Master’s Thesis
FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT AT
SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH: THE COMPARATIVE
STUDYOF ...
Title of the
Master’s Thesis
FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT AT
SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH: THE COMPARA...
of semi-structured interviews were conducted in the written as well as recorded forms with
every single stakeholder. Furth...
Acknowledgement
Though it would be difficult to recognize all persons who have contributed to this study, the
author wishe...
Dedication
To be honest, I would like to offer my piece of work to my beloved parents for their
patience, support, and enc...
Table of Contents
Contents…………………………………………………………………………………. .page
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………...i
Acknowledgem...
1.9 O rganizat ion o f t he t hes is……… ..…….………………………………...8
Cha pte r Two: Lite rature re vie w …………………………………………. 9
2.1R...
4.5 Community members’ opinions ……………………………………………………. .129
4.6 Upazilla education officer’s opinion…………………………………………………...1...
List of Tables
Table 2.3.1 Number of Secondary Schools, Teachers and Enrolment 1995-2009……….14
Table-2.5.1 Lesson content ...
List of Figures
Figure 1.6 Conceptual framework…………………………………………………………….6
Figure 2.3.1 Education expenditure in total budge...
Figure 4.1.15 Participatory method …………………………………………………………45
Figure 4.2.1 Factors for low English achievement (English teac...
Figure 4.3.4 Contribution of modern technology …………………………………………...84
Figure 4.3.5 Recommendation to boost English learning...
Figure 4.4.8 English skill among all subject………………………………………………...114
Figure 4.4.9 Environmental contribution……………………………………...
Figure 4.5.12 School supervision……………………………………………………………141
Figure 4.5.13 Involvement as volunteer…………………………………………………….142
...
Figure 4.7.1Academic qualification of English teachers………………………… ……….164
Figure 4.7.2 Number of English class conducted by...
List of Acronyms
BANBEIS: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics
BD: Bangladesh
DEO: District Educati...
1
Chapter One
Introduction
1.1 Background of the study :
The present structure of the formal education in Bangladesh can b...
2
policies. In this regard, the language gains no constitutional recognition. There is a
disagreement between what curricu...
3
there needs to be a large sample size to understand the students’ English achievement at the
secondary level in Banglade...
4
School Certificate ) and H.S.C ( Higher Secondary School Certificate) have been amongest
the lowest score compared with ...
5
The results of this study can be used for a variety of purposes. Principally, it will help
teacher-trainers, educational...
6
1.6. Conceptual framework
1.7 ResearchMethod
In order to get broad information from two territorial jurisdictions; in Bh...
7
schools follow unique educational systems, identical curriculums, similar textbooks and so on.
Moreover, students are si...
8
Also, there were 32 teacher samples for this research. This number could be increased to
make the findings of the study ...
9
Chapter Two
Literature Review
2.1 Review of the Relevant Literature
The author has tried to make an intensive review of ...
10
Another survey shows that the trained teachers are more efficient than non-trained
teachers at the secondary level of t...
11
situations, and teacher’s skill, and personalities are instrumental in creating the conditions for
learning a language....
12
instruction in the higher educational institutions, mode of communication beyond the country,
Supreme Court language, a...
13
( a ) Pre-primary, ( b) Primary, ( c) Secondary, ( d) Higher Secondary, ( e) Undergraduate
and ( f) Graduate. After com...
14
declaration at the World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtein, Thailand, 1990.
Success of Bangladesh in prim...
15
2002 16562 186949 31311 16.75 8162134 4360778 53.43
2003 17386 206557 39580 19.16 8126362 4322568 53.19
2004 18267 2146...
16
mention as to the status of English. Alongside Bangla, the constitution is, however, written
in English as the clause 2...
17
below:
Table-2.5.1 Lesson content of English subject text book for Grade ix and x
Unit Lesson/ Topic
1 Hello and welcom...
18
11 Day in day out
12 Sparkling stars
13 Believe it or not
14 Buildings and monuments
15 Getting organized
16 Let’s enjo...
19
the teachers and the textbook writers through any orientation. For instance government did
not arrange any proper train...
20
Chapter Three
Methodology
This chapter depicts the research setting, practical issues, along with research participatio...
21
in terms of socio-economic aspects. Urban area usually enjoys the comparative advantages, in
terms of education, commun...
22
Research Area
Two Districts:
Narayanganj
and Bhola
5
3.2 The study sampling and instrumentations
Table 3.2.1 Descriptio...
23
4 Schools 4 Schools 8 Schools
Questionnaire
and interview
164 Students
Grade 10
164 students
Grade 10
328 students
Ques...
24
Officers. The interviews allowed the privilege of asking follow-up questions and opinions and
views. The interviews wer...
25
has special livelihood groups’ i.e. marine fishers, salt farmers and so on. Also, it has special
disadvantaged groups, ...
26
Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze
the numerical interview data. I...
27
S4 said, ‘‘teachers are teaching in traditional method, a lagging behind from the source where
students can meet with E...
28
Motivation: The motivation to learn English are summarized as instrumental and
integrative aspects. Learners sometimes ...
29
‘‘ students should be motivated positively to learn English to serve the nation’’.
The result showed that 76 % of the s...
30
In Narayanganj pupils were questioned on the same issue to get an idea from them. One of
the respondents (S1) said, ‘‘t...
31
articulated, ‘‘ I think modern technology is very essential because students can learn more
about English by modern mac...
32
Recommendations: Students from both the regions were asked to recommend how to
increase the English achievement. One of...
33
other hand, the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the
respondents recommended the necessi...
34
be given the conducive environment, as the present environment is chaotic ’’. S4 told, ‘‘ We
cannot listen from our tea...
35
English teachers’ skill: Students in Bhola and in Narayanganj were questioned about the
required skills for the English...
36
of the students’’. S5 said, ‘‘The English teacher should be active and friendly attitude to
increase students’English a...
37
international language. It is important because we can communicate all over the world by
using of it’’. S3 mentioned, ‘...
38
Figure 4.1.9 Environnemental contribution
Environment : How much environment contributes fueling to achieve English was...
39
environment. So, environment is useful and can contributes to fueling English’’.
Environmental aspects can play an impo...
40
Narayanganj said, ‘‘ In my view, it is easy to get access and implement to do anything’. S2
said, ‘‘ English is a globa...
41
Nonetheless, one of the students in Narayanganj said, ‘‘Every day, I spend one hour for
English study in the morning ti...
42
Number of English books: The question asked to the students for an indication whether
they are having enough English re...
43
English. Accordingly, they kept collecting and studying more English book than their
counterpart in the Bhola.
Figure 4...
44
teachers were their first helping hand in both the zones.
Figure 4.1.14 Future plan
Future plan: The next question was ...
45
Participatory method: The next question asked for an indication of whether a participatory
method has an advantageous e...
46
Table 4.1.21 Comparison (Students opinion)
Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj
Factors Lack of Practice
And lack of engli...
47
skill is required
for English teacher
Proper knowledge (27%) Proper knowledge (31%)
Importance Higher study 47%
Interna...
48
Participatory gain Yes (67 %),No (33%) Yes (89 %),No (11%)
Wrap-up:
Research results showed that lack of practice with ...
49
people in Narayanganj are engaged in white collar-jobs. Besides, the family sizes in
Narayanganj are smaller compared t...
50
It is found that the demand for modern technology is very high in both areas. But, it is
highest in the rural area. Thi...
51
their mother language for pursuing under graduation or graduation . As a result, a result,
English becomes the most imp...
52
Finding on the English books along with text book and assistance of the students
learning English also supports the oth...
53
4 .2 English Teachers’ opinions:
The author interviewed 32 English teachers from both the regions.
Figure 4.2.1 Factors...
54
Teachers in Bhola were asked question to answer on factors for students’ low English
achievement. One of the English te...
55
in good English.
Figure 4.2.2 Motivation
Motivation: The motivation to learn English is summarized as instrumental and ...
56
position’’. T3 said, ‘‘ They should be motivated to be a full man ’’.
The result was very consistent with the findings ...
57
effective. Because, the offered courses are not taught properly and perfectly everywhere in our
country.If this is poss...
58
Modern technology : Teachers hailed from Bhola were asked about the contribution of
modern technology. One of the respo...
59
Figure 4.2.5 Recommendation to increase English learning
Recommendations: Teachers from Bhola were asked about the reco...
60
other courses should be implemented strictly and immediately 2. Government should engage
more English teachers in teach...
61
Government assistance: English teachers in both areas were asked to reply about different
kinds of assistance from the ...
