Goal # 8 notes for wwi 1.pptx

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Goal # 8 notes for wwi 1.pptx

  1. 1. 1914-1918: The World at War
  2. 2. Causes of the War
  3. 3. <ul><li>There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>But…….. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CAUSES <ul><li>Militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul>
  5. 5. Alliances Form <ul><li>Triple Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>(Central powers) </li></ul><ul><li>Triple entente </li></ul><ul><li>(Allied Powers) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey (Ottoman Empire) </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers : Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers : Enver Pasha [Turkey]
  7. 8. BALKANS <ul><li>Powder Keg of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This infuriated the Serbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
  9. 10. The “Spark”
  10. 11. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
  11. 12. The Assassination: Sarajevo
  12. 13. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
  13. 14. American Poster
  14. 15. Financing the War
  15. 16. German Poster
  16. 17. A Multi-Front War
  17. 18. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition ”
  18. 19. WESTERN FRONT <ul><li>3 year stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge casualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1916 there were 2 million casualities </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. The Western Front
  20. 21. Trench Warfare
  21. 22. Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
  22. 23. Verdun – February, 1916 <ul><li>German offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side had 500,000 casualties. </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Somme – July, 1916 <ul><li>60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. </li></ul>
  24. 25. War Is HELL !!
  25. 26. Sacrifices in War
  26. 27. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  27. 28. The Eastern Front
  28. 29. EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Millions died </li></ul><ul><li>Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia Pulls out because of Revolution </li></ul>
  29. 30. The “Colonial” Fronts
  30. 31. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  31. 32. Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  32. 33. Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  33. 34. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  34. 35. COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies. </li></ul>
  35. 36. United States declares neutrality <ul><li>Progressives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer factories to kill them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Union Against Militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant nation is divided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish immigrants favored Germany (free homeland from British) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Freedom of the Seas <ul><li>Could trade non-military goods to both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Britain blockaded Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. couldn’t sell to Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After forbidding U.S. to sell cotton to Germany, it agreed to buy it to make up losses </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. loans to Allies equaled 2 billion, loans to Germany 27 million </li></ul>
  37. 38. Lives versus Money <ul><li>U.S. was in greatest economic boom ever </li></ul><ul><li>German submarine policy threatened American lives </li></ul>
  38. 39. U Boat Threat <ul><li>Traditional law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required submarine surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warn target to stop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send a boarding party to check papers and cargo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow time for passengers to board life boats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany would sink ships without checking cargo </li></ul><ul><li>Germany agreed to not target U.S. ships </li></ul><ul><li>Issue was Americans on belligerent nations ships </li></ul><ul><li>Sec of State Byran wanted to tell Americans not to travel in war zones </li></ul><ul><li>President Wilson said NO </li></ul>
  39. 40. America Joins the Allies
  40. 41. German Submarine Warfare <ul><li>Germans had declared unrestricted sub warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Lusitania is sunk – carrying 128 Americans – 1000 dead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans say the passenger ship is carrying munitions – Brits deny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ship sinks in under 20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans also sink the Sussex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Sussex Pledge between U.S. and Germany </li></ul>
  41. 42. The Sinking of the Lusitania
  42. 43. ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM <ul><li>Secret message from Germany to Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Mexico allies with the Central Powers it could gain New Mexico, Arizona and Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land lost in 1848 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>**Telegram intercepted – Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany to “Make the World Safe for Democracy” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 44. The Zimmerman Telegram
  44. 45. The Yanks Are Coming!
  45. 46. Doughboys deploy <ul><li>Arrive in France in June 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>2 million Americans will serve overseas </li></ul><ul><li>General Pershing is given command of the American Expeditionary Force </li></ul>
  46. 47. Americans in the Trenches
  47. 48. The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
  48. 49. French Renault Tank
  49. 50. British Tank at Ypres
  50. 51. U-Boats
  51. 52. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  52. 53. The Airplane “ Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  53. 54. The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “ Red Baron ”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
  54. 55. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
  55. 56. Looking for the “Red Baron?”
  56. 57. The Zeppelin
  57. 58. Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
  58. 59. Poison Gas Machine Gun
  59. 60. “ Art” of World War I
  60. 61. “ A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
  61. 62. “ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
  62. 63. “ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
  63. 64. “ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
  64. 65. “ Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
  65. 66. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

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