Preserving Digital Television

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Talk given at the Seminario de Conservación de Obras y Documentos Sobre Soportes Electronicós in at the Centro Nacional de las Artes. More information about the program is available from the Centro …

Talk given at the Seminario de Conservación de Obras y Documentos Sobre Soportes Electronicós in at the Centro Nacional de las Artes. More information about the program is available from the Centro Multimedia website, here: http://cmm.cenart.gob.mx/seminario09/index.html

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  • 1. THE LA PRESERVATION PRESERVACION OF DIGITAL DE LA TELEVISION: TELEVISION Challenges, DIGITAL: Retos, Requirements, Requerimientos, and Strategies y Estrategias Seminario de Conservación de Kara Van Malssen Obras y Documentos Sobre New York University Soprotes Electrónicos kara.vanmalssen@nyu.edu Ciudad de México, 31 de julio 2009
  • 2. Photo by chrisdlugosz via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisdlugosz/3403751594/ Digital television: 1. Born Digital 2. Digitized from an analog / physical source
  • 3. Why is preserving digital ? television especially CHALLENGING
  • 4. Analog formats cannot wait for the cost of uncompressed video storage to drop!
  • 5. no standard format for production or archiving
  • 6. many LARGE files
  • 7. Static Media Viewed with the naked eye Utilized without additional components Very long useful life if stored properly Photo from the Library of Congress via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/3738806589/
  • 8. Photo by Martin Deutsch via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/teflon/2352818254/ Dynamic Media Dependent on machines to view and utilize Media are fragile Industry changes results in format obsolescence
  • 9. Digital Media Not tangible Even more dependencies More frequent obsolescence of various components Playback requirements not obvious More content than ever before
  • 10. Photo by vodstrup via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/vodstrup/1486839907/ Preservation of physical media... Primarily required good storage and disaster protection
  • 11. Photo by Scoobay via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/scoobay/3163954667/ Preservation of digital media Much more than just good storage and disaster protection
  • 12. Preservation of audiovisual media is an ongoing process There is no starting and stopping point No audiovisual format will last forever We can’t save everything
  • 13. Photo by kino-eye via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/kino-eye/39529915/ RISK FACTORS
  • 14. Bit Rot
  • 15. Software Obsolescence + Upgrades Photo by damclean via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/damclean/2143598772/
  • 16. Hardware Obsolescence
  • 17. Photo by huangjiahui via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/huangjiahui/3179858408/ Processor Obsolescence
  • 18. Storage Media Obsolescence Photo by Ian-S via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/ian-s/2785762687/
  • 19. Photo by massdistraction via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/3718174646 Storage Media Failure
  • 20. “Despite storing CD-Rs recorded in ideal conditions, tech site TechARP unboxed 300 CDs recorded between 7 to 9 years ago, and found that they have a failure rate approaching 10 percent for the first 173 discs--the restoration is still on-going.” Paul Mah, “The Problem of Bit Rot Revisited.” FierceCIO: Tech Watch, 21 July 2009 http://www.fiercecio.com/techwatch/story/problem-cd-bit-rot-revisited/2009-07-21? utm_medium=nl&utm_source=internal
  • 21. Lack of METADATA “If a piece of program material is not correctly placed and identified on a digital system, it might as well not be there - no one will be able to find it or even know it exists.” Cox, Tadic, Mulder. Descriptive Metadata for Television. Focal Press, 2006. p63.
  • 22. If we didn’t know that footage of a Harvard Law student speaking at a protest in 1990 existed at WGBH, would our lives be much different?
  • 23. But because we do know of its existence in the archive, and because it can be ACCESSED, our collective history is enriched
  • 24. Lack / loss of organizational support and resources 22298/ 2/24017 /photos/roby7 w.fl ickr.com tp://ww Flickr ht y (C) via Photo by Rob
  • 25. REQ UIRE MEN TS Photo by wallyg via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/2488178506/
  • 26. 1. Bit Preservation Sustaining the 0s and 1s, or ensuring that the video, audio, and ancillary files remain intact over time with no loss or corruption of bits Photo by adrenalin via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/adrenalin/4250667/
