THE LA
PRESERVATION PRESERVACION
   OF DIGITAL DE LA
  TELEVISION:  TELEVISION
   Challenges, DIGITAL: Retos,
 Requirement...
Photo by chrisdlugosz via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisdlugosz/3403751594/




Digital television:
1. Born Digi...
Why is preserving digital


                            ?
television especially
CHALLENGING
Analog formats cannot wait for the cost
of uncompressed video storage to drop!
no standard
  format for
production or
  archiving
many   LARGE   files
Static Media
Viewed with the naked eye
Utilized without additional components
Very long useful life if stored properly



...
Photo by Martin Deutsch via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/teflon/2352818254/




Dynamic Media
Dependent on machines t...
Digital Media
Not tangible
Even more dependencies
More frequent obsolescence of various components
Playback requirements n...
Photo by vodstrup via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/vodstrup/1486839907/




Preservation of physical media...
Primar...
Photo by Scoobay via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/scoobay/3163954667/




Preservation of digital media
Much more th...
Preservation of
audiovisual media is
an ongoing process
There is no starting
and stopping point
No audiovisual format
will...
Photo by kino-eye via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/kino-eye/39529915/




RISK FACTORS
Bit Rot
Software
Obsolescence
 + Upgrades




               Photo by damclean via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/damclean/214...
Hardware Obsolescence
Photo by huangjiahui via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/huangjiahui/3179858408/




 Processor
Obsolescence
Storage Media Obsolescence




               Photo by Ian-S via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/ian-s/2785762687/
Photo by massdistraction via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/3718174646




                              ...
“Despite storing CD-Rs
  recorded in ideal conditions,
   tech site TechARP unboxed
 300 CDs recorded between 7
to 9 years...
Lack of METADATA
      “If a piece of program material is not
  correctly placed and identified on a digital
system, it mig...
If we didn’t know
  that footage of a
    Harvard Law
 student speaking
at a protest in 1990
 existed at WGBH,
 would our ...
But because we do
know of its existence
 in the archive, and
  because it can be
   ACCESSED,
our collective history
     ...
Lack / loss of
                organizational support
                    and resources
                                  ...
REQ
                                        UIRE
                                            MEN
                         ...
1. Bit
Preservation
Sustaining the 0s and 1s, or
ensuring that the video,
audio, and ancillary files
remain intact over tim...
2. Accessibility and
Usability of Content
Ensuring that video, audio, and ancillary files can be
found, retrieved, interpre...
3. Organizational Infrastructure
An entity (repository) explicitly responsible for keeping
the content alive and accessibl...
STRATEGIES
Redundancy
Replicated, geographically
distributed storage


                                       Offline tape storage
   ...
Photo by Niklas via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/pivic/2829376039/




Regularly audit files, repair
corrupt files wit...
Photo by TaranRampersad via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/knowprose/111119035/




               Refresh storage med...
2. Accessibility and Usability of Content


      Where is the content?       Identification & Organization
        What is...
Support current and future uses by

preserving the highest
quality version
to allow for many derivatives




             ...
Create files using
open, standardized,
non-proprietary
file formats
and codecs,
high resolution or
uncompressed, and
avoid t...
Photo by tochis via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/tochis/3431207670/

                                               ...
Photo by comicbase via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/comicbase/3338358430/




                Establish a


        ...
Photo by seriykotik1970 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/seriykotik/195406053/




                                 ...
Refer to the ISO standard OAIS (Open Archival
Information System) Reference Model

                           PRESERVATION...
Establish
                 Retention
                 Policies
                 We can’t save
                 everything
...
Establish file and folder naming
conventions & workflow procedures




Implement changes during
transition to digital produc...
Photo by gbaku via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/gbaku/2513320483/




                                              ...
pre-                                          IT
   production title
                                     backup dates    ...
Photo by jacobian via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/jacobian/2385490476/




          Technology watch
Photo by quapan via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/hinkelstone/2435823037/




Investigate cooperative
       solutions
Today, many television
         stations...
Don’t know what they have

