The 1980s


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The 1980s

  1. 1. The 1980s<br />The Reagan Revolution<br />
  2. 2. The Election of 1980: Carter v. Reagan<br />Jimmy Carter<br />Ronald Reagan<br />Inflation<br />Oil Shock- High oil prices<br />In a recession<br />Unemployment up to 8%<br />Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan<br />Iranian Hostage Crisis<br />Offered hope for the economy<br />Offered a build-up of American forces to stop Soviet Union<br /> “Are you better off now then you were four years ago?”<br />
  3. 3. State of the Economy in 1981<br />Interest rates were 20%<br />Value of dollar was 36 cents<br />Reagan blamed it on the government<br />Excessive taxes<br />High government spending<br />
  4. 4. Supply Side Economics<br />Lower corporate income taxes<br />Would mean a greater profit<br />Would invest more<br />Effects of lower corporate taxes<br />Costs go down for the business<br />Can invest in new technology<br />Make items more productively<br />Can hire more people<br />
  5. 5. Decrease in government spending<br />Did not touch popular programs<br />Social Security<br />Medicare<br />Cut 41 Billion dollars in spending<br />Food stamps<br />Reduced public service jobs<br />Reduced student loans<br />Reduced support for city mass transit (public buses)<br />
  6. 6. Private Sector is rejuvenated<br />Policy of Deregulation is to rely on marketplace to direct nation’s economy<br />Upset Environmentalists<br />Opened land to coal and timber production<br />Halted growth of American parkland<br />Billion acres opened for off shore drilling<br />Rid the automobile industry of many regulations<br />Negotiated with Japan to lower exports and save Detroit<br />
  7. 7. PATCO: Air Traffic Controllers<br />Strike in the summer of 1981<br />Reagan states “protective services are the government’s reason for being “<br />Reagan took action<br />Fired striking workers<br />Decertified the Union<br />Trained thousands of new air traffic controllers at a cost of $1.3 billion<br />
  8. 8. Mixed reviews on Civil Rights<br />Strong rhetoric against Roe v. Wade decision that legalized abortion<br />Did appoint first woman to Supreme Court with Sandra Day O’Connor<br />72 nominees to federal courts<br />12 were women<br />3 were Black<br />Openly opposed school busing mandated by Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg<br />Openly against affirmative action<br />
  9. 9. Reagan and Foreign Policy<br />First day in office, hostages from Iran were set fee<br />Doubled defense spending<br />Expansion of navy<br />B-1 bombers<br />MX nuclear missiles<br />Hard line on “Evil Empire”<br />Placed 572 Pershing II missiles in western Europe pointing to Moscow and other large cities<br />Complained only had 10 minutes of reaction time<br />
  10. 10. Star Wars<br />(SDI) the Strategic Defense Initiative<br />Anti Missile system<br />Used lasers and particle beams to destroy incoming missiles in outer space<br />Critics believed it would cause the Soviet Union to build quicker and more efficient missiles<br />Each side had a build up of 50,000 missiles<br />
  11. 11. South American Leadership: Who do we support?<br />Reagan perceived that the Soviet Union was supporting communism in South America<br />Conditions in South America<br />Extremes of wealth<br />Small landowning elite<br />Masses of poverty stricken<br />U.S. wished to support a modern middle class regime that did not exist<br />Ended up backing right wing dictators rather than support land reform and redistribution of wealth<br />
  12. 12. The U.S. and Nicaragua<br />Sandinistas were successful in the overthrow of the Somoza government<br />Sandinistas were left winged<br />Carter extended aid <br />Reagan reversed policy<br />Accused Sandinistas of driving out moderates, and turning toward Cuba and Soviet Union<br />Reagan asked Congress to oust Sandinistas<br />Congress said no<br />Reagan opted for covert action<br />
  13. 13. The United States backs the Contras<br />Contras were rebels of the Sandinistas<br />They were exiles in Honduras and Costa Rica<br />Began supplying weapons to Contras<br />Actions of the Contras<br />Attempted to disrupt the Nicaraguan economy<br />Raiding villages<br />Blowing up oil tanks<br />Blowing up mining harbors<br />Congress passed the Boland Amendment<br />U.S. could not spend money in Central America<br />
  14. 14. Trouble in the Middle East<br />Israel honored Camp David Accords<br />Withdrew from Sinai Peninsula<br />Reagan wanted a homeland for the Palestinian Arabs on the West Bank, Israel did not comply<br />PLO (Palestine Liberation Force) continued to make attempts to raid Israel from Lebanon<br />June 1882, Israel invades Lebanon to destroy the PLO<br />U.S. did not stop invasion, but did not send troops<br />
  15. 15. Middle Eastern Trouble Spots<br />
  16. 16. U.S. Marines deployed to Lebanon<br />Sent as a peace keeping mission<br />A multinational force is deployed to restore order<br />Muslims perceived the Marines were aiding the Christian government of Lebanon, instead of being peace-keepers<br />Congress wanted Marines pulled out<br />Reagan said NO, the Marines were there to protect Lebanon from Syria (backed by Soviets)<br />
  17. 17. U.S. Marines in Lebanon<br />Terrorists drive a truck loaded with bombs into barracks<br />239 Marines die<br />President pulls out<br />Last marine leaves Beirut in February 1984<br />Leaves President humiliated<br />
  18. 18. 1984 Election<br />Ronald Reagan<br />Walter Mondale<br />Voters give Reagan credit for:<br />Curbing inflation<br />Reviving economy<br />Challenging communism<br />Geraldine Ferraro of New York was first female on the national ticket<br />
  19. 19. Iran Arms Deal<br />Trade weapons for hostages<br />6 American hostages were being held in Lebanon by group of terrorists loyal to Ayatollah Khomeini<br />National Security Advisor Robert McFarlane proposed trading anti-tank missiles in return for the hostages release<br />Iran complied because of war with Iraq<br />
  20. 20. Iran-Contra Affair<br />Oliver North was the LT Colonel assigned to the National Security Council<br />New Security Advisor Casey decides to send TOW anti-tank missiles and HAWK anti-aircraft missiles to Iran<br />Searching for a way to help Contras after the Boland Amendment<br />North solicited donations from right-wing Americans<br />Used profits from sale of weapons to Iran to fund Contras<br />
  21. 21. War on Drugs<br />Nancy Regan’s “Just say No” campaign<br />I learned it by watching You<br />
  22. 22. Reagan and Gorbachev<br />Mikhail Gorbachev was a young, dynamic leader<br />Wanted to improve relations with U.S.<br />Gorbachev wanted changes at home<br />Perestroika- reconstruct economy<br />Glasnost- political openness<br />Agreed to the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty<br />Removed all intermediate range missiles from Europe<br />Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan<br />