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  1. 1. Master’s Thesis FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH: THE COMPARATIVE STUDYOF NARAYANGANJ AND BHOLA SADAR UPAZILLA M102291 AZAM MD. GOLAM Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation Hiroshima University September 2012
  2. 2. Title of the Master’s Thesis FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH: THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NARAYANGANJ AND BHOLA SADAR UPAZILLA Student ID Number M102291 Name of the Student Azam Md. Golam Main Academic Advisor Assoc. Prof. Kusakabe Tatsuya ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to explore the factors affecting students’ English achievement at the secondary level in Narayanganj and in Bhola of Bangladesh. To identify these factors, data was collected from both primary and secondary sources; first-hand evidence was assembled from the 10th grade secondary school students, English teachers, principals, guardians, community members and Upazilla Education Officers in the Southeastern part of country, Narayanganj Sadar Upazilla (sub-urban area) and Southern part of the country, Bhola Sadar Upazilla (rural part), following different research instruments such as observations, questionnaires and interviews. Eight secondary-level schools were chosen purposefully for collecting the oral and documentary evidence from two regions. Between the two areas, Narayanganj Sadar is one of the industrial areas in the country, near the capital city of Dhaka. On the other hand, Bhola Sadar is one of the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Also 75 % of the county’s population resides in Bhola. Secondary data was collected by reviewing closely linked existing literatures as well as websites and other written documents. A number
  3. 3. of semi-structured interviews were conducted in the written as well as recorded forms with every single stakeholder. Furthermore, a survey in the form of a questionnaire was conducted in a total of 8 schools, having distributed questionnaires on the random basis only among the students, English teachers and school principals during the study time, September-October, 2011. Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numeric interview data. The major findings of the study indicated that: in the case of English achievement, students in Bhola are weaker than the students in Narayanganj. In Bhola, they need trained English teachers and in Narayanganj, teachers expect a lower student to teacher ratio. It was revealed that 75% of English Teachers in Narayanganj also have more than 10 classes every week of English lessons while 50% in Bhola conducted less than 10 classes per week. They do not have adequate teaching-learning materials and aids, standard salary and social status, in particular. In Bhola, teachers factors and in Narayanganj school factors affecting students’ English achievement. It was recommended that each school, public and private, should appoint at least a couple of English teachers who are capable enough to teach English to all secondary-level students meticulously; reasonable teacher-student ratio should be 1:35. Tutors salaries and status should also be enhanced. Government and other stakeholders should give emphasis to providing need based support in Bhola to increase the English achievement of the secondary level. Key words: English achievement, qualitative data, lack of trained teachers, large student sizes. ii
  4. 4. Acknowledgement Though it would be difficult to recognize all persons who have contributed to this study, the author wishes to take this opportunity to express appreciation for , and acknowledge assistance from many people whose time, efforts, and cooperation have made possible the completion of this study within the allotted time. Professor Kusakabe Tatsuya, major advisor, has rendered invaluable assistance, guidance and encouragement throughout the entire line up. Professor Yoshida Kazuhiro and Professor Baba Takuya, academic advisors have been especially helpful for gathering scholastic guidance, need based information and have raised important questions, and given encouragement throughout. The author is indebted to Mr Sheikh Farid for his ceaseless cooperation and fueling ideas. Appreciation is extended to Mr. Nazmul Ahsan and Mr. Masumur Rahman for assistance with the research design and other aspects of the study. The author is grateful to the Deputy Commissioner of Bhola and Narayanganj, school principals, English subject teachers in various schools, guardians, community members, students and Upazilla Education Officers from which the evidence was obtained. For proof-reading of the manuscript, recognition is extended to Mr. Julian N. Branch, hailed from U.S and Mr. Omar Ejaz hailed from U.K. iii
  5. 5. Dedication To be honest, I would like to offer my piece of work to my beloved parents for their patience, support, and encouragement; without their cooperation it would not have been possible to complete the study. There is no disbelief in my brain that without their ceaseless support and bonafide attitude I could not have worked and finished this schoolwork. I am happy to present my development by this application even though the reality that I have been living far away from them. I also confer this piece of work to my former colleagues in Bangladesh, without whose hold up, responsiveness and regard, it would not have been up-and-coming to stay in Japan for two years and achieve the target. iv
  6. 6. Table of Contents Contents…………………………………………………………………………………. .page Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………...i Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………….…… iii Dedication............................................................................................................................iv Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………… v List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………vii List of Figures…………………………………………………………………..………viii List of Acronyms………………………………………………………………….xiii Chapter One: Introduction ………………………………………………………….1 1.1 Background of the Study ………………………………………………………......1 1.2 Problem Statement…………….…………………………………………………….3 1.3 Objective of the Study …… …..………………………………………………….....4 1.4 Significance of the Study……..…...………………………………………………4 1.5 Research Questions ………………...………………………………………………..5 1.6 Conceptual frame work……………………………………………………………...6 1.7 Research Method…………………………………………………………………..…6 1.8 Limitations…………..……….……….…………………………………..…………..7 v
  7. 7. 1.9 O rganizat ion o f t he t hes is……… ..…….………………………………...8 Cha pte r Two: Lite rature re vie w …………………………………………. 9 2.1Review of relevant literature ....................................................................... 9 2.2. Education system of Bangladesh………………………………………...12 2.3 Education for All ( EFA)………………………………………………….13 2.4 The state and status of English in Ba ngladesh ……………………..15 2.5 Lesson content of English subject text book for grade ix and x….16 2.6 Curriculum analys is of English …………………………………………..18 Chapter Three: Methodology……………………………………………………………20 3.1 Research design……………………………………………………………. 20 3.1.1 Study site………………………………………………………………… 20 3.2 The study sampling and instrumentations………………………………… .22 3.2.3 Imple mentat ion…………………………………………………………….23 3.3 Description about Bhola and Narayanganj sadar upazilla…………………...24 Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Interpretation………………………………………25 4.1 Aggregate analysis of the students’ opinion………………………………….25 4.2 English teachers opinion…………………………………………………… .54 4.3 School Principals opinion……………………………………………………..81 4.4 Guardians’ opinion……………………………………………………………106 vi
  8. 8. 4.5 Community members’ opinions ……………………………………………………. .129 4.6 Upazilla education officer’s opinion…………………………………………………...150 4.7 Questionnaires: Information about English teachers…………………………………....164 4.7.7 Questionnaires: Information about Students……………………………………….....167 4.7.14 Questionnaires: Information about School principals……………………………….172 4.8 Class observation………………………………………………………………………..174 Chapter Five Discussion and Policy recommendations……………………………………179 5.1 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………..179 5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..186 5.3 Policy recommendations ……………………………………………………………….189 5.4 Further Study …………………………………………………………………………...191 References ……………………………………………………………………………….192 Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………193 Appendix 1 : Interview Questions for stakeholders ……………………………………….194 Appendix 2 : Questionnaires for Students………………………………………………..…196 Appendix 3: Questionnaires for English teachers ……………..............................................196 Appendix 4 : Questionnaires for school principals …………...............................................197 vii
  9. 9. List of Tables Table 2.3.1 Number of Secondary Schools, Teachers and Enrolment 1995-2009……….14 Table-2.5.1 Lesson content of English subject text book for Grade ix and x…...................17 Table 3.2.1 Description of the sample and instrumentation……………………………….22 Table 4.1.21 Comparison (students)………………………………………………………46 Table 4.2.21 Comparison (English teachers) ……………………………………………..74 Table 4.3.21 Comparison (school principals)……………………………………………..96 Table 4.4.21 Comparison (guardians) .……………………………………………………121 Table 4.5.21 Comparison (community member)……………………………………………144 Table 4.6.21 Comparison (education officer)………………………………………………160 Table- 4.8.1 Classroom environment of the schools……………………………………….174 Table- 4.8.2 Teaching method followed by the English teacher in the schools…………….176 Table-4.8.3 practicing four incorporated skills in the classroom……………………………177 Table-4.8.4Teaching aids and teaching materials……………………………………...……177 viii
  10. 10. List of Figures Figure 1.6 Conceptual framework…………………………………………………………….6 Figure 2.3.1 Education expenditure in total budget of Bangladesh………………………......15 Figure : 3.1.2 Map of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh screening location of two research areas ……………………………………………………………….. ………………………..21 Figure4.1.1 Factors for low English achievement( students) …………………………… ..26 Figure 4.1.2 Motivation ……………………………………………………………………...27 Figure 4.1.3 Opinion about present course …………………………………………………..29 Figure 4.1.4 Contribution of modern technology ……………………………………………30 Figure 4.1.5 Recommendations to boost up English learning………………………………..31 Figure 4.1.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………….33 Figure 4.1.7 Skills for English teacher……………………………………………………..…34 Figure 4.1.8 Importance’s of English skill among all subjects……………………………….36 Figure 4.1.9 Environmental contribution …………………………………………………….38 Figure 4.1.10 Indication on English subject comparing to other subject…………………….39 Figure 4.1.11 Study hour on English subject…………………………………………………41 Figure 4.1.12 Number of English books ……………………………………………………..42 Figure 4.1.13 Helping hand…………………………………………………………………..43 Figure 4.1.14 Future plan …………………………………………………………………….44 ix
  11. 11. Figure 4.1.15 Participatory method …………………………………………………………45 Figure 4.2.1 Factors for low English achievement (English teacher)……………………....54 Figure 4.2.2 Motivation ……………………………………………………………………...55 Figure 4.2.3 Present courses ………………………………………………………………....57 Figure 4.2.4 Contribution of modern technology………………………………………….…58 Figure 4.2.5 Recommendation to boost English learning…………………………………….59 Figure 4.2.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………….61 Figure 4.2.7 Required English skill for English teacher……………………………………...63 Figure 4.2.8 Importance of English skill among all subject………………………………….65 Figure 4.2.9 English education environment ………………………………………………...66 Figure 4.2.10 Teaching plan ………………………………………………………………….68 Figure 4.2.11 Teachers’ strategy…………………………………………………………...69 Figure 4.2.12 Class room leadership…… ………………………………………………….71 Figure 4.2.13Assistance from principal ……………………………………………………..71 Figure 4.2.14 English language club………………………………………………………....73 Figure 4.2.15 Pair work ……………………………………………………………………...74 Figure 4.3.1 Factors for low English achievement (school principal)……………………..81 Figure 4.3.2 Motivation……………………………………………………………………..82 Figure 4.3.3 Present courses ……………………….……………………………………… 83 x
  12. 12. Figure 4.3.4 Contribution of modern technology …………………………………………...84 Figure 4.3.5 Recommendation to boost English learning……………………………….…..85 Figure 4.3.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………....87 Figure 4.3.7 Required of English skill for English teacher………………………………….88 Figure 4.3.8 Importance of English skill among all subject ………………………………..90 Figure 4.3.9 English education environment …………………………………………….....91 Figure 4.3.10 Supervision of English class by Head teacher………………………………..93 Figure 4.3.11 Parental education and income……………………………………………….93 Figure 4.3.12 Criteria to evaluate English subject teacher………………………………….94 Figure 4.3.13 In service training to English teachers……………………………………….95 Figure 4.3.14 Effect of location of school…………………………………………………..95 Figure 4.3.15 Strategy to improve English learning………………………………………...96 Figure 4.4.1Factors for low English achievement (Guardians)…………………………....106 Figure 4.4.2 Motivation……………………………………………………………………..107 Figure 4.4.3 Present course………………………………………………………………….108 Figure 4.4.4 Contribution of modern technology …………………………………………..109 Figure 4.4.5 Recommendation to boost English learning…………………………………...110 Figure 4.4.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………...111 Figure 4.4.7 Required English skill for English teacher…………………………………….113 xi
