety The Reign of Terror The Directory The Rise of Napoleon Napoleon becomes Emperor
Stage 1: The Old Regime French King Louis XVI (16th) came to power in 1774 and was married to Marie Antoinette He faced a great debt from aiding the Americans in the American Revolution The Legislative Branch of France: Estates General— separated into social classes POPULATION MAKE UP OF FRANCE
Events that led to the Oath What happened when the King said no… Stage 2: The Tennis Court Oath Louis XVI tried to tax the nobles but they demanded a meeting of the Estates General to vote on the issue. Estates General -had not met since 1614 Number of Representatives per Estate 1stEstate—150 members 2ndEstate—150 members 3rdEstate—300 members each estate met separately, voted, then brought back ONE vote per estate—the 1st and 2nd usually voted together—even thought the 3rd Estate had the most members, they usually lost. the Third Estate asked King Louis XVI for ALL estates to meet together and get one vote per PERSON—the king said NO! The 3rd Estate rebelled and changed its name to the National Assembly and drew up a new Constitution/ When the King ordered them to disband and closed their meeting site they met at a nearby Tennis Court and swore to stay until the King signed the new Constitution
Stage 3: The Storming of the Bastille The Revolution starts to turn violent in Paris—spreads throughout France.
France’s 14th of July(like our 4th of July!!) The anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille is France’s Independence day! Despite the fact that the French Revolution begins to move towards a more violent path, Bastille Day is a celebration of freedom and democracy!
Stage 4: The Declaration of the Rights of Man August 8, 1789 After capturing the Bastille, the Great Fear swept the countryside. Peasants joined together, killed nobles and took over their land. Parisian women rioted due to rising bread prices. They marched from Paris to the King and Queen’s palace in Versailles, killed three guards and forced the King and his family to come to Paris. The National Assembly drew up the Declaration based on Enlightenment ideas. The nobles supported it out of fear. The Declaration took land away from the Church and also gave freedom of religion and speech. The King was forced to sign it in October 1789. At this point, the Third Estate had achieved their goals…but the RADICALS were about to take control!!! Update: THE THIRD ESTATE BECAME THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
Stage: 5 Arrest and Death of the King and Queen In September of 1791, the National Assembly stepped down to allow a newly elected group, the Legislative Assembly to rule with the monarchy—the King. 3rd Estate National Assembly Legislative Assembly.
International Concerns:Austria and Prussia joined against France and warned against harming the King and Queen. All five countries who shared the balance of power had monarchies. If democracy won in one country, they were all in danger of losing power. January 21, 1793-the National Convention, who had previously arrested and imprisoned the King and Queen, tried and convicted Louis XVI of treason. He was sent to the guillotine and beheaded. The First Coalition: Britain, Prussia, Portugal, Austria, and Spain moved towards France to stop the Revolution. They were unsuccessful.
Stage 6: Committee of Public Safety led by the Jacobin ruler Maximillien Robespierre The committee wanted to rid France of the past monarchy and nobility and decided who were enemies of the new republic. Tried people in the morning and executed them in the evening. Beheaded those who were not seen as radical enough. Got rid of the original revolutionaries. "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible"
Stage 7: THE REIGN OF TERROR Led by Maximillien Robespierre—he had his closest allies killed to prevent any counter-revolution. Widespread use of the guillotine Killed many of the original revolutionaries that were seen as threat to Jacobin and radical ideals. beheaded about 40,000 100,000s died from disease in overcrowded prisons.
Queen Marie Antoinette is beheaded The first victim was Marie Antoinette. She had been imprisoned with her children after she was separated from Louis. First they took her son Louis Charles from her. He disappeared under suspicious circumstances. Then she led off a parade of citizens to their deaths. The guillotine, the new was put to work. Public executions were considered educational. Women were encouraged to sit and knit during trials and executions. (http://www.historywiz.com/terror.htm) It is rumored that Marie Antoinette used the phrase “Let them eat cake,” when told that peasants were starving due to a bread shortage. Traditionally it used to show that she did not care about the problems of the people, however this is not a proven fact, but it is still a well known quote.
