Widespread EpidemicsEpidemics The Spanish brought small pox, measles, and influenza Conquistadors purposely gave infected blankets as gifts as a way to kill off the Native Americans—biological warfare Native American died in mass number due to little immunityPopulation of Indians in Hispaniola *1492—250,000 *1512—60,000 remained *1562—500 left
THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGEGlobal exchange of people, plants, animals ideas and technology between Europe and the AmericasFrom Americas to Europe—corn, potato, beans, pineapple, cocoa, tobacco, peanuts, and tomatoesFrom Europe to the Americas—wheat, sugar, bananas, horses, pigs, cattle, chicken, sheep, small pox, typhus, and measles.
IMPACT OF NEWPRODUCTSThe goods brought tothe America s and toEurope changed thecourse of history.The potatorevolutionizedEurope by providinga reliable, starchyfood. It increased thepopulation ofEurope.
THE TRIANGLETRADE Europe shipped cotton goods, weapons, and liquor to Africa African slaves were shipped to Americas Plantation products of tobacco, cotton, and sugar shipped to Europe
THE SLAVE TRADEMiddle Passage slave voyage from Africa to the Americas millions died on the journeyEffects of the Slave Trade ended in the 1800s 11 million Africans were sent to the Americas undermined the political structure in Africa
AFRICAN SLAVESHIPHumans were packedlike sardines trying tofit as many people inas possible. Slaveswere kept in thebottom of the ship,chained to oneanother over the longjourney.
The Brutality of Slavery"The voyage, the horrors of which are beyonddescription. For example, the mode of packing.The hold of a slave vessel is from two to four feethigh. It is filled with as many human beings as itwill contain. They are made to sit down withtheir heads between their knees: first, a line isplaced close to the side of the vessel; thenanother line, and then the packer, armed with aheavy club, strikes at the feet of this last line inorder to make them press as closely as possibleagainst those behind... Thus it is suffocating forwant of air, starving for want of food, parchedwith thirst for want of water, these poorcreatures are compelled to perform a voyage offourteen hundred miles. No wonder themortality is dreadful!"
EXPLORATION A TURNING POINT IN HISTORY Mercantilism and CapitalismEuropean capitalism—investment of money to make a profit was becoming more popularMercantilism—building up national wealth by exporting more goods than the nation exports. a. based on the idea that the world had a fixed amount of wealth, in order for a nation to gain more, it had to take from another nation. b. colonies served two purposes to the mother nation: 1. a place to take raw materials from 2. forced colonies to but only their goods. England, France, Portugal and Spain gained massive amount of wealth. This strengthened their regions and led to the development of modern day nations. As Monarchies grew stronger in Europe, the power of the Church continued to decline.