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Planning Beyond Digitization: Digital Preservation for Audiovisual Collections

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The Real Thing, 17 November 2010.

The Real Thing, 17 November 2010.

Published in: Technology, Education

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  • 1. PLANNING BEYOND DIGITIZATION Kara Van Malssen AMERICAN ARCHIVE / Broadway Video Digital Media kvanmalssen@broadwayvideo.com DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF AUDIOVISUAL COLLECTIONS The Real Thing 17 November 2010
  • 2. Photo by chrisdlugosz via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisdlugosz/3403751594/ Digital AV Media:1. Born Digital 2. Digitized from an analog / physical source
  • 3. a lot more born- digital! Digital Universe 2010 = 1.2 zetabytes (1 billion terabytes)
  • 4. Why is preserving digital audiovisual content CHALLENGING?
  • 5. Photo from the Library of Congress via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/3738806589/ Static Media Viewed with the naked eye Utilized without additional components Very long useful life if stored properly
  • 6. Magnetic Media Dependent on machines to view and utilize Media are fragile Industry changes results in format obsolescence Photo by Martin Deutsch via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/teflon/2352818254/
  • 7. Digital Media Not tangible Even more dependencies More frequent obsolescence of various components Playback requirements not obvious More content than ever before
  • 8. VIDEO: no standard format for production or archiving
  • 9. many LARGEfiles
  • 10. Analog formats cannot wait!
  • 11. “There is simply not enough equipment to play them all back.” “the small population of decks make it mathematically improbable that a great deal of this work can ever be transferred - there is simply not enough equipment to do it - at any price.” “We have lost the chance to save it all - now we must move quickly to identify and save what is critical.”   -Jim Lindner,“End of Quad and One Inch” Discussion on AMIA-L, 21 May 2009
  • 12. Preservation of physical media... Primarily required good storage and disaster protection Photo by vodstrup via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/vodstrup/1486839907/
  • 13. Photo by Scoobay via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/scoobay/3163954667/ Preservation of digital media Much more than just good storage and disaster protection
  • 14. Value creation for today’s users
  • 15. RISK FACTORS Photo by kino-eye via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/kino-eye/39529915/
  • 16. Bit Rot
  • 17. Photo by damclean via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/damclean/2143598772/ Software Obsolescence + Upgrades
  • 18. Hardware Obsolescence
  • 19. Processor Obsolescence Photo by huangjiahui via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/huangjiahui/3179858408/
  • 20. Storage Media Obsolescence Photo by Ian-S via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/ian-s/2785762687/
  • 21. Storage Media Failure Photo by massdistraction via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/3718174646
  • 22. Despite storing CD-Rs recorded in ideal conditions, tech site TechARP unboxed 300 CDs recorded between 7 to 9 years ago, and found that they have a failure rate approaching 10 percent for the first 173 discs--the restoration is still on-going. Paul Mah, “The Problem of Bit Rot Revisited.” FierceCIO: Tech Watch, 21 July 2009 http://www.fiercecio.com/techwatch/story/problem-cd-bit-rot-revisited/2009-07-21? utm_medium=nl&utm_source=internal “ ”
  • 23. Lack of METADATA “If a piece of program material is not correctly placed and identified on a digital system, it might as well not be there - no one will be able to find it or even know it exists.” Cox, Tadic, Mulder. Descriptive Metadata for Television. Focal Press, 2006. p63.
  • 24. Photo by Roby (C) via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/roby72/2401722298/ Lack / loss of organizational support and resources
  • 25. Photo by wallyg via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/2488178506/ REQUIREMENTS
  • 26. 1. BIT PRESERVATION Sustaining the 0s and 1s, or ensuring that the video, audio, and ancillary files remain intact over time with no loss or corruption of bits Photo by adrenalin via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/adrenalin/4250667/