  13. 13. Figure 4.4.8 English skill among all subject………………………………………………...114 Figure 4.4.9 Environmental contribution…………………………………………………..115 Figure 4.4.10 Approach to learn English…………………………………………………....116 Figure 4.4.11 English class supervision…………………………………………………..…117 Figure 4.4.12 Extra class and home work…………………………………………………...118 Figure 4.4.13 Participation of school meeting …….……………………………………......119 Figure 4.4.14 English teacher use teaching material………………………………………..120 Figure 4.4.15 Family education and income………………………………………………121 Figure 4.5.1 Factors for low English achievement (Community member) ……………..129 Figure 4.5.2 Motivation………………………………………………………………….…130 Figure 4.5.3 Offered course………………………………………………………………...131 Figure 4.5.4 Contribution of modern technology ………………………………………….132 Figure 4.5.5 Recommendation ……………………………………………………… …133 Figure 4.5.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………134 Figure 4.5.7 English skill for English teacher …………………………………………..135 Figure 4.5.8 English skill among all subject ………………………………………………137 Figure 4.5.9 Environmental contribution……….…………………………………………138 Figure 4.5.10 Contribution of political promise…………………………………………….139 Figure 4.5.11 Class room management role………………………………………………...140 xii
  14. 14. Figure 4.5.12 School supervision……………………………………………………………141 Figure 4.5.13 Involvement as volunteer…………………………………………………….142 Figure 4.5.14 Interaction with English teacher……………………………………………..143 Figure 4.5.15 Teachers’ salary ………………………………………………………………144 Figure 4.6.1 Factors for low English achievement ( Education officer )…………………....150 Figure 4.6.2 Motivation……………………………………………………………………..151 Figure 4.6.3 Offered course………………………………………………………………..152 Figure 4.6.4 Contribution of modern technology………………………………………….152 Figure 4.6.5 Recommendation to boost up English learning………………………………153 Figure 4.6.6 Government assistance……………………………………………………….153 Figure 4.6.7 Skill for English teacher………………………………………………………154 Figure 4.6.8 Importance among all subjects……………………………………………….155 Figure 4.6.9 Environmental contribution………………………………………………….156 Figure 4.6.10 Possible change of English syllabus…………………………………………156 Figure 4.6.11 School Supervision…………………………………………………………...157 Figure 4.6.12 Local need of English………………………………………………………...158 Figure 4.6.13 Teachers’ dissatisfaction……………………………………………………...158 Figure 4.6.14 English learning beyond class……………………………………………….159 Figure 4.6.15 Purpose of English learning………………………………………………….160 xiii
  15. 15. Figure 4.7.1Academic qualification of English teachers………………………… ……….164 Figure 4.7.2 Number of English class conducted by English teachers per week…………..165 Figure 4.7.3 In-service training received by English teacher………………………………165 Figure 4.7.4 Number of English teacher……………………………………………………166 Figure 4.7.5 Gender wise English teachers…………………………………………. …….166 Figure 4.7.6 Age composition of English teachers………………………………….. …….167 Figure 4.7.7 Size of family members……………………………………………………….168 Figure 4.7.8 Students’ English achievement in the 10th grade in both regions……………..168 Figure 4.7.9 Students’ favorite subject……………………………………………………...169 Figure 4.7.10 Findings from both regions…………………………………………………..170 Figure 4.7.12 Use of modern technology …………………………………………………171 Figure 4.7.13 Library facilities in schools…………………………………………………171 Figure 4.7.14 Principal as English teacher…………………………………………...…..172 Figure 4.7.15 School type………………………………………………………………..172 Figure 4.7.16 Status of schools ………………………………………………………….173 xiv
  16. 16. List of Acronyms BANBEIS: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics BD: Bangladesh DEO: District Education Officer EFA: Education for all MOE: Ministry of Education UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Xv
  17. 17. 1 Chapter One Introduction 1.1 Background of the study : The present structure of the formal education in Bangladesh can be divided into six stages: the primary school is 5 years, junior secondary school is 3 years, secondary school is 2 years, higher secondary school is 2 years, undergraduate school is 4 years and graduate school is 1 year. Generally, the medium of instruction in the educational institutions in Bangladesh is Bangla for all subjects except English. This study has aimed to identify the possible factors that have impacts on the English achievement of students at the secondary level in Bangladesh. It is generally agreed that the ability of our learners in English classes, especially at the secondary level, is not satisfactory, due to some underlying factors. On this issue, Das (1998:02) remarks the state of learning and teaching English in Bangladesh is quite miserable. Furthermore, Hasan (2005) discovers that the syllabus and curriculum are examination oriented, and prevent students from acquiring language competency. It is heartening to note that English has a case of historical relevance in Bangladesh. Before 1947, people had more reason to use it as a means of communication. For practical reasons, it was also largely used as a medium of instruction in education. After 1947, the underlying factors to use and learn the language remained almost the same. Since 1971, the state and status of English became more dependent on the constitution (Part 1) and language
  18. 18. 2 policies. In this regard, the language gains no constitutional recognition. There is a disagreement between what curriculum should be used in the secondary level. Zillur Rahman Siddiqui , former advisor of the caretaker government and Vice-Chancellor of a public university ( Jahangirnagor University ) of Bangladesh (2003) regrets that ‘we lack a definite national policy on language, based on consensus of the people, and that is the main reason of the apparent downfall of the overall standard of both English and Bangla’. This provides an adequate ‘background to the policy decisions and the current status of English’ (Banu & Sussex, 2001). In Bangladesh, resource allocation for education in general, and English teaching in particular, has been one of the lowest in the world ( Hamid, Sussex and Khan 2009 ).Consequently, quality English teaching, particularly in rural schools, is far from adequate. English, here, is introduced as a compulsory subject from the 1st grade and continues with the same position up to class/grade 15. When the secondary level is measured, English is taught as an obligatory subject consisting of two papers each carrying one hundred marks. The 1st paper of English includes a reading, vocabulary, writing , paragraphing and composition writing test. The 2nd paper encompasses grammar, filling an application form, dialogue writing, summarizing, and story writing. In this study, the secondary level is preferred as at this level students are presumed to receive essential knowledge and proficiency necessary for their later lives. In this study, two areas were chosen as research fields, because
  19. 19. 3 there needs to be a large sample size to understand the students’ English achievement at the secondary level in Bangladesh. Therefore, it is significant to take into account, contain factors observed by the researcher against the low achievement in English skill of the secondary-level students having focus on the two contrasting geographical locations. The suburban part Naraynganj sadar upazilla, an industrial area which is situated near the capital city Dhaka and also a remote neighborhood called Bhola sadar upazilla in Bangladesh. 1.2 Problem Statement Bangladesh has a single unified educational system. However, it has diversity in the local areas in terms of religion, culture, socio-economic conditions etc. As Bangla is spoken by 99 % of the people, the practical use of English, especially in the rural areas, has become extremely limited. Bangladesh has had a long period of academic attachment to English to the acquisition of English as a second language. Against such a background, however, it is generally agreed that the standard of competency of our learners in English is not satisfactory in comparison to the time they expend in learning the language. Huq (1986:02) in this regard observes, despite the considerable amount of time devoted to English instruction, the general proficiency and achievement of the majority of the students graduating from high schools is unsatisfactory and disproportionately low. Since the inception of Bangladesh, it has been noticed that the national mean of English in the two public examinations S.S.C ( Secondary
  20. 20. 4 School Certificate ) and H.S.C ( Higher Secondary School Certificate) have been amongest the lowest score compared with other fundamental subjects. Among the failures, about 90% fail the English section (Bangladesh Education Statistical Book, 1995). 1.3 Overall Objectives of the Study 1. To identify the differences of the English Education achievement between Narayanganj and Bhola area of Bangladesh; 2. To find out issues of development of English education in secondary schools of Narayanganj Sadar and Bhola Sadar Upazilla in Bangladesh; and 3. To find out the teachers’ demand to the government for improving the students’ English achievement at the secondary level. 1.4 Significance of the Study The knowledge of English is more critical as well as important in the context of the global marketplace, the knowledge of society and in the age of digital information technology. Dr. Mohamamad Farashuddin (2011), former Governor of Bangladesh Bank, and founder Vice-Chancellor of East West University Bangladesh said , ‘‘proficiency in English is a must for the nation to abolish poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy and indignity.’’ This research is aimed at making contributions towards the quality improvements of English education in secondary schools in Bangladesh. By clarifying the factors that influence students’ English achievement, this study attempts to suggest a way of how to improve achievement and effective policy input.
  21. 21. 5 The results of this study can be used for a variety of purposes. Principally, it will help teacher-trainers, educational administrators, policy makers, researchers and teachers in Bangladesh to identify the factors likely to increase students’ English achievement. Here, this study will try to point out some areas where steps may be taken to promote English teaching and learning conditions in Bangladesh, encompassing the secondary-level students, rural as well as suburban . 1.5 ResearchQuestions : 1. What are the factors affecting students’ English achievement at the secondary levels of Bhola Sadar and Naraynganj Sadar Upazilla in Bangladesh? 2. What is the actual situation of students’ English achievement at the secondary level in both rural and urban settings? 3. Which policy inputs are useful in improving students’ English achievement?
  22. 22. 6 1.6. Conceptual framework 1.7 ResearchMethod In order to get broad information from two territorial jurisdictions; in Bhola and in Narayanganj on Students’ English achievement at the secondary level, the author primarily relied on first hand evidence, sourced stakeholders voices, 328 secondary level students, 32 English subject teachers, 8 school principals, 80 guardians, 40 community members, 2 upazilla education officers as well as other documentary evidence. To get to know the actual picture of English achievement at the secondary level, 4 secondary-level schools ( 2 government and 2 non government) from Narayanganj and 4 secondary-level schools( 2 government and 2 non government) from Bhola areas were selected . All over Bangladesh, English Achievement Bhola Lack of trained teachers Ineffective course Lack of good deal of content Weak base Narayangonj Large student size Lack of studetns' active participation Lack of practice and exercise Ineffective course
  23. 23. 7 schools follow unique educational systems, identical curriculums, similar textbooks and so on. Moreover, students are sitting the same public examinations nationwide. Furthermore, academic instructional time and academic year are alike across the territorial jurisdiction of the country. Thus, the study carried out in these two regions can be generalized to all other regions to a certain extent. Among 2/3 sections in each school, the author chose one section from each school in Bhola and in Narayanganj. One section of grade ten was intentionally chosen, and not to interrupt the other subject of studies. The average student number in the model classes was ranging from 36 to 46, and there was a total of 328 students. The author conducted observation meticulously in the classrooms and distributed questionnaires to the stakeholders: students, English teachers and school principals. Most of the oral evidence was recorded and noted immediately on the spot. Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numeric interview data. 1.8 Limitations of the Study The researcher visited two territorial jurisdictions, interviewed the stakeholders, handed questionnaires and observed the classrooms, related to the research. Most of the field work consisted of making tape recordings but did not focus on religious as well as political affairs in these areas. Moreover, as the study was conducted within some chosen schools, the results of the research cannot describe the entire picture of the secondary English education in those two regions.