Stage 8: THE DIRECTORY 1794-members of the National Convention feared for their own lives and turned on Robespierre, beheaded him ending the Reign of Terror created a new constitution which had a legislative branch and a Five member consul as the executive branch—known as The Directory Despite corruption it gave France a period of order. found a new general to lead the French armies: Napoleon Bonaparte. This guy NOT This guy!!
General Napoleon Europe’s Reaction: Monarchies of Europe felt threatened by democratic revolution in France. If France was successful, revolution would spread. Joined together to put down the French Revolution. 1796-1797: Napoleon defeated Italy forcing Austria and Prussia to drop out of the First Coalition 1799-Britain made Second coalition with Austria and Russia but by 1802 were forced to make peace with Napoleon Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria, and Spain tried to suppress the French Revolution
Stage 9: Napoleon Rises to Power
Stage 9: Napoleon Rises to Power Until 1800 Napoleon had ruled with other consuls but in that same year the people approved another new Constitution which gave Napoleon Sole Power of France. The French Revolution was coming full circle, beginning with a King and ending with a dictator
Stage 10: Napoleon Rules as Emperor 1800-1815 Napoleon Restored Order Economically: slowed inflation balanced the budget set up a National Bank Socially: Nobles who had fled were allowed to return promoted people based on merit not social class/nobility Legally: established a new legal system abolished the 3 Estate System granted equal rights in law to all Classes Religiously brought back the Catholic Church was tolerant of Jews and Protestants Negative Actions Napoleon had the power to censor all newspapers took away a woman’s right to own property Restored slavery in the French Caribbean Napoleon was exempt from all laws.
NAPOLEON BUILD AN EMPIRE Third Coalition—Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia joined against Napoleon. Napoleon defeated Austria, captured Berlin and beat the Russians in Prussia—Czar Alexander I of Russia made a deal with Napoleon to split Poland—Poland disappears from the map until after World War I. Napoleon controlled all of Europe except Britain the Ottoman Empire, Russia and Sweden. Completely ended the existence of the Holy Roman Empire--the German states now became ruled as independent states.
NAPOLEON’S THREE MISTAKES 1. The Continental System (Blockade of Britain) Napoleon’s navy blocked Britain from importing and exporting goods the blockade was not tight enoughgoods got through Britain responded with its own Blockade on France hurting France’s economy.
2. Underestimating Nationalism Napoleon took over Spain and planned to replace the Spanish leader with his brother. The Spanish people were angered and fought to preserve their culture. Spanish used guerilla tactics and defeated France. Showed Europe France could be defeated and rebellions broke out all over Napoleon’s empire.
3. THE INVASION OF RUSSIA Napoleon supplied his army with as little as possible assuming they would move faster and take needed supplies and food from groups they conquered. Russia knew this strategy and used it against France. When the French army attacked the Russians retreated, burned their crops and killed livestock to starve the French. When Napoleon’s men finally retreated the Russians attacked and easily killed 300,000 of France’s troops. NAPOLEON’S THREE MISTAKES
THE FALL OF NAPOLEON The Fall of Napoleon with Napoleon weak European countries attacked France and defeated Napoleon 1814-Napoleon was exiled to Elba (an island off of Italy) 1815-Napoleon escaped, returned to France & raised an army. the Grand Alliance quickly moved in and defeated Napoleon for the last time at the Battle of Waterloo. He was exiled to St. Helena where he died 6 years later. “Au revoir France. Shouldn’t have went for Russia, sigh.”
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815 Purpose:Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia wanted to restore the boundaries of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon The Congress was led by Prince Klemons von Metternich of Austriawho dominated the Congress. Metternich’s Three Goals: Strengthen the countries around France Restore the Balance of Power in Europe Legitimacy restore royal rulers of France:
Europe in 1815
Impact of the French Revolution Conservatives Controlled Europe—Throughout the 1800s—Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, France, and Austria tried to maintain a balance of power with each other preserve their own monarchies. Congress of Vienna restored the monarchies of Western Europe Britain established a constitutional monarchy but only the wealthy citizens could vote Russia, Prussia and Austria maintained an Absolute monarchy and created the Holy Alliance: promised to help each other if they were threatened by reformers France—Louis XVIII shared his power with a legislativebranch called the Chamber of Deputies. Despite the restoration of the monarchy, France remained greatly divided between conservatives, liberals and those who wanted liberty, equality, & fraternity