Even before World War II Ended, the leaders of US, Great Britain and USSR were meeting to decide what to do after the war. The YALTA Conference: February 1945 Decide to divide Germany into Four occupation zones, as well as the capital of Berlin Agreed to free elections in Poland and along the countries that bordered USSR—this never happens Proposed the charter for the United Nations
The Potsdam Conference: July 1945 US—Harry Truman (FDR died in April) GB—Clement Atlee replaced Churchill USSR—Stalin Made final plans to divide Germany and reunite it later
THE DIVISION OF GERMANY 1948-The US, France, and Britain announced they would reunite their occupied sections of Germany. The Soviet Union refused to participated and blocked all routes to West Berlin.
THE SUPERPOWERS STANDOFF The Berlin Airlift: The allies responded to the block of West Berlin by dropping food, fuel and medicine into West Berlin for 327 days until the USSR lifted the block.
MONEY TO ENCOURAGE DEMOCRACY The Truman Doctrine 1947 Civil War had broken out between communists and conservatives in Greece Goal of the Truman Doctrine: The US hoped that by giving money to Greece it would prevent a communist take over. THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT: After the success of the Truman Doctrine the US adopted a policy of known as Containment. This meant they would not try to end communism where it already existed but stop the spread of it to any other nation. The Marshall Plan 1947-1951 The US wanted to continue stopping the spread of communism Offered aid to any country to help rebuild after the war Marshall Plan Success: 17 nations participated US gave $13 billion in aid By 1952 European farm and industrial output levels were above the prewar levels Offered aid to the USSR but they declined. The Eisenhower Doctrine—1957 extended Marshall plan aid to the Middle East
THE BERLIN WALL Berlin was located entirely in communist East Germany. Despite this location, West Berlin remained part of West Germany and democratic. Because of the economic success of W. Berlin, many East Berliners were fleeing to West Berlin. In response to this the East German government built a wall on August 13, 1961 dividing East and West Berlin. It stood until Nov. 9, 1989.
The Berlin Wall The barrier between East and West Berlin, went up over night. The concrete and permanence was added later. The Wall became a symbol of Cold War tensions.
THE UNITED NATIONS The Start: April 1945-Fifty one nations met in San Francisco and began the UN in October 1945 GOAL: To maintain international peace and security to solve world problems. The Headquarters are in NYC It was made to be stronger than the League of Nations in that it has a standing military force Two Main Bodies of the UN The General Assembly All member nations get one vote. Today 192/195 countries are part of the General Assembly (Taiwan, Kosovo and Vatican City are not members) The Security Council 5 Permanent Members: (the winners of WWII) -Britain, France, US, China, and USSR (Russia). These nations all have veto power 10 Temporary Nations: serve 2 year terms