  24. 24. 8 Also, there were 32 teacher samples for this research. This number could be increased to make the findings of the study more dependable about the factors affecting student's English achievement at the secondary level in Bangladesh. 1.9 Organization of the Chapters This thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter one includes background of the study, purpose of the lessons significant to the study, method of study, conceptual framework and limitation of the schoolwork. Chapter two depicts review of relevant literature across the country and beyond the territory, on the issue, factors affecting student's secondary level English achievement in suburban as well as rural areas. Chapter three explains the methodology applied to this study, sample area, sample school, duration, and procedure of the data collection and analysis. Chapter four focuses on analysis of the result and interpretation of the data. Chapter five includes findings and policy recommendation and some suggestions for future study.
  25. 25. 9 Chapter Two Literature Review 2.1 Review of the Relevant Literature The author has tried to make an intensive review of related literature about the factors which are affecting students’ English achievement at the secondary level across the country and beyond. Several researches on this topic were conducted in developing as well as developed countries. In developing countries some researchers showed that school factors were more important for students’ English achievement than family factors. Regarding Bangladesh, there is no specific study on the issue. Therefore; further investigation is needed to determine which factors influence students’ English achievement at the secondary level of Bangladesh. Hasan (2005) conducts a linguistic study on the ‘‘English Language Curriculum at the Secondary Level in Bangladesh’’ He discovers 82% of rural and urban secondary school students complain that English is not sufficiently used in the class; with an average 68% of teachers admiting that they do not arrange the practice of the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) of English language in the classroom.
  26. 26. 10 Another survey shows that the trained teachers are more efficient than non-trained teachers at the secondary level of the English language in Ukraine ( Johnson 2001 ). Moreover, Stephen Krashen (2002) hypothesizes the ‘affective filter’ that consists of various psychological factors, such as anxiety, motivation, and self-confidence which can strongly enhance or inhibit second language acquisition. Snow (1994) advocates that students of any age, and in any culture will differ from one another in various intellectual and psychometric abilities. This is noticed in both general and specialized prior knowledge, in interest and motives and in personal styles of thought and work during learning. Furthermore, these differences often relate directly to differences in students learning progress. Malaka (2001) has explored the motivational problems in teaching-learning English as a secondary language at high school level with a particular reference at 9th,10th,11th standards in Brazil. Rashid (2005) carries out research on the strategies to overcome communication difficulties in the target language situation of Bangladeshis in New Zealand. He found that some distinctive new features have emerged as to the difficulties and the possible use of strategies in the communication of target language. The majority of the interviewees (85%) admitted that a great deal of anxiety; hesitation and inhibition, play a negative role among those who are not relatively fluent in English conversation. Wilkins (1994) points out that a teacher is an important variable in foreign language
  27. 27. 11 situations, and teacher’s skill, and personalities are instrumental in creating the conditions for learning a language. Gardner (1985) proposes that second language acquisition is ‘truly a socio-psychological phenomenon. It is concerned with the development of communication skills between an individual and members of another cultural community. Krashen (1982) contends that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, self-efficacy, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are well equipped for success in second language acquisition. . Gardner and Lambert (1972) have emphasized the significance of studying each language-learning setting in its own right, and thereby suggested that the configuration of variables obtained from one setting will not be necessarily valid in another setting. For example, the South Asian learners learn English for historical, political, social and cultural reasons, which are radically different from those of South-East Asian or African learners. Jayanthi (1982) observes the classroom interaction of the higher secondary students in. Punjab. Her study reveals that the factors like smartness of the students, shyness, evaluative capacity, commitment, psychological conditions, observation of world knowledge, time factors, interactional awareness, interaction with text, etc., play a very important role over the effective and efficient interactions of the students. The role of English in Bangladesh is characterized by a multipurpose functionality. For instance, English has been used for years and for different purposes, i.e. medium of
  28. 28. 12 instruction in the higher educational institutions, mode of communication beyond the country, Supreme Court language, and gradually it is becoming part of the socio-cultural system. As the use of English is increasing day by day in different forms, there is significant evidence of the use of English along with Bangla as code-mixing and code-switching (Banu & Sussex, 2001).). Walberg’s (1984 ) theory of educational productivity requires nine factors to increase students’ achievement of cognitive and affective outcomes. These factors are (a) student aptitude variables or prior achievement, (b) Age, (c) Motivation or self-concept as on learning a task; the instructional variables of (d) Quality of instruction (e) Quality of instructional experience (f) Home environment (g) Classroom or school environment ( h) Peer group environment, and (I)Mass media ( especially Television) There is no exclusive study on this specific issue (factors affecting students’ English achievement at secondary level in rural and sub-urban area in Bangladesh) has thus so far been conducted in Bangladesh by any researcher. Therefore, it is important to conduct research in the two sub-districts, sub-urban and in the rural areas on the basis of reality of students, English teachers’, school principals, guardians, community members and upazilla education officers, at secondary level in Bangladesh. 2.2 Education system of Bangladesh The education pyramid of Bangladesh consists mainly of the following levels:
  29. 29. 13 ( a ) Pre-primary, ( b) Primary, ( c) Secondary, ( d) Higher Secondary, ( e) Undergraduate and ( f) Graduate. After completing two years of pre-primary education, the primary level extends over a period of five years, grade 1-5 catering to children of 6-10 years of age . The Secondary level is divided into two sub-levels. Junior Secondary consists of grades 6-8 and Secondary consisting of grades 9 and 10. At the end of the 10th grade, there is a public examination known as the Secondary School Certificate ( SSC ) which is compulsory to pass by all candidates seeking to attend two-year of Higher Secondary Level Schooling, grades11-12. At the end of 12th grade, there is a further public examination leading to the Higher Secondary Certificate ( HSC) , which is a prerequisite for admission to an undergraduate program. This has two branches: One is the three years pass the course ( degree ) and the other course is a 4 years undergraduate ( Honors ) course followed by graduation or a Master’s degree extends over two years in the case of pass graduates and one year for Honors’ graduates. There are also some private institutions providing English medium education. Bangladesh has a Madrasa system of education which emphasizes on Arabic medium Islam- based education. This system is supervised by the Madrasa Board of the country. 2.3 Education for All ( EFA) The supreme law of the land stimulates the obligation and commitments made in respect of primary education in the international forums. The Government is determined to ensure education for All within the shortest time period. Moreover, Bangladesh was a signatory to the
  30. 30. 14 declaration at the World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtein, Thailand, 1990. Success of Bangladesh in primary as well as secondary level across the country regarding achieving gender parity is recognized globally. Moreover, the Government of Bangladesh is committed to implementing education of All ( EFA) . It also mirrors in the national plan of action for Education for All (2002-2015 ). Table 2.3.1 Number of Secondary Schools, Teachers and Enrolment 1995-2009 Year N. of School Total no. teacher Female teacher % of Female teacher Total enrolment Girl enrolment % of Girls 1995 12012 140059 19436 13.88 5115461 2402784 46.91 1996 12978 145188 20198 13.91 5585806 2627073 47.03 1997 13778 157077 22334 14.22 6124325 2921560 47.70 1998 14518 165213 24106 14.59 6769078 3464742 51.18 1999 15460 173897 25867 14.87 7236939 3758823 51.94 2000 15720 174146 26290 15.10 7646885 4020237 52.57 2001 16166 183277 30196 16.48 7887010 4196097 53.20
  31. 31. 15 2002 16562 186949 31311 16.75 8162134 4360778 53.43 2003 17386 206557 39580 19.16 8126362 4322568 53.19 2004 18267 214673 47255 22.01 7503247 3925110 52.31 2005 18500 238158 48290 20.28 7398552 3868014 52.28 2006 18700 239431 48615 20.30 7419179 3876914 52.26 2008 18756 209496 46788 22.33 6819748 3661457 53.69 2009 19083 213482 53363 25.00 7356793 3796538 51.61 Source : BANBEIS-2010 Figure 2.3.1 Education expenditure in total budget of Bangladesh. Source: Ministry ofFinance and Bangladesh Bureau ofStatistics-2010 2.4 The State and Status of English in Bangladesh In the constitution of Bangladesh, Bangla is declared as a state language and there is no 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 Education Other
  32. 32. 16 mention as to the status of English. Alongside Bangla, the constitution is, however, written in English as the clause 2 ( two) of the Article 153 states,'' There shall be an authentic text of this constitution in Bengali, and an authentic text of an authorized version in English both of which shall be certified as such by the Speaker of the Constitutional Assembly’’. English is a case of historical becoming in Bangladesh. During the period before 1947, under the British, people had more reason to use it as a means of communication. For practical reasons, it was also largely used as a medium of instruction in education. After, 1947, during the Pakistan period, since 1974 to until 1971, the underlying factors to use and learn the language remained almost the same. In Bangladesh period, since 1971 ,on the other hand, English is set in a monolingual situation where its state and status become more dependent on the constitution and language policy. 2.5 Lessoncontents of English subject text book for Grade ix and x : English is a compulsory subject in Bangladesh at the secondary level as part of a foreign language requirement. Its aim is to develop cognitive skills of the pupils, to understand different cultures, languages as well as to develop communicative skills. The new curriculum is encompassing a communicative approach to teaching and learning English in Bangladesh. Textbooks provide learners with a variety of materials such as reading texts, dialogues, pictures, diagrams, are tasks and other activities etc. These materials have been designed and developed to practice the four basic language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). The lesson content, mentioned in the textbook of grade ix and x can be seen in the table
  33. 33. 17 below: Table-2.5.1 Lesson content of English subject text book for Grade ix and x Unit Lesson/ Topic 1 Hello and welcome! 2 Home is where the heart is 3 Schools of the world 4 Different skies 5 On the move 6 Eat well 7 What’s on ? 8 Opening the windows 9 Lives and jobs 10 Different strokes
  34. 34. 18 11 Day in day out 12 Sparkling stars 13 Believe it or not 14 Buildings and monuments 15 Getting organized 16 Let’s enjoy poetry 17 Different lives 18 Days to remember 19 Holidays 20 Myths and fables 21 Let’s write 22 Mother earth 2.6 Curriculum analysis of English Bangladesh has a single and unified education system. The NCTB introduced the curriculum for the secondary level across the country, but the syllabus was not introduced to
  35. 35. 19 the teachers and the textbook writers through any orientation. For instance government did not arrange any proper training for the English teachers encompassing the new curriculum and textbooks. In order to implement change successfully, it is essential to understand that English is not like most of the other subjects specified in the curriculum. For instance, unlike them, English is not a content-based subject, but a skill-based subject. It is not about any particular topic, but, rather, it is about practicing something on 4 skills. The NCTB curriculum suggested an evaluation system that would assess the students’ progress by means of continuous assessment, and attainment by means of an end term examination in line with their ability to use English in communication. However, it was observed that out of eight schools, a few schools only developed evaluation tools in the light of curriculum guidelines. The general-education boards and the schools affiliated under these boards adopted an examination format that matches the one provided in the NCTB curriculum guidelines. However, examination questions were mostly set from the set textbooks. So, students always had a chance to memorize the answers of the questions. As a result, these examinations failed to evaluate students’ ability or achievement to use English in communication.
