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The 1970s

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  • 1. What did Nixon accomplish as President?
    What effects did Nixon’s impeachment have on the Nation?
    Did we learn our lesson from the oil shock of the 1970s?
    Should we be involved with approval/ disapproval of foreign leaders?
    The 1970sThe Nixon, Ford, Carter Years
  • 2. The Moral Majority Emerges
    Outrage over Engel v. Vitale decision in 1962
    Prayer cannot be led by school officials
    Other areas of concern
    Divorce rate
    ½ of all first marriages end in divorce
    Abortion
    Working Moms
    Gay rights movement
  • 3. Moving to the Sunbelt
    People begin to move South
    Economic opportunities in the South
    Less unions
    Different political climate
    Low taxes
    Less government regulation
    Reliance on business
  • 4. Sunbelt
  • 5. Nixon is President
    “We cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another-until we speak quietly enough so that our words can be heard as well as our voices.”
  • 6. Nixon’s Domestic Policies
    Affirmative action
    Ensure hiring of minorities for all government contracts of more than $50,000
    Creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    Safe working conditions
    Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency
    Enforce clean air and water act
    Tackle smog
    Air pollutants
    Cost of living raises for people on Social Security
    Revenue sharing
    Federal funds are allocated to local governments
    Local governments are responsible for allocating money
    Turn integration of schools to courts
    Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg decision
  • 7. Détente
    Relaxation of Cold War tensions
    Changed view of the Cold War
    Traditional power rivalry that can be managed rather than be won
    Use trade instead of war
    Soviet economy was weak
    Use grain and technology to improve relations
  • 8. Nixon visits China
    Opens trade
    Soviet Union hates China
  • 9. SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
    Arms control pact
    Agreements signed by Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev
    Limit to 200 antiballistic missiles each
    Froze the number of offensive ballistic missiles for a five year period
    Symbolic first step
  • 10. Ending the Vietnam War
    Three part plan
    Gradual withdraw of American troops
    Renewed bombing
    Hard line negations with Hanoi
  • 11. Response to the Bombing of Cambodia
    Widespread student protest
    Kent State University near Cleveland Ohio had some of the worst riots
    Students bombed the ROTC building
    Governor sent National guard soldiers to university
    Guardsmen opened fire
    4 students were killed and 11 were wounded
  • 12. Watergate Scandal
    Nixon did not want release of information about American foreign policy
    Used a covert surveillance team known as “plumbers” to make sure they were no leaks
    Plumbers branched out to spying on Democratic National Committee at the Watergate office complex
  • 13. Effects of Watergate
    Short term effects
    Nixon fired aides including John Dean
    Dean implicated Nixon
    Nixon refused to release tapes
    Court ordered him to
    Nixon resigned
    25 aides were sentenced to jail
    Long term effects
    Showed a lust for power rather than money (Whiskey Ring and Tea Pot Dome)
    Showed the power of the press
    Washington Post released scandal
    Woodrow and Bernstein
    Deep Throat
  • 14. War in the Middle East (War of Attrition)
    Egypt and Syria attack Israel
    Wanted revenge
    Seized Golan Heights from Syria
    Sinai Peninsula from Egypt
    Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan
    Israel won again
    Nixon and Kissinger intervened
  • 15. October War (Yom Kippur War)
    No battles
    OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ) cut oil production by 5%
    Would continue each month until Israel gave land back
    Nixon gave an emergency aid package for Israel
    Saudi Arabia cut off ALL oil to the U.S.
  • 16. Oil Shortage
    Rise in oil prices
    Doubled price in 2 weeks
    Long lines at gas station
    Plea to American people
    Car pool
    Don’t go anywhere for pleasure
    Turn down thermostats
    Lasted 6 months
    Kissinger negotiated Israeli pullback in Sinai
  • 17. Effects of First Energy Crisis
    Used 40% of energy even though only 6% of world’s population
    Showed our dependence on foreign oil
    Led to decrease in demand for U.S. cars
    Chrysler is saved by U.S. government
  • 18. The Great Inflation
    Rise in gas prices effect price of everything else
    U.S. had a $420 billion dollar deficit from Vietnam War
    Rise in food prices due to worldwide shortage
    Unemployment rose by 9%
  • 19. President Ford
    Only President not elected
    Appointed by Nixon after Spiro Agnew is forced to resign for accepting bribes as Governor of Maryland
    Granted Nixon a pardon
    Disclosed actions of CIA
    Appointed George H. Bush as head of CIA to clean it up
  • 20. American Economy Shifts
    Old factories could not compete with Japan and Western Europe
    Oil shocks led to demand for smaller cars
    Foreign cars gain in U.S. market
    Lose steel industry
    Other nations had better technology
    Labor unions lose power
    Move to computers and service (teaching and social work)
  • 21. Environmentalism
    Oil shocks show need for alternative fuels
    Solar
    Expensive
    Cloudy- no power
    Hydro
    Not enough suitable dam sites
    Wind
    Where wind blew not a lot of people
    Nuclear
    Controversial
    Waste products are radioactive
    Accidents
    Three Mile Island
    Chernobyl
    Earth Day
  • 22. President Carter
    “I’ll Never tell a lie.”
    Won election as an outsider to Washington
    Didn’t know much
    Blames aides and American citizens that he can’t get anything done
  • 23. South American Relations
    Nicaragua
    Sandinista forces led by Anastasio Somoza aligned with Castro
    El Salvador
    Carter wasn’t sure what to do
    Communist governments?
    Repressive regimes?
  • 24. Camp David Accords
    Leaders from Egypt and Israel meet
    Egypt- Anwar Sadat
    Israel- Menachem Begin
    Emerged after 13 days with a set of negotiations
    Middle Eastern countries needed Egypt’s approval to attack Israel
    Gradual return of Sinai to Egypt
    Question of Gaza Strip and West Bank were left unsettled
  • 25. Revolution in Iran
    U.S. depended on shah for defense the Persian Gulf
    People of Iran were discontent with their leader
    Ayatollah Khomeini led a revolt against the shah and he was forced to flee
    Shah was allowed to enter for medical treatment
    Upset with the U.S., militants seized the embassy in Tehran and took 53 American Prisoners
  • 26. Iranian Hostage Crisis
    Showed American decline in power
    Rescue mission failed
    Hostages were held for 444 day
    Released when Reagan was President
  • 27. Soviets invade Afghanistan
    December 1979
    Appeared to be thrust toward Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf
    Carter Doctrine
    Threatened armed opposition to any further Soviet advance toward the Gulf
    Banned sale of high technology to Russia
    Embargo on export grain
    Resumed draft registration
    Boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics