Alliances Form Triple entente (Allied Powers) Triple Alliance (Central powers) Germany Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Austria-Hungary Britain France Russia
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
BALKANS Powder Keg of Europe Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia This infuriated the Serbs Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible.
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
Financing the War
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”
WESTERN FRONT 3 year stalemate Trench warfare Huge casualities Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months By 1916 there were 2 million casualities
The Western Front
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916
Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916
60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War IsHELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
EASTERN FRONT Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks Millions died Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia. Russia Pulls out because of Revolution
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa] British Sikh Mountain Gunners
Fighting in Africa 3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916
COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front. Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies.
United States declares neutrality Progressives Safer factories to kill them? American Union Against Militarism Immigrant nation is divided Irish immigrants favored Germany (free homeland from British)
Freedom of the Seas Could trade non-military goods to both sides Britain blockaded Germany U.S. couldn’t sell to Germany After forbidding U.S. to sell cotton to Germany, it agreed to buy it to make up losses U.S. loans to Allies equaled 2 billion, loans to Germany 27 million
Lives versus Money U.S. was in greatest economic boom ever German submarine policy threatened American lives
U Boat Threat Traditional law Required submarine surface Warn target to stop Send a boarding party to check papers and cargo Allow time for passengers to board life boats Germany would sink ships without checking cargo Germany agreed to not target U.S. ships Issue was Americans on belligerent nations ships Sec of State Byran wanted to tell Americans not to travel in war zones President Wilson said NO
German Submarine Warfare Germans had declared unrestricted sub warfare Lusitania is sunk – carrying 128 Americans – 1000 dead Germans say the passenger ship is carrying munitions – Brits deny Ship sinks in under 20 minutes Germans also sink the Sussex The Sussex Pledge between U.S. and Germany
The Sinking of the Lusitania
ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM Secret message from Germany to Mexico If Mexico allies with the Central Powers it could gain New Mexico, Arizona and Texas Land lost in 1848 **Telegram intercepted – Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany to “Make the World Safe for Democracy”
The Zimmerman Telegram
The YanksAre Coming!
Doughboys deploy Arrive in France in June 1917 2 million Americans will serve overseas General Pershing is given command of the American Expeditionary Force
Americans in the Trenches
The War of theIndustrial Revolution:NewTechnology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I FrancescoBarraco, It. Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br. Eddie Rickenbacher, US Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”] Rene PaukFonck, Fr. Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
Poison Gas Machine Gun
“A Street in Arras”John Singer Sargent, 1918
“Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
“Those Who Have Lost Their Names”Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
“Gassed and Wounded”Eric Kennington, 1918
“Paths of Glory”C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died