Have incomplete or no catalogs for much of their
co...
The digital era brings great opportunity to improve
  discovery, re-use, and cost savings in production,
 plus wider acces...
Lets not risk the loss of our
collective heritage, or waste the
opportunity to take advantage
    of the digital transitio...
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Preserving Digital Television

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Talk given at the Seminario de Conservación de Obras y Documentos Sobre Soportes Electronicós in at the Centro Nacional de las Artes. More information about the program is available from the Centro Multimedia website, here: http://cmm.cenart.gob.mx/seminario09/index.html

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Preserving Digital Television

  1. 1. THE LA PRESERVATION PRESERVACION OF DIGITAL DE LA TELEVISION: TELEVISION Challenges, DIGITAL: Retos, Requirements, Requerimientos, and Strategies y Estrategias Seminario de Conservación de Kara Van Malssen Obras y Documentos Sobre New York University Soprotes Electrónicos kara.vanmalssen@nyu.edu Ciudad de México, 31 de julio 2009
  2. 2. Photo by chrisdlugosz via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisdlugosz/3403751594/ Digital television: 1. Born Digital 2. Digitized from an analog / physical source
  3. 3. Why is preserving digital ? television especially CHALLENGING
  4. 4. Analog formats cannot wait for the cost of uncompressed video storage to drop!
  5. 5. no standard format for production or archiving
  6. 6. many LARGE files
  7. 7. Static Media Viewed with the naked eye Utilized without additional components Very long useful life if stored properly Photo from the Library of Congress via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/3738806589/
  8. 8. Photo by Martin Deutsch via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/teflon/2352818254/ Dynamic Media Dependent on machines to view and utilize Media are fragile Industry changes results in format obsolescence
  9. 9. Digital Media Not tangible Even more dependencies More frequent obsolescence of various components Playback requirements not obvious More content than ever before
  10. 10. Photo by vodstrup via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/vodstrup/1486839907/ Preservation of physical media... Primarily required good storage and disaster protection
  11. 11. Photo by Scoobay via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/scoobay/3163954667/ Preservation of digital media Much more than just good storage and disaster protection
  12. 12. Preservation of audiovisual media is an ongoing process There is no starting and stopping point No audiovisual format will last forever We can’t save everything
  13. 13. Photo by kino-eye via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/kino-eye/39529915/ RISK FACTORS
  14. 14. Bit Rot
  15. 15. Software Obsolescence + Upgrades Photo by damclean via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/damclean/2143598772/
  16. 16. Hardware Obsolescence
  17. 17. Photo by huangjiahui via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/huangjiahui/3179858408/ Processor Obsolescence
  18. 18. Storage Media Obsolescence Photo by Ian-S via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/ian-s/2785762687/
  19. 19. Photo by massdistraction via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/3718174646 Storage Media Failure
  20. 20. “Despite storing CD-Rs recorded in ideal conditions, tech site TechARP unboxed 300 CDs recorded between 7 to 9 years ago, and found that they have a failure rate approaching 10 percent for the first 173 discs--the restoration is still on-going.” Paul Mah, “The Problem of Bit Rot Revisited.” FierceCIO: Tech Watch, 21 July 2009 http://www.fiercecio.com/techwatch/story/problem-cd-bit-rot-revisited/2009-07-21? utm_medium=nl&utm_source=internal
  21. 21. Lack of METADATA “If a piece of program material is not correctly placed and identified on a digital system, it might as well not be there - no one will be able to find it or even know it exists.” Cox, Tadic, Mulder. Descriptive Metadata for Television. Focal Press, 2006. p63.
  22. 22. If we didn’t know that footage of a Harvard Law student speaking at a protest in 1990 existed at WGBH, would our lives be much different?
  23. 23. But because we do know of its existence in the archive, and because it can be ACCESSED, our collective history is enriched
  24. 24. Lack / loss of organizational support and resources 22298/ 2/24017 /photos/roby7 w.fl ickr.com tp://ww Flickr ht y (C) via Photo by Rob
  25. 25. REQ UIRE MEN TS Photo by wallyg via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/2488178506/
  26. 26. 1. Bit Preservation Sustaining the 0s and 1s, or ensuring that the video, audio, and ancillary files remain intact over time with no loss or corruption of bits Photo by adrenalin via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/adrenalin/4250667/