  • 27. 2. ACCESIBILITY AND USABILITY OF CONTENT Ensuring that video, audio, and ancillary files can be found, retrieved, interpreted, played back, and delivered to the appropriate users. Photo by Sunshine Junior via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/sunshinetoday168/1323387457
  • 28. 3. ORGANIZATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE An entity (repository) explicitly responsible for keeping the content alive and accessible. Photo by stefan1024 via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/stefan1024/3682770758
  • 29. Authenticity Requirements “The archive accomplishes [preservation and access] by taking ownership of the records, ensuring that they are understandable to the accessing community, and managing them so as to preserve their information content and authenticity.” - OAIS B6.10 Repository enables the dissemination of authentic copies of the original or objects traceable to originals. - Trustworthy Repositories Audit and Certification “Authentication, or the demonstration of authenticity...includes both technical and procedural aspects. Technical approaches may include the maintenance of detailed documentation of digital provenance (the history of the object), the preservation of a version of the object that is, bit-wise, identical to the content as submitted” - PREMIS
  • 30. STRATEGIES
  • 31. efficiency costs authenticity
  • 32. Refer to the ISO standard OAIS (Open Archival Information System) Reference Model P R O D U C E R C O N S U M E R MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION ACCESSINGEST PRESERVATION PLANNING SIP AIP DIP DATA MANAGEMENT ARCHIVAL STORAGE AIP DESCRIPTIVE INFO DESCRIPTIVE INFO queries result sets orders
  • 33. INGESTSIP Brings content into the repository
  • 34. INGEST STRATEGY Establish Submission Information Package (SIP) requirements essence + metadata
  • 35. Limit formats accepted use LOC sustainability criteria http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/
  • 36. Descriptive Technical Digital Provenance Rights
  • 37. ARCHIVAL STORAGEAIP Manages storage & backups, integrity, security
  • 38. ARCHIVAL STORAGE STRATEGY Establish AIP requirements using metadata standards METS amdSec fileSec structMap dmdSec techMD rightsMD HD Broadcast Master (mov/data) SD Broadcast Master (mov/aiff/ m2v) Production Master (mxf)
  • 39. ARCHIVAL STORAGE STRATEGY Regularly audit files, repair corrupt files with backups by oosp via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/mhl20/4197661773/
  • 40. Results of data corruption, from “Digital Preservation Strategies for AV Content” M. Addis, R. Wright, R. Weerakkody (IBC 2010)
  • 41. DATA MANAGEMENT DESCRIPTIVE INFO Administers database about repository holdings
  • 42. Where is the content? What is the content? Who made it? Can I use it? How can I display it properly? How can I preserve it? Where did it come from? Identification & Organization Descriptive Metadata Descriptive Metadata Rights Metadata Technical & Structural Metadata Preservation Metadata Source Metadata Create, update, manage, and maintain good metadata throughout the life cycle of the digital object DATA MANAGEMENT STRATEGY by cirox via flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/cirox/2217372790/
  • 43. ACCESS DIP Facilitates requests to archival storage and data management, generates Dissemination Information Packages, delivers information in the appropriate format to users.
  • 44. ACCESS STRATEGY Meeting users needs http://www.flickr.com/photos/myradphotos/4337804/ by Tom Rafferty via flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/traftery/4311797662/
  • 45. PRESERVATION PLANNING responsible for planning, reviewing, and updating the repository’s preservation strategy
  • 46. PRESERVATION PLANNING STRATEGY Technology watch Photo by jacobian via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/jacobian/2385490476/
  • 47. ADMINISTRATION Oversees the operation of the system
  • 48. ADMINISTRATION STRATEGY Self Assessment or Certification on Digital Object Management, Technological Infrastructure, and Governance & Organizational Viability
  • 49. Implementation of the repository depends on the services to be provided to the producer/customer
  • 50. by future15pic via Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/future15/2036935569/ CASE STUDIES
  • 51. PBS Library of Congress NYU WNET WGBH SIP site Repository NDIIPP - PRESERVING DIGITAL PUBLIC TELEVISION
  • 52. AMERICANARCHIVE
  • 53. MUSEUM OF MODERN ART Digital Repository for Museum Collections
  • 54. THANK YOU! kara.vanmalssen@broadwayvideo.com