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The civil right's movement

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  • 1. The Civil Rights Movement
  • 2. Section 1: The Movement Begins
    • Origins of the Movement
    • The Civil Rights Movement Begins
    • African American Churches
    • Eisenhower and Civil Rights
  • 3. The Origins of the Movement
    • African American civil rights movement begins after Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white man – Starts a bus boycott – demand for equal rights
    • 1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson (establishes separate but equal)
    • Jim Crow laws segregating African Americans in the South
    • De facto segregation (segregation by custom and tradition) in the North
    • NAACP – supported court cases trying to eliminate segregation; provided financial support and lawyers to African Americans
    • African Americans voted for Democrats who supported civil rights legislation (Strong Democratic Party)
    • 1942 – CORE founded – used sit-ins as a form of protest
  • 4. The Civil Rights Movement Begins
    • After WWII, African Americans had fought for equality overseas and wanted it at home as well
    • Thurgood Marshall – works to end segregation in public schools
    • Brown v. Board of Education – ended segregation in public schools
    • Brown v. Board angered many white southerners who supported segregation
    • Montgomery bus boycott led by Montgomery Improvement Association headed by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. – nonviolent passive resistance
    • Bus boycott forced the Supreme court to find Alabama’s bus segregation laws unconstitutional
  • 5. African American Churches
    • African American churches play a big role in the success of the boycott, through being the center of forums, planning, and organization
    • SCLC, led by Dr. King, challenged segregation of public transportation,, housing, voting, and other public accommodations
  • 6. Eisenhower and Civil Rights
    • Eisenhower was the 1 st president since Reconstruction to send troops to protect the rights of African Americans
    • Little Rock Arkansas, President Eisenhower sends federal troops to protect African Americans from angry mobs surrounding desegregated schools
    • Civil Rights Act of 1957 – protected African Americans’ right to vote – 1 st step in bringing the federal government into the civil rights debate
  • 7. Section 2: Challenging Segregation
    • The Sit-in Movement
    • SNCC
    • Freedom Riders
    • Kennedy and Civil Rights
    • The Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • The Struggle for Voting Rights
  • 8. The Sit-In Movement
    • 1960 – 4 African Americans stage a sit-in at Woolworth’s – led to a mass movement for civil rights using sit-ins across the nation
    • Jesse Jackson – leader of sit-ins in North Carolina – felt it gave them the power to change things
  • 9. SNCC
    • Students for the SNCC as a way to organize for the civil rights movement
    • Marion Barry and John Lewis – early SNCC leaders
    • Robert Moses points out that rural African Americans needed help along with those in urban areas
    • Many SNCC volunteers were beaten and some were even killed
    • Fannie Lou Hamer – SNCC volunteer who is beaten in police custody in Mississippi – helps organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
  • 10. Freedom Riders
    • CORE leader James Farmer asks protesters to travel South to integrate bus terminals – teams become known as the Freedom Riders
    • Violence erupts in Alabama – televised violence shocks many Americans
    • Kennedy compelled to control violence
  • 11. JFK and Civil Rights
    • Kennedy campaigned for civil rights – African Americans helped get him elected
    • Once in office he became very cautious on civil rights and avoided new legislation
    • Robert Kennedy, his brother, actively supported civil rights
    • Attempted to reach agreements – riders asked to stop protesting
    • CORE uses funds to bail riders out of jail – NAACP helps to let the rides continue
    • Kennedy responds – Interstate Commerce Commission to increase regulations against segregation at bus terminals – segregation ends by 1962
    • 1962 – James Meredith (African Americans air force veteran) attends University of Mississippi, but needs troops to guard him.
    • King, frustrated with the movement, holds demonstrations in Alabama that incite violence in order to force the president to act
  • 12. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Kennedy announces his civil rights bill on national television
    • King marches 200,000 demonstrators to the nations capital to stage a peaceful rally in order to pressure Congress into passing the bill
    • Senators filibuster the bill, Congress unable to pass the bill
    • After Kennedy’s assassination, Johnson commits himself to passing the bill
    • It eventually passes:
    • Gave federal government broad power to stop racial discrimination in segregation of public places
    • Bring lawsuits against school segregation
    • Required employers to end discrimination in the workplace
  • 13. Struggle for Voting Rights
    • Civil Rights Act didn’t protect voting rights – Many African Americans were prevented from voting in the South
    • Protest staged in Selma, Alabama – march for freedom stopped by 200 state troopers and protesters are attacked – Bloody Sunday
    • 1965 – Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • Federal examiners to register qualified voters
    • Bypassed local officials in the voter registration process
    • Resulted in 250,000 newly registered African Americans
  • 14. Section 3: New Issues
    • Problems Facing Urban African Americans
    • The Shift to Economic Rights
    • Black Power
    • Assassination of Dr. King
  • 15. Problems Facing Urban African Americans
    • Racism was still common after the 50s and 60s
    • Economic and social problems = difficult to address
    • 1965-1968 – race riots break out in many American cities:
            • Watts riots – lasted 6 days
            • Detroit riots – US Army sent in to retake control
    • Kerner Commission created to make recommendations to prevent further urban riots
      • Concluded that the problems lied within white society and white racism
      • Recommendation: 2 million new jobs and 6 million new units of public housing
    • Due to concerns over Vietnam President Johnson never endorses the recommendation
  • 16. Shift to Economic Rights
    • Dr. King begins to shift his focus onto improving economic conditions for African Americans
    • Chicago Movement – effort to call attention to the deplorable housing conditions in Chicago
    • Dr. King moves into the slums of Chicago with his family
    • King marched through the white suburbs and was protected with police from Mayor Richard Daley
    • Daley and King propose new program to clean up the slums
  • 17. Black Power
    • Many African Americans sought out new strategies of self defense and living free from whites
    • Black Power – 2 meanings:
      • Physical self-defense and violence
      • Stokely Carmichael – control the economic, social, and political direction of their struggle for equality
    • Opposed assimilation – popular in poor neighborhoods – Dr. King and others were very critical of black power
    • Malcolm X – symbol of black power movement – part of the Nation of Islam (believed that African Americans should separate themselves from whites and form their own self-governing communities)
    • Malcolm X later breaks away from the Nation of Islam and begins to believe in an integrated society
    • 1965 – 3 members of the Nation of Islam assassinate Malcolm X
      • Victimized by the past, but don’t need to be victimized now by racism
    • Formation of the Black Panthers
      • New generation of militant black youth
      • Black power, black nationalism, and economic self-sufficiency
      • Black Panthers believed that a revolution was necessary to gain equal rights.
  • 18. Assassination of Dr. King
    • Late 1960s – Civil Rights movement fragmented into many competing organizations
    • Assassination of Dr. King led to national mourning as well as riots in over 100 cities
    • After Dr. King’s death, Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which contained provisions for fair and equitable housing

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