  27. 27. 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Ensuring that video, audio, and ancillary files can be found, retrieved, interpreted, played back, and delivered to the appropriate users. Photo by Sunshine Junior via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunshinetoday168/1323387457
  28. 28. 3. Organizational Infrastructure An entity (repository) explicitly responsible for keeping the content alive and accessible. Photo by stefan1024 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/stefan1024/3682770758
  29. 29. STRATEGIES
  30. 30. Redundancy Replicated, geographically distributed storage Offline tape storage Off site Nearline tape storage In house Online Storage In house 1. Bit Preservation
  31. 31. Photo by Niklas via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/pivic/2829376039/ Regularly audit files, repair corrupt files with backups 1. Bit Preservation
  32. 32. Photo by TaranRampersad via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/knowprose/111119035/ Refresh storage media periodically 1. Bit Preservation
  33. 33. 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Where is the content? Identification & Organization What is the content? Descriptive Metadata Who made it? Descriptive Metadata Can I use it? Rights Metadata How can I display it properly? Technical & Structural Metadata How can I preserve it? Preservation Metadata Where did it come from? Source Metadata Create, update, manage, and maintain good metadata throughout the life cycle of the digital object Photo by Sunshine Junior via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunshinetoday168/1332297470
  34. 34. Support current and future uses by preserving the highest quality version to allow for many derivatives 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Preservation Version / Master Access Versions / Derivatives
  35. 35. Create files using open, standardized, non-proprietary file formats and codecs, high resolution or uncompressed, and avoid transcoding during production Proprietary or open source? Dependent on specific hardware and/or software High market saturation? Good documentation / support community? Photo by stefan1024 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/stefa 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content
  36. 36. Photo by tochis via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/tochis/3431207670/ 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Migrate to new file format when necessary
  37. 37. Photo by comicbase via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/comicbase/3338358430/ Establish a PRESERVATION And ensure sufficient funding, and staffing 3. Viable Organizational infrastructure
  38. 38. Photo by seriykotik1970 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/seriykotik/195406053/ GENERAL REFLECTIONS
  39. 39. Refer to the ISO standard OAIS (Open Archival Information System) Reference Model PRESERVATION PLANNING DESCRIPTIVE DESCRIPTIVE INFO INFO P DATA C R MANAGEMENT queries O O N D result sets S U SIP INGEST ACCESS orders U C ARCHIVAL M E E STORAGE DIP R R AIP AIP ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT
  40. 40. Establish Retention Policies We can’t save everything by Simon Evans
  41. 41. Establish file and folder naming conventions & workflow procedures Implement changes during transition to digital production and distribution workflow
  42. 42. Photo by gbaku via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/gbaku/2513320483/ Create digital content with the long term in mind Not just the immediate broadcast or distribution needs
  43. 43. pre- IT production title backup dates location location checksum errors names & roles broadcast rights broadcast legal contract details Digital Asset dates summaries Management transcripts derivatives derivatives System web format user tags stills production logs EDL IDs technical information standardize terms summary air date(s) preservation post- final title library / production archive programming
  44. 44. Photo by jacobian via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/jacobian/2385490476/ Technology watch
  45. 45. Photo by quapan via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/hinkelstone/2435823037/ Investigate cooperative solutions
  46. 46. Today, many television stations... Don’t know what they have Have incomplete or no catalogs for much of their content Lack equipment to playback much of their legacy content Do not know the © status of much of their content Cannot realize the potential of their collections!
  47. 47. The digital era brings great opportunity to improve discovery, re-use, and cost savings in production, plus wider access and interaction with audiences
  48. 48. Lets not risk the loss of our collective heritage, or waste the opportunity to take advantage of the digital transition. THANK YOU! kara.vanmalssen@nyu.edu
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