  36. 36. 20 Chapter Three Methodology This chapter depicts the research setting, practical issues, along with research participations, instruments, procedures of data collection, data analysis and et cetera. This study was designed to recognize the potential factors that might have impacts on students’ English achievement at secondary-level schools in the rural areas, Bhola and the Sub-urban regions, Narayanganj. 3.1 ResearchDesign: In this study, the qualitative research design is used to describe the stakeholders in their natural settings. 3.1.1 Study site: The study took place in Bangladesh in a rural area, Bhola, which is one of the largest islands of Bangladesh and also an administrative district in the south-western part of the country. And sub-urban region, Narayanganj, which is an industrial area, especially the jute trade and processing plants and textile sector of the country. Bangladesh is highly diversified
  37. 37. 21 in terms of socio-economic aspects. Urban area usually enjoys the comparative advantages, in terms of education, communication, health care etc compared to rural communities. Thus, the selection of a rural area, Bhola and an urban area, Narayanganj as a study field is very meaningful to conduct a comparative study. Narayanganj sadar was selected as a representative of a typical urban area as it is situated at the arm length of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, and as it is endowed with some facilities available for the standard urban life in Bangladesh. On the other hand, Bhola sadar was selected as a Representative of a distinctive rural area of Bangladesh and the standard urban facilities are hardly found in this area. Figure : 3.1.2 Map of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh screening location of two research areas
  38. 38. 22 Research Area Two Districts: Narayanganj and Bhola 5 3.2 The study sampling and instrumentations Table 3.2.1 Description of the sample and instrumentations Methodology School Total no. Bhola (rural) Narayanganj ( sub-urban)
  39. 39. 23 4 Schools 4 Schools 8 Schools Questionnaire and interview 164 Students Grade 10 164 students Grade 10 328 students Questionnaire and interview 16 English subject teachers 16 English subject teachers 32 English subject teachers Questionnaire and interview 4 School principals 4 School principals 8 School principals Interview 40 Guardians 40 Guardians 80 Guardians Interview 20 Community members 20 Community members 40 Community members Interview 2 Upazilla Education Officers 2 Upazilla Education Officers 4 Upazilla Education Officers In order to get a broader information from Narayanganj and Bhola on students’ English achievement at the secondary level, the author primarily relied on first hand evidence, sourced stake holders voice and another documentary evidence. The interviews were conducted, and the following groups were interviewed: Students, English teachers, principals, guardians, community members, upazilla Education
  40. 40. 24 Officers. The interviews allowed the privilege of asking follow-up questions and opinions and views. The interviews were conducted in a recorded form in a separate room in the institution. Questionnaires were distributed to English teachers, principals, and students from the 10th grade. Class observations were conducted in Bhola and in Narayangnaj to conceive an idea over the research period. Furthermore, most of the oral evidence was recorded, penciled and image was taken. To get to know the natural picture of English teaching-learning at secondary level, 4 schools from sub-urban and 4 schools from rural areas were chosen. 3.2.2 Data analysis: Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numeric interview data. 3.2.3 Implementation: The study was conducted in September 2011 and October 2011 3.3 Bhola and Narayanganj Sadar Upazilla Bhola: Bhola as a remote area is having one of the largest islands in Bangladesh. It is also an administrative district in south-western Bangladesh, placed in Barisal Division, with an area of 3,737.21 km². It is bounded by Lakshmipur and Barisal Districts to the north, the Bay of Bengal is to the south, by Lakshmipur and Noakhali districts, the (lower) Meghna river and Shahbazpur Channel to the east, and by Patuakhali District and the Tentulia river to the west.The town has a population of 39,964; male 52.39%, female 47.61%. The literacy rate among the towns (City Corporation) people is 63.9%.It has a lower population densely and
  41. 41. 25 has special livelihood groups’ i.e. marine fishers, salt farmers and so on. Also, it has special disadvantaged groups, erosion victims, and island dwellers; It faces the extreme impact of climate change or multi natural disaster. Transport services between remote islands and mainland are poor, primitive and risky. It has 258 schools with 2428 teachers. (Source: BANBEIS-2010,House hold surveys -2010 and the internet) Narayanganj : Narayanganj is located twenty kilometers southeast from Dhaka. It became a district headquarters in February 1984. The prominent river port of Bangladesh is on the Shitalakshya River which divides the town into two parts, namely the Narayanganj Municipal Area and Kadam Rasul Municipal Area. Narayanganj town is the center of business and industry center, especially the jute trade and processing plants and the textile sector of the country. The area of the town is 18.7 sq km with a population of 230,294. Among them male are 53.51%, female 46.49%. The density of the population in on 12,315 per sq km and the literacy rate among the towns people is 60.2%.It has 187 schools and 2,669 teachers. (Source : BANBEIS-2010,House hold surveys -2010 and the internet) Chapter Four Data Analysis and Interpretation As the author mentioned in Chapter 3, the evidence was collected from students, English subject teachers, principals, guardians, community members and upazilla education officers in
  42. 42. 26 Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numerical interview data. In this chapter, the author would like to describe the aggregated analysis in the above-mentioned stakeholders in order named earlier: 4.1 Aggregate analysis of the students’ opinion: The author has adopted a semi-structured interview for collecting the qualitative evidence to craft information from individuals. During this field work, the author interviewed 164 students from Bhola and the same number of students from Narayanganj . Factors: The students in the 10th grade were asked to identify the main factors responsible for creating barriers to learn English. On the issue, one of the students (S1) of Bhola said, ‘‘ our education system, ways of teaching are liable for low English achievement’’ .S2 mentioned, ‘‘our environment was not favorable to learn English S3''. Advocated, ‘‘we are many, but teachers are few’’. Figure: 4.1.1 Factors for low English achievement 44% 29% 10% 9% 8% 49% 19% 17% 9% 6%
  43. 43. 27 S4 said, ‘‘teachers are teaching in traditional method, a lagging behind from the source where students can meet with English world, and we need ideal contents of English’’ S5 told the author, ‘‘ during our school hour, we were not getting chance to borrow a book from the library’’. In Narayanganj, students were asked in order to get information on the factors. One of the respondents (S1) said, ‘‘ English achievement can be gained properly by practicing English more and more and also reading; hearing can help us S2''. Replied, ‘‘I think, lack of English subject teachers, and lack of environment is liable for low English achievement’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘our environment is not helpful to learn English and sometimes we do not get sufficient teachers S4''. Said, ‘‘we cannot understand the contents, teaching method is not appropriate to learn English. S5 said, ‘‘as a student, I am not getting the advantages to go to a library, which I desire’’. The identified factors can be categorized as five main groups namely – (1) lack of practice 44 % and 49 % (2) lack of English teacher 29 % and 19 % (3) teaching methods 10 % and 9 % (4) lack of a conducive environment 9 % and 17 % ) lack of library facilities 8 % and 6 % at Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. The result showed the lack of practice was the main barrier to succeed in English. Figure 4.1.2 Motivation Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  44. 44. 28 Motivation: The motivation to learn English are summarized as instrumental and integrative aspects. Learners sometimes want to affiliate with a different language community. Such learners wish to join in with the minority or majority language’s cultural activities, find their roots, or form friendships. This is termed integrative motivation which is learning a language for the useful purpose. The second reason is utilitarian in nature. Learners may acquire a second language to obtain employment or a promotion, or help their children’s education. This can be termed instrumental motivation. Students hailed from Bhola and Narayanganj were asked on ‘‘what sorts of motivation are required to learn English?’’ One of the respondents (S1 ) from Bhola said, ‘‘ students should be motivated to get a better job in the future by learning English.’’ S2 told , ‘‘students should be motivated to be a full man’’. In Narayanganj , students were asked the same question. Among them, one of the interviewees (S1) said, ‘‘ students should be motivated to be a doctor’’. S2 asserted, Instrum ental 76% Integrat ive 24% Instru mental 40% Integr ative 60% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  45. 45. 29 ‘‘ students should be motivated positively to learn English to serve the nation’’. The result showed that 76 % of the students were motivated to learn English for instrumental aspects in Bhola while only 40 % in Narayanganj were motivated. On the other hand, the integrative aspects as a source of motivation accounted for 24 % and 60 % in Bhola and in Narayanganj respectively. Present course: Students were asked in Bhola on how much you think the offered course meet social demand. One of the students (S1) said, ‘‘ I think the offered course is not enough to meet the social demand. It is not effective, is shaped only for passing in an exam. It cannot satisfy our thirst for learning English ’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘it is very effective to meet the social demand, as we can get a job after passing the exam ’’. S3 said, ‘‘the offered course is helpful we can bank on it to lead our daily life ’’. Figure 4.1.3 Opinion about present course Not Effecti ve 63% Very Effecti ve 25% Effecti ve 12% Not Effect ive 62% Effect ive 22% Very Effect ive 16% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  46. 46. 