  • 27. 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Ensuring that video, audio, and ancillary files can be found, retrieved, interpreted, played back, and delivered to the appropriate users. Photo by Sunshine Junior via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunshinetoday168/1323387457
  • 28. 3. Organizational Infrastructure An entity (repository) explicitly responsible for keeping the content alive and accessible. Photo by stefan1024 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/stefan1024/3682770758
  • 29. STRATEGIES
  • 30. Redundancy Replicated, geographically distributed storage Offline tape storage Off site Nearline tape storage In house Online Storage In house 1. Bit Preservation
  • 31. Photo by Niklas via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/pivic/2829376039/ Regularly audit files, repair corrupt files with backups 1. Bit Preservation
  • 32. Photo by TaranRampersad via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/knowprose/111119035/ Refresh storage media periodically 1. Bit Preservation
  • 33. 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Where is the content? Identification & Organization What is the content? Descriptive Metadata Who made it? Descriptive Metadata Can I use it? Rights Metadata How can I display it properly? Technical & Structural Metadata How can I preserve it? Preservation Metadata Where did it come from? Source Metadata Create, update, manage, and maintain good metadata throughout the life cycle of the digital object Photo by Sunshine Junior via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunshinetoday168/1332297470
  • 34. Support current and future uses by preserving the highest quality version to allow for many derivatives 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Preservation Version / Master Access Versions / Derivatives
  • 35. Create files using open, standardized, non-proprietary file formats and codecs, high resolution or uncompressed, and avoid transcoding during production Proprietary or open source? Dependent on specific hardware and/or software High market saturation? Good documentation / support community? Photo by stefan1024 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/stefa 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content
  • 36. Photo by tochis via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/tochis/3431207670/ 2. Accessibility and Usability of Content Migrate to new file format when necessary
  • 37. Photo by comicbase via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/comicbase/3338358430/ Establish a PRESERVATION And ensure sufficient funding, and staffing 3. Viable Organizational infrastructure
  • 38. Photo by seriykotik1970 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/seriykotik/195406053/ GENERAL REFLECTIONS
  • 39. Refer to the ISO standard OAIS (Open Archival Information System) Reference Model PRESERVATION PLANNING DESCRIPTIVE DESCRIPTIVE INFO INFO P DATA C R MANAGEMENT queries O O N D result sets S U SIP INGEST ACCESS orders U C ARCHIVAL M E E STORAGE DIP R R AIP AIP ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT
  • 40. Establish Retention Policies We can’t save everything by Simon Evans
  • 41. Establish file and folder naming conventions & workflow procedures Implement changes during transition to digital production and distribution workflow
  • 42. Photo by gbaku via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/gbaku/2513320483/ Create digital content with the long term in mind Not just the immediate broadcast or distribution needs
  • 43. pre- IT production title backup dates location location checksum errors names & roles broadcast rights broadcast legal contract details Digital Asset dates summaries Management transcripts derivatives derivatives System web format user tags stills production logs EDL IDs technical information standardize terms summary air date(s) preservation post- final title library / production archive programming
  • 44. Photo by jacobian via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/jacobian/2385490476/ Technology watch
  • 45. Photo by quapan via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/hinkelstone/2435823037/ Investigate cooperative solutions
  • 46. Today, many television stations... Don’t know what they have Have incomplete or no catalogs for much of their content Lack equipment to playback much of their legacy content Do not know the © status of much of their content Cannot realize the potential of their collections!
  • 47. The digital era brings great opportunity to improve discovery, re-use, and cost savings in production, plus wider access and interaction with audiences
  • 48. Lets not risk the loss of our collective heritage, or waste the opportunity to take advantage of the digital transition. THANK YOU! kara.vanmalssen@nyu.edu