The Gilded Age:  A New American Society and Economy What made industrialization possible? What advances were made during t...
Six Sources of Industrial Growth <ul><li>Abundant raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Large and growing labor supply </li></ul...
Natural Resources <ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Timber </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul><ul><...
Abundant Labor Force <ul><li>Old farming families </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants arrive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italians </li>...
Improvements in Transportation <ul><li>Steamships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cross Atlantic Ocean in half the time </li></u...
Why railroads? <ul><li>Direct routes </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul>...
The Railroads
Improvements in Communication <ul><li>Bell’s Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Edison’s Phonograph </li></ul><ul><li>Typewriter ...
Improvements in Manufacturing <ul><li>Refining petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Bessemer process </li></ul><ul><li>Cash registe...
Improvements in Food industry <ul><li>Refrigerator car </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle from Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
A new light <ul><li>Edison’s lightbulb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light within 2 mile radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Westinghous...
Cornelius Vanderbilt <ul><li>Shipping and railroad magnate </li></ul><ul><li>1810 - Purchased first ship  </li></ul><ul><l...
Collis P. Huntington <ul><li>Railroad magnate </li></ul><ul><li>Became wealthy as a merchant </li></ul><ul><li>1861 – Join...
Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Pittsburg </li></ul><ul><li>J Edgar Thomson Steel Company </li></ul><ul><u...
J. Pierpont Morgan <ul><li>A banker </li></ul><ul><li>Refinanced railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Bought Carnegie Steel </li></...
John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Oil Company </li></ul><ul><li>Kerosene </li></ul><ul><li>Refine...
Alexander Graham Bell <ul><li>The telephone </li></ul><ul><li>American Telephone and Telegraph Company </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Cyrus W. Field <ul><li>Financier </li></ul><ul><li>1854 – Founded the New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph Company ...
Captains of Industry or Robber Barrons:  The Emergence of Entrepreneurs <ul><li>Captain of Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Bringing Products to Consumers <ul><li>Department Stores </li></ul><ul><li>Mail Order Catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>City </li...
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Nc goal #5 the new american society and the economy

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Nc goal #5 the new american society and the economy

  1. 1. The Gilded Age: A New American Society and Economy What made industrialization possible? What advances were made during this period? Were the entrepreneurs captains or barons?
  2. 2. Six Sources of Industrial Growth <ul><li>Abundant raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Large and growing labor supply </li></ul><ul><li>Surge in technological innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of a talented and often ruthless group of entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government eager to assist the growth of business </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding domestic market for the products of manufacturing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Natural Resources <ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Timber </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  4. 4. Abundant Labor Force <ul><li>Old farming families </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants arrive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central European </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total population was 76 million in 1914 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 million immigrants between 1870-1890 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 million between 1890 and 1914 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Improvements in Transportation <ul><li>Steamships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cross Atlantic Ocean in half the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can transport on Hudson River, Ohio River, and Erie Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By horse- 50 miles a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By rail- 50 miles an hour </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why railroads? <ul><li>Direct routes </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pullman sleep car </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brought in outside products </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time zones are established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encouraged specialization </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Railroads
  8. 8. Improvements in Communication <ul><li>Bell’s Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Edison’s Phonograph </li></ul><ul><li>Typewriter </li></ul>
  9. 9. Improvements in Manufacturing <ul><li>Refining petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Bessemer process </li></ul><ul><li>Cash register </li></ul><ul><li>Singer’s Electric sewing machine </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic looms </li></ul><ul><li>Eastman’s Kodak camera </li></ul>
  10. 10. Improvements in Food industry <ul><li>Refrigerator car </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle from Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit from California and Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beer </li></ul><ul><li>Packaged cereal </li></ul><ul><li>Canned meat </li></ul><ul><li>Swift’s “Disassembly factories” </li></ul>
  11. 11. A new light <ul><li>Edison’s lightbulb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light within 2 mile radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Westinghouse converts electrical power to mechanical power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light to all </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cornelius Vanderbilt <ul><li>Shipping and railroad magnate </li></ul><ul><li>1810 - Purchased first ship </li></ul><ul><li>1846 – Self-made millionaire </li></ul><ul><li>1849 – Vanderbilt Accessory Transit Company </li></ul><ul><li>1869 – Consolidated the Hudson River Railroad and New York Central Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>1873 – Was able to offer rail service between New York and Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed Grand Central Terminal </li></ul>
  13. 13. Collis P. Huntington <ul><li>Railroad magnate </li></ul><ul><li>Became wealthy as a merchant </li></ul><ul><li>1861 – Joined with the “Big Four” to incorporate the Central Pacific Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>1865 – Constructed lines from southern California to New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>1890 – President of the Southern Pacific-Central Pacific rail system </li></ul>
  14. 14. Andrew Carnegie <ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Pittsburg </li></ul><ul><li>J Edgar Thomson Steel Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named after President of Pennsylvania Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Won contract for Brooklyn Bridge, Golden Gate Bridge, and Empire State building </li></ul><ul><li>Sold more steel than Great Britain </li></ul>
  15. 15. J. Pierpont Morgan <ul><li>A banker </li></ul><ul><li>Refinanced railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Bought Carnegie Steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merged with his company Federal Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named United States Steel Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financed Edison Illuminating Company </li></ul>
  16. 16. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Oil Company </li></ul><ul><li>Kerosene </li></ul><ul><li>Refineries began in Cleveland and Pittsburg </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refineries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pipelines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept of the holding company </li></ul>
  17. 17. Alexander Graham Bell <ul><li>The telephone </li></ul><ul><li>American Telephone and Telegraph Company </li></ul><ul><li>Holding company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 separate Telephone companies in local areas </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Cyrus W. Field <ul><li>Financier </li></ul><ul><li>1854 – Founded the New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph Company </li></ul><ul><li>1856 – Helped to organize the Atlantic Telegraph Company </li></ul><ul><li>1866 – Successfully laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable </li></ul>
  19. 19. Captains of Industry or Robber Barrons: The Emergence of Entrepreneurs <ul><li>Captain of Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Witty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robber Barron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t care about labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Felt it was best to control industry </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Bringing Products to Consumers <ul><li>Department Stores </li></ul><ul><li>Mail Order Catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>City </li></ul><ul><li>Macy’s- New York </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Field’s- Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Higbee’s- Cleveland </li></ul><ul><li>A&P Grocery stores </li></ul><ul><li>Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Buy from catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Based on consumer trust </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Sears and Roebucks </li></ul><ul><li>Montgomery Ward </li></ul>
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