30 In Narayanganj pupils were questioned on the same issue to get an idea from them. One of the respondents (S1) said, ‘‘the offered course is not sufficient to meet the social demand in prevailing circumstances; I believe’’. S2 told, ‘‘The present course is helpful to get any scope in a job market." S3 said, ‘‘Our present course is so useful to step further’’. An exclusive interview was conducted in the respondents regarding the effectiveness of the existing English curriculum in the 10th grade categorizing by ‘not effective’, ‘effective’ and ‘very effective’. Most of the respondents of both regions identified the existing course as ‘not effective’ ( 63 % and 62 % students in Bhola and Narayanganj). Few students identified the present syllabus as ‘very effective’ which was (25 % and 16 % ) and ‘ effective’ (12 % and 22 % ) in Bhola and Narayanganj respectively . Figure 4.1.4 Contribution of modern technology Technology: Students in both the regions were asked to answer on the contribution of modern technology for their English achievement. One of the pupils (S1) in Bhola 73% 20% 7% Very Essential Essential Others 0 50 100 150 57% 30% 13% Very Essential Essential Others 0 50 100 Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  47. 47. 31 articulated, ‘‘ I think modern technology is very essential because students can learn more about English by modern machines like, T.V, computer, etc. " S2 said, ‘‘ It is essential, as modern technology help us to improve English, develop our mind’’. S3 told, ‘‘Teacher cannot use it; I think’’. On the issue, one of the respondents (S1) from Narayanganj area advocated, ‘‘If we would like to develop ourselves and our country, we should make the best use of modern technology. It is very much essential for us now and future’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘It is essential, as we can learn about the world, and we can easily learn english’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I cannot use it; we have no computer room’’. The contribution of modern technology was found ‘very essential’ by 73 % and 57 % , ‘essential’ 20% and 30 % , ‘ not essential’ 7% and 13 % students in Bhola and Narayanganj area. Figure 4.1.5 Recommendations to increase English achievement 0 20 40 60 80 49% 23% 23% 3% 2% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 49% 26% 16% 5% 4% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  48. 48. 32 Recommendations: Students from both the regions were asked to recommend how to increase the English achievement. One of the participants (S1) in Bhola said, ‘‘ I have many recommendations and most important is that trained and educated teacher should be given for us’’. S2 said, ‘‘Students should practice English enormously’’. S3 told, ‘‘ I had some recommendation on it. They are- students should practice speaking English, write 1-2 page in English on the daily experience, read English story books, text books and use leading-edge technology''. S4 mentioned, ‘‘ we should have proper opportunity a fluent, easy English syllabus’’. S5 said, ‘‘ we need good environment, and debating club ’’. In Narayanganj, students were asked on the same issue. One of the participants (S1) said, ‘‘ students should read a dictionary so that they can learn more vocabulary; they should watch English news, read English newspapers ’’. S2 said, ‘‘ we need teachers who can make the lesson interesting, amazing and easy’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ we are not getting the chance to use cutting-edge technology to develop our English skill, and we need a computer lab’’. S4 said, ‘‘ Our curriculum is not up to the mark; it has no scope to fuel listening and speaking practice and there is no viva-voce system in the examination’’. S5 spoke, ‘‘authority should take a step to increase our class duration immediately’’. With a view to increase the quality of English learning, in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommendations varied substantially across the regions. The result showed that 48 % of the respondents in Bhola recommended ‘skilled teachers, 23 % on ‘ practice’ 23 % on ‘ use of modern technology 3 % on ‘curriculum’. From the respondents 2 % did not recommend anyone of the above-mentioned factors. On the
  49. 49. 33 other hand, the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the respondents recommended the necessity of ‘practice’ as an influential factor (49%) of increasing English skills. The use of ‘modern technology’ , provision of ‘skilled teacher’ , ‘appropriate curriculum’ were recommended by 17%, 26 % and 5 % of the respondents respectively. None of the above-mentioned factors were recommended by only 3 % of the respondents. Thus, the most influential factor for increasing the skill of English was ‘practice’ in Narayanganj and ‘ skilled teacher’ in Bhola. Figure 4.1.6 Government assistance Government assistance: Respondents were asked to respond on government assistance to improve their English ability in both the jurisdictions. One of the respondents (S1) in Bhola said, ‘‘ Government should appoint experienced English teachers for our betterment’’. S2 said, ‘‘ System of English teaching is to be changed, to be made digitalized’’. S3 told, ‘‘we should 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 50% 24% 12% 9% 5% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 37% 35% 13% 10% 5% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  50. 50. 34 be given the conducive environment, as the present environment is chaotic ’’. S4 told, ‘‘ We cannot listen from our teacher, as there are many students in the class". S5 said , ‘‘ Government should change the education system’’. Regarding this issue, one of the respondents ( S1) in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ According to our government declaration, we should be given modern classroom’’. S2 said, ‘‘Government should let the teachers know how to make the students interest in English’’. S3 said, ‘‘ Our environment is not suitable for learning English, as it is not proper to listen and express ourselves fully’’. S4 said, ‘‘ Our class size is very big, should be reduced to fuel English learning’’. S5 said, ‘‘ we have no interval between the classes ’’. The areas of the government jurisdiction of assistance for improving students’ skill were divided into five categories, which were (1) appointment of skilled teachers (2) building modern class room (3) providing good environment (4) optimizing the size of class and (5) others. Figure 4.1.7 Skills for English teacher 32% 7% 10% 24% 27% 41% 11% 10% 8% 30%
  51. 51. 35 English teachers’ skill: Students in Bhola and in Narayanganj were questioned about the required skills for the English teachers to increase students’ English achievement. One of the participants (S1) in Bhola said, ‘‘English teachers should know the proper English of teaching method and to teach an ideal content for the students’’. S2 said, ‘‘Teachers should know four skills of English. Without it, they cannot teach us properly.’’. S3 told, ‘‘ Fluency on speaking English, writing, reading and listening capacity can make students curious about learning English and become friendly’. S4 described, ‘‘They should possess creativity and create a favorable environment to learn English in a classroom’’. S5 said, ‘‘Teachers should have perfect knowledge to use cutting-edge technology and teaching by technology’’. By contrast, students in Narayanganj are asked question about the skills of English teacher. Among them, one of the participants (S1) said, ‘‘the teacher should have the skill to make the students understand and to change the content ’’. S2 said, ‘‘To increase students’ English ability, teacher should be skilled more in grammar and enrich their knowledge of English''. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ In the present period, teachers could have the keen idea how to use the cutting-edge technology ’’. S4 told, ‘‘They should have creativity and understand the demand Bhola (Rural) Narayang anj (Suburba n)
  52. 52. 36 of the students’’. S5 said, ‘‘The English teacher should be active and friendly attitude to increase students’English achievement’’. The effectiveness of appropriate skills required for English teachers was examined by dividing into five broad categories, which were (1) Problem of content (2) proper knowledge of the teachers (3) friendly attitude (4) creativity and (5) teaching by technology. It is found that the skill of teachers to ‘change content', and the ‘proper knowledge’ of the teachers which was supported by 32 % and 27 % in Bhola and by 41 % and 30 % of the students in Narayanganj respectively. Figure 4.1.8 Importance’s of English skill among all subjects Importance’s of English skill: Students in both areas were asked question about the importance’s of English skills among all subjects. Among them, one of the students in Bhola said, ‘‘English skill helps us to learn more deeply from the books ’’. S2 said, ‘‘ It is an Higher Educatio n 47% Internati onal Languag e 20% Related to others subject 13% To access internet 13% Others 7% Higher Educat ion 33% Related to others subject 19% Others 18% Internati onal Langua ge 16% To access internet 14% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  53. 53. 37 international language. It is important because we can communicate all over the world by using of it’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘When we want to know the other countries and read the famous books, we have to consume ability of English .Also it is associated with all other important subjects''. S4 said, ‘‘Books for higher study and internet resource is available in English''. S5 said, ‘‘ It helps to read many English books’’. Nevertheless, in Narayanganj students were asked the same piece of question. One of the students (S1) in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ At higher levels, every subject is taught in English. Except Bangla..Most of the books are written in English. So, in order to complete higher study, we must have to learn English well ’’. S2 said, ‘‘ Among all subjects, the importance of English skill bears much importance because it helps us to understand them quite easily ’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ It helps to understand the science subjects, i.e. Physics, Mathematics’’. S4 told, ‘‘ It is an international language, and we are living in a global village’’. S5 said, ‘‘ If we know English well, we can search the internet in this modern period’’ The importance of English among all subjects was assessed by students based on the usefulness of English for different purposes, which were broadly divided into five categories such as (1) higher education (2) relation to other subjects (3) use as international language (4) need to access the internet and (5) others. It was found that there was a substantial variation in assessing the importance of English within the different kinds of needs in Bhola and in Narayanganj (33%-14%). However, there was a common tendency of giving higher weight on ‘higher education’ in both of the areas (47% in Bhola and 33 % in Narayanganj).
