The cold war beginning
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  • 1. THE COLD WARthe beginning
    1945-1991
  • 2. Even before World War II Ended, the leaders of US, Great Britain and USSR were meeting to decide what to do after the war.
    The YALTA Conference: February 1945
    Decide to divide Germany into Four occupation zones, as well as the capital of Berlin
    Agreed to free elections in Poland and along the countries that bordered USSR—this never happens
    Proposed the charter for the United Nations
     
    The Potsdam Conference: July 1945
    US—Harry Truman (FDR died in April)
    GB—Clement Atlee replaced Churchill
    USSR—Stalin
    Made final plans to divide Germany and reunite it later
  • 3. THE DIVISION OF GERMANY
    1948-The US, France, and Britain announced they would reunite their occupied sections of Germany. The Soviet Union refused to participated and blocked all routes to West Berlin.
  • 4. THE SUPERPOWERS STANDOFF
    The Berlin Airlift: The allies responded to the block of West Berlin by dropping food, fuel and medicine into West Berlin for 327 days until the USSR lifted the block.
  • 5. MONEY TO ENCOURAGE DEMOCRACY
    The Truman Doctrine 1947
    Civil War had broken out between communists and conservatives in Greece
    Goal of the Truman Doctrine: The US hoped that by giving money to Greece it would prevent a communist take over.
    THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT: After the success of the Truman Doctrine the US adopted a policy of known as Containment. This meant they would not try to end communism where it already existed but stop the spread of it to any other nation.
    The Marshall Plan 1947-1951
    The US wanted to continue stopping the spread of communism
    Offered aid to any country to help rebuild after the war
    Marshall Plan Success:
    17 nations participated
    US gave $13 billion in aid
    By 1952 European farm and industrial output levels were above the prewar levels
    Offered aid to the USSR but they declined.
    The Eisenhower Doctrine—1957 extended Marshall plan aid to the Middle East
  • 6. THE BERLIN WALL
    Berlin was located entirely in communist East Germany. Despite this location, West Berlin remained part of West Germany and democratic.
    Because of the economic success of W. Berlin, many East Berliners were fleeing to West Berlin.
    In response to this the East German government built a wall on August 13, 1961 dividing East and West Berlin. It stood until Nov. 9, 1989.
  • 7. The Berlin Wall
    The barrier between East and West Berlin, went up over night. The concrete and permanence was added later. The Wall became a symbol of Cold War tensions.
  • 8. THE UNITED NATIONS
    The Start:
    April 1945-Fifty one nations met in San Francisco and began the UN in October 1945
    GOAL: To maintain international peace and security to solve world problems.
    The Headquarters are in NYC
    It was made to be stronger than the League of Nations in that it has a standing military force
    Two Main Bodies of the UN
    The General Assembly
    All member nations get one vote. Today 192/195 countries are part of the General Assembly (Taiwan, Kosovo and Vatican City are not members)
    The Security Council
    5 Permanent Members: (the winners of WWII) -Britain, France, US, China, and USSR (Russia). These nations all have veto power
    10 Temporary Nations: serve 2 year terms