  54. 54. 38 Figure 4.1.9 Environnemental contribution Environment : How much environment contributes fueling to achieve English was asked question to get respondents in Bhola and in Narayanganj. One of the students in Bhola said, ‘‘ I think free adn fair environment is essential for teaching and learning English. It has lofty contribution’’. S2 said, ‘‘ It is important and can play an important role to fuel English. If we spend most of the time with the English-speaking people and communicate with them, our English learning or skill will be developed’’. S3 told, ‘‘ It helps us to learn easily, it has to some extend contribution’’. It follows that students in Narayanganj were asked question on the same issue. One of the respondents (S1) in Narayanganj said, ‘‘Environment is an instrumental for learning English. We need such an environment, which will help us to understand the lecture of teacher ’’. S2 said, ‘‘Environment is a good contributor to fueling English, so we need good environment. S3 told, ‘‘Every success depends on perfect High contrib ution 63% Mediu m contrib ution 26% Less contrib ution 11% High contrib ution 48% Mediu m contrib ution 35% Less contrib ution 17% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  55. 55. 39 environment. So, environment is useful and can contributes to fueling English’’. Environmental aspects can play an important role in fueling English. A majority of the respondents in Bhola and in Narayanganj ( 63 % in Bhola and 48 % in Narayanganj) agreed that the English-friendly environment was the highest contributor to learning English. Figure 4.1.10 Indication on English subject comparing to other subject English subject: The eleventh question asked for an indication of English subject, comparing to other school subjects. One of the students in Bhola said, ‘‘ I cannot understand the subject easily , it is difficult. I cannot catch the lesson in the school. The subject is not interesting to me at all’’. S2 said, ‘‘ English is very basic subject in our day to day life, but I am not good in this subject’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I think; it is an international language; I feel very interest to learn it, and it is easy to me’’. Conversely, one of the pupils in Difficu lt 37% Neces sary 23% Easy 21% Intere sting 19% Difficu lt 24% Neces sary 18% Easy 31% Intere sting 27% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  56. 56. 40 Narayanganj said, ‘‘ In my view, it is easy to get access and implement to do anything’. S2 said, ‘‘ English is a global language, for our higher study, it is second to none. As it is an essential subject, I feel interest in this subject’’. S3 said, ‘‘It is very tough subject; I cannot conceive this subject by myself". The areas of interest of English subject were divided into four categories, which were (1) Difficult (2) Necessary (3) Easy and (4) Interesting. The results revealed that a significant number of students (37%) in Bhola identified English subjects as ‘difficult’. Very few students ( 21 % ) acknowledged as ‘easy’. However, a mentionable number of (31 % ) pupils from the Narayanganj recognized it as ‘ easy’ and some students identified it as ‘difficult’. It was found that a good number of students in Bhola thought that English is a difficult subject. Study hour: The question asked for an indication of whether the students allocate time to study. One of the interviewees in Bhola said, ‘‘ I spend one and a half hour every day for English study purpose’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘ I spent a couple of hours on study English’’. S3 said, ‘‘ During my study time my parents help me, and I spend more than three hours every day for English study purpose except a holiday''. Figure 4.1.11 Study hour on English subject
  57. 57. 41 Nonetheless, one of the students in Narayanganj said, ‘‘Every day, I spend one hour for English study in the morning time’’. S2 asserted, ‘‘ Around three hours, I make myself busy with studying my English lesson with my sibling’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ I would like to be a teacher like my father, so, I am devoting time for learning English more than three hours’’. This study found that the highest number of students ( 68%) spent time for study equal or less than 2 hours in Bhola . However, the highest number of ( 71 % ) students devoted more than three hours for studying English subject. In fact, students in Bhola allocates less time for studying English regularly. Figure 4.1.12 Number of English books Less than or equal 1 38% Equal or less than 2 32% Equal or less than 3 18% More than 3 12% Less than or equal 1 37% Equal or less than 2 47% Equal or less than 3 9% More than 3 7% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  58. 58. 42 Number of English books: The question asked to the students for an indication whether they are having enough English related books. One of the respondents from the Bhola said, ‘‘ I have three English-related books and one dictionary’’ .S2 mentioned, ‘‘ I have no English-related book, but during examination, I borrow books from the library’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I have around ten books, and my brother has five books’’. Even so, one of the students from the Narayanganj said, ‘‘ I have five English books’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘ I love to collect English books. I have unlimited detective, historical novels and some story books’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I have no book at present. I lend books from my friends’’. The result indicated that the greater portion of students ( 62 % ) in Bhola thought that they had less than or equal to 5 books while the minority of students ( 36% ) from the Narayanganj advocated that they had in their ownership more than ten books. It showed that students hailed from the Narayanganj grew an understanding about the importance of the 50% 24% 15% 5% 6% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Less than or equal 5 Equal or less than 10 More than 15 No Books Equal or less than 15 35% 25% 21% 4% 15% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Less than or equal 5 Equal or less than 10 More than 15 No Books Equal or less than 15 Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  59. 59. 43 English. Accordingly, they kept collecting and studying more English book than their counterpart in the Bhola. Figure 4.1.13 Helping hand Helping hand : The next question was asked for an indication about the potential assisting person of the students. One of the participants from the Bhola said, ‘‘ My parents help me a lot. They are well educated’’. S2 told, ‘‘ I get help from my teacher every day from lesson to leisure’’. It follows that one of the respondents from the Narayanganj said to the author, ‘‘ I try to find help from my parents, whenever I feel ’’. S2 said, ‘‘My parents are government employee. They are busy with their job. I expect help from my teacher to prepare my lesson ’’. It was found that quite a high portion of interviewees of both areas agreed that their teachers helped them, and corrected their mistakes while doing other studies . It was observed that Teach er 52% Parent s 32% Broth ers 12% Friend s 4% Teach er 55% Paren ts 38% Broth ers 6% Friend s 1% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  60. 60. 44 teachers were their first helping hand in both the zones. Figure 4.1.14 Future plan Future plan: The next question was asked for an indication of whether the students have any future plans. One of the students from the Bhola said, ‘‘My father is a doctor. I would like to be a doctor in a future''. S2 told, ‘‘my aim is to be an engineer’’. Yet, one of the respondents from the Narayanganj said, ‘‘my plan is to be a teacher like my mother ’’. S2 said , ‘‘ I would like to serve the society. I believe, a philanthropist or a doctor can go door to door to serve the society’’. The study observed that there was a common tendency in both the regions to be a doctor in their future life, which claimed 40% in Bhola and 34% in Narayanganj. Figure 4.1.15 Participatory method 40% 23% 23% 14% 34% 12% 27% 27% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  61. 61. 45 Participatory method: The next question asked for an indication of whether a participatory method has an advantageous effect to learn English. One of the students from the Bhola said, ‘‘ I think, more participation, more knowledge. I believe on the issue of step’’. S2 said, ‘‘ I do not believe it. It consumes time and makes gossiping’’ However, One of the participants from the Narayanganj said, ‘‘It is very natural and popular to achieve the target’’. S2 said, ‘‘Participatory method is good, I like it ’’. The results showed that a majority ( 67 % ) of respondents from the Bhola as well as a majority ( 89% )of the interviewees from the Narayanganj agreed to the point that their teachers should put more emphasis on workable participatory method rather than individual work to cultivate the best results on English. It’s indicated that the participatory way of learning is the potential and popular one among the students in both the regions. 27% 73% No Yes 8% 92% No Yes Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  62. 62. 46 Table 4.1.21 Comparison (Students opinion) Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj Factors Lack of Practice And lack of english teacher44 % and 23 % Lack of Practice and lack of english teacher 49 % and 19 % Motivation Instrumental (76%) Integrative (24%) Instrumental 40% Integrative ( 60 %) Course Not effective 63 % Very effective (25%) Effective (12%) Not effective 62 % Very effective (16% ) Effective (22%) Modern technology Very essential 73 % Essential (20%) Very essential 57 % Essential (30%) Recommendation Skilled teacher 48% Practice (23%) Practice 49 % Skilled teacher (26%) Govt. assistance Appoint skilled teacher 50% Modern classroom (24%) Appoint skilled teacher (35%) Modern class room 37 % Required english To teach easy way 32 % To teach easy way 41 %
  63. 63. 47 skill is required for English teacher Proper knowledge (27%) Proper knowledge (31%) Importance Higher study 47% International language (20%) Higher study 33 % Related to other subject ( 19%) Environmental contribution High 63 % Medium (26%),Less (11%) High 48 % Medium 35%, Less (17%) Study of English comparing with other subjects Difficult 37 % Necessary 23% Easy 31 % Interesting 27% Learning hour More than 3 hours 12% More than 3 hours 7 % English books Less than or equal 5 (50 %) Equal or less than 10 (24%) Equal or less than 15 (6%) Less than or equal 5 (35 %) Equal or less than 10 (25%) Equal or less than 15 (15%) Helping hand Teacher (52 %) Parents (12%), Brothers (12%) Teacher (55 %) Parents (38%), Brothers (6%) Future plan Doctor (40 %), Engineer (23%) Doctor (34 %), Teacher (28%)
  64. 64. 48 Participatory gain Yes (67 %),No (33%) Yes (89 %),No (11%) Wrap-up: Research results showed that lack of practice with English is the dominant in both areas. Yet, it is more severe in Narayanganj. Because the size of the class was found comparatively bigger in Narayanganj, on average 55 students were found to be taught in a section in Narayanganj. This means; the students of the Narayanganj got relatively less opportunity to continue their English education with their teachers. However, students have the opportunity to learn English among themselves because of the large class sizes. By contrast, lack of English teachers were found as a less significant factor of learning English in both areas but it was relatively more significant in Bhola. The main reasons of this is schools in Bhola suffer from the supplies of qualified English teachers due to lack of teaching materials and teaching aids. The study revealed that in Bhola , 75% schools had less than 5 teachers within these schools. Though, 75% of schools had more than 5 teachers in Narayanganj. The differences of the motivational aspects of learning English between rural and sub-urban areas can be explained by the differences in the socio economic background of students’ families. It is found that most of the families in Bhola are characterized by large family size. Most people in Bhola are engaged in blue -collar jobs. Nonetheless, most of the
  65. 65. 49 people in Narayanganj are engaged in white collar-jobs. Besides, the family sizes in Narayanganj are smaller compared to Bhola. These factors are mainly responsible for creating differential between instrumental and integrative motivation. For example, the instrumental motivation for learning English is higher in Bhola because the students are motivated to learn English for getting the job to meet their immediate basic needs. Similarly, the integrative motivation for learning English is higher in Narayanganj because most of their families are not suffering from the requirements of basic needs. As a result, the students of this area want to learn English not only for getting a job but for other purposes, and to also have their sustainable future. Most of the students in these areas identified their English course as ‘not effective’. One of the reasons may be the common course system. The merit and absorptive capacity of the students are not the same across the rural and urban areas. As a result, the common course is expected to be comparatively easy for the sub-urban students, and difficult for the rural students. As a result, students in both areas think that the course is not effective to provide required English knowledge to the students. This implies that there should be a regional need based English curriculum. Students in Narayanganj can have advance English class, but in Bhola, they cannot go into an advance English class. For example, 37% of respondent in Bhola mentioned the English is very difficult comparing to other subjects while 31% of the respondents in Narayanganj identified it as an easy subject.
  66. 66. 50 It is found that the demand for modern technology is very high in both areas. But, it is highest in the rural area. This can be explained from two grounds. First, this suggests that the use of modern technology in the education system in Bangladesh is very rare. As a result, students have high a demand to access modern technology for learning English. However, the schools in the sub-urban area have relatively better access to need based cutting-edge technology, for example, use of computer, the internet, etc. This is why; the demand for modern technology is comparatively lower in Narayanganj. Recommendations of the students are consistent with their identification of factors liable for low English achievement. That students in Bhola recommended to appoint the skilled teachers dominantly. Nonetheless, the students in Narayanganj recommended creating the facilities for practicing English. Similarly, the requirements of the students to the government to appoint the skilled teachers are higher in Bhola and construction of modern classrooms is in higher demand with students in Narayanganj. These findings are also consistent with the responses given by the students in both areas of the earlier questions. A significant number of students in both areas revealed that their preferences for acquiring English skills for their English teacher to change the content i.e. teachers are using difficult content. This means the teaching method in both areas is complex. Students in both areas dominantly want to learn English to increase their English fluency. These suggest that there are no sufficient books, journals, and documentary evidence etc in
  67. 67. 51 their mother language for pursuing under graduation or graduation . As a result, a result, English becomes the most important factors when students want to pursue graduation in Bangladesh. A conducive environment for learning English is degraded in Bhola compared to Narayanganj. As a result, the demand for an improved English environment is very high in Bhola . Walberg (1984) Theory of Educational Productivity requires nine factors to increase students’ achievement of cognitive and affective outcomes. Classroom or school environment is one of them. If we compare the study of English with other subjects, we find it is difficult in Bhola while it is easy in Narayanganj. It means; the existing curriculum of English is not suitable in both areas. This may be the probable cause of identifying the existing curriculum as less effective by most of the respondents in both areas. Students in Bhola are found to devote more study hours in learning English compare to the Narayanganj. Remarkably, 12% of the students spent more than 3 hours for studying English in Bhola, while this ratio is only 7% in Narayanganj. Despite the English achievement in Narayanganj is still better than Bhola. This finding is also consistent with other findings. English, achievement is determined not only by the study hours but also by other factors. They are students’ family background, conducive environment etc which is relatively better in Narayanganj.
  68. 68. 52 Finding on the English books along with text book and assistance of the students learning English also supports the other findings. It is found that a significant number of students in Narayangannj read more than 15 English books along with their English textbook while only 6% in Bhola . In the same way, students in Narayanganj are comparatively more supported by their teacher and parents. This indicates that students in Narayanganj have better access to all favorable components of learning English. Results also found that students in both areas are motivated to learn English for selecting a prestigious job in the future. A significant number of respondents in both areas want to be doctor, engineer and teacher in the future. Finally, the participatory method of learning English can be very effective on the basis of the students’ opinion in both areas.
  69. 69. 53 4 .2 English Teachers’ opinions: The author interviewed 32 English teachers from both the regions. Figure 4.2.1 Factors for low English achievement Factors: The English subject teachers at the secondary level of the study were asked to identify the main factors liable for creating barriers to achieve English by the students. Non English Subject Teache r 12% Social Uncon scious ness 19% Lack of Trainin g 19% Lack of Qualifi ed Teach er 25% Large Studen t Size 25% Non English Subject Teacher 6% Social Unconsci ousness 12% Lack of Training 19% Lack of Qualified Teacher 19% Large Student Size 44% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  70. 70. 54 Teachers in Bhola were asked question to answer on factors for students’ low English achievement. One of the English teachers (T1) in Bhola said, ‘‘There are many factors for low English achievement, like, students are many in the class; we are not expecting it’’. T2 said, ‘‘ Most of the factors are family illiteracy and lack of efficient English subject teacher as well as lack of proper environment’’. T3 said, ‘‘ It’s rooted cause is ignorance, families most of them are illiterate. English subjective teachers are not sufficient’’. T4 mentioned, ‘‘Teachers do not have enough training from home and abroad; their quality is low’’. It follows that, teachers were asked question to get an answer on the same issue in Narayanganj. One of the interviewees said, ‘‘The factors that are liable for students low English achievements are namely; 1. Students are many, they are not practicing English in classroom 2. Teachers are not active and sincere and 3. Teachers are not fond of using four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking)’’. T2 said, ‘‘We need good environment, qualified and trained teachers’’. T3 told, ‘‘Students do not get favorable environment in the class room . They ignore it as it is a foreign language. They do not feel interest in it for not having guidance and teachers’’. T4 said, ‘‘lack of trained English subject teacher and guardian are not conscious enough to lead their children properly’’. The identified factors can be categorized as five main groups such as – (1) Large student size 25 % and 44 % (2) Lack of qualified teacher 25 % and 19 % (3) Lack of training 19 % and 19 % (4) Social unconsciousness 19 % and 12 % (5 ) Non English subject teacher 12 % and 6 % in Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. The result showed that a large student size and lack of qualified teacher was the main barrier to succeed
  71. 71. 55 in good English. Figure 4.2.2 Motivation Motivation: The motivation to learn English is summarized as instrumental and integrative aspect. Teachers in Bhola were asked question to answer on what kind of motivation is required for students to learn English. One of the teachers (T1) in Bhola answered, ‘‘ English is an international language; It is called the lingua-franca. To get a lucrative and prestigious job both in a local and global market English is a must’’. T2 said, ‘‘Students are motivated to learn English in different ways such as; he or she is convinced that English is an international language, and it is an essential in every spare of life both for higher education and communication’’. T3 said, ‘‘ They should be encouraged being obsessed to learn English for implementing a commitment to country people’’. Nonetheless, One of the teachers in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ They should be encouraged and motivated through praise or prize-giving’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘Students should be motivated to be able to secure a higher Integrati ve 37% Instrum ental 63% Integrati ve 62% Instrum ental 38% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  72. 72. 56 position’’. T3 said, ‘‘ They should be motivated to be a full man ’’. The result was very consistent with the findings from the students’ responses. It was found that 76 % of the students were motivated to learn English for instrumental aspects in Bhola while the same was only 40 % in Narayanganj. However, the integrative aspects as a source of motivation accounted for 24 % and 60 % in Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. Here, it revealed that 37 % of the respondent identified motivation as an integrative factor in Bhola while this ratio was 62 % in Narayanganj.An opposite result found in case of the instrumental factors were 63 % of the respondent in Bhola identified the motion for learning English by the student as an instrumental phenomenon. It was only 38 % in Narayangann. Figure 4.2.3 Present courses Present course: Teachers were asked to give an answer about the existing course in both of the areas. Among them, one of the teachers in Bhola said, ‘I think present course is not Very Effecti ve 25% Effecti ve 31% Not Effecti ve 44% Very Effecti ve 19% Effecti ve 25% Not Effecti ve 56% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  73. 73. 57 effective. Because, the offered courses are not taught properly and perfectly everywhere in our country.If this is possible to change, the result might be changed’’. T2 told, ‘‘ The offered course is supported if the system is visited by the learned visitor from the central authority’’. T3 mentioned, ‘‘I think the offered course will meet the social demand of English learning in prevalent society’’. Nonetheless, one of the teachers in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ The offered courses' namely communicative approaches are sufficient to meet the social demand of English learning. But their application is rare in grass root level’’. T2 said, ‘‘ I think it can meet the domestic demand to some extent. But, it needs to reform to cope with the standard of an international arena’’. T3 also said, ‘‘ I do not think the courses meet the entire demand of English learning in prevalent society. It inspires students to memorize elaborately’’. An exclusive interview was conducted to the English regarding the effectiveness of the existing English curriculum in the 10th grade, categorizing by ‘not effective’, ‘effective’ and ‘very effective’. Most of the respondents in both regions identified the existing course as ‘not effective’ (44 % and 56 % in Bhola and Narayanganj). Few teachers identified the present syllabus as ‘effective’ which was (31 % and 25 % ) and ‘ very effective’ (25 % and 19 % ) . Figure 4.2.4 Contribution of modern technology
  74. 74. 58 Modern technology : Teachers hailed from Bhola were asked about the contribution of modern technology. One of the respondents (T1) said, ‘‘ I think modern technology can contribute much for learning English. So, it is very essential’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘It plays a vital role for increasing English skill, and it works many ways. So, I think, modern technology is essential for English achievement’’. T3 mentioned, ‘‘We can implement ICT system, such as computer, projector, internet system’’. More importantly, teachers in Narayanganj replied on the same issue. One of them said, ‘‘ I think modern technology is very essential for English achievement. It can help us a lot’’. T2 said, ‘‘ Modern technology is essential for English achievement. We cannot make our movement properly without it’’. T3 thought, ‘‘we cannot use it in our school’’. The demand for providing modern technology by the government was almost same in both areas. The contribution of modern technology was found ‘ very essential’ by 63 % and 50 % , ‘ essential’ by 25 % and 38 % , ‘ others’ by 12 % and 12 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . Others 12% Essant ial 25% Very Essant ial 63% Others 12% Essant ial 38% Very Essant ial 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  75. 75. 59 Figure 4.2.5 Recommendation to increase English learning Recommendations: Teachers from Bhola were asked about the recommendation to increase English achievement. One of the participants (T1) said, ‘‘ they should be taught by trained teachers; teachers should be selected through demonstration class.’’ T2 mentioned, ‘‘ All sorts of modern facilities should be ensured for them’’. T3 depicted, ‘‘ class duration is not sufficient to teach them all the lessons’’. T4 said, ‘‘ offered curriculum must be changed because there are some short-coming in this course’’. T5 depicted, ‘‘ Conversational English must be included in examination, and private tutoring must be stopped’’. However, one of the teachers from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ English is a skilled-based subject. To increase the English skill of secondary-level, students should try to develop their skills gradually’’. T2 said, ‘‘ My recommendations are 1.The training which the teachers are receiving from the TQI and Intruduce Speak in Exam 12% Stop Private Tutoring 12% Change the Curriculu m 19%Use Modern Tech 19% Enhance Class Duration 19% Skilled Teacher 19% Intruduc e Speak in Exam 12% Use Modern Tech 12% Skilled Teacher 13% Enhance Class Duration 19% Stop private tutoring 19% Change the curricula m 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  76. 76. 60 other courses should be implemented strictly and immediately 2. Government should engage more English teachers in teaching English.’’ T3 told, ‘‘We expect technological support from the government’’ T4 said, ‘‘ Courses should be reshaped. Proper concentration should be given on achieving 4 skills. Courses should be selected considering their practical use’’. T5 said, ‘‘Class tenure is limited, should be enhanced and after school or pre school tutoring should be abolished’’. With a view to enhance the quality of English skill , in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommendations varied substantially across the regions. The result showed that 19 % of the respondents in Bhola recommended ‘skilled teachers, 19 % , on ‘ enhance class duration’ 19 % on ‘ use of modern technology 19 % on ‘change the curriculum’ 12 % ‘ To stop private tutoring’ and the rest of 12 % ‘ to introduce spoken English in an exam on the above-mentioned issues. Nonetheless, the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the respondents recommended the necessity of ‘the change of existing curriculum’ as an influential factor ( 25 % ) to increase English skill. ‘ Enhance class duration’ ,‘ Stop private tutoring’, Skilled teacher’ ‘ Use modern technology’ and Introduce spoken English in examination’ were recommended by 19%, 19 % , 13 % , 12 % and 12 % of respondents respectively. Thus, the most influential factors to enhance the skill of English were ‘skilled teacher’, ‘ enhance class duration’ , ‘Use modern technology’ and ‘ Change the curriculum’ rural and ‘ Change the curriculum’ in Narayanganj. 4.2.6 Government assistance
  77. 77. 61 Government assistance: English teachers in both areas were asked to reply about different kinds of assistance from the government. Teachers in Bhola were asked to reply to the questions. One of the teachers (T1) from Bhola said, ‘‘ Fair appointment of skilled English teacher, and making arrangement of effective training for them’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘ Concerned authority of government should keep an eye about an overall matter, should reduce student size especially’’ . T3 said, ‘‘ We need to improve students’English achievement. So, we need government assistance namely 1. Every secondary school should be equipped with modern facilities and provide modern technology for teaching English. 2. An English language lab should be set up in secondary school’’. T4 said, ‘‘ Teacher's social status is very low, should be enhanced’’. T5 said, ‘‘ Teacher's salary is very low should be increased immediately ’’. Yet, teachers from Narayanganj were asked the same question, and one of the interviewees (T1) Provide Modern Technol ogy 12% Teache rs' Social Status 19% Lack 0f Handso me Salary 19% Skilled Teache r 25% Reduce Student Size 25% Provide Modern Technol ogy 12% Skilled Teache r 13% Reduce Student Size 19% Lack of handso me salary 25% Teache rs' social status 31% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)

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