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  • 1. Master’s Thesis FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH: THE COMPARATIVE STUDYOF NARAYANGANJ AND BHOLA SADAR UPAZILLA M102291 AZAM MD. GOLAM Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation Hiroshima University September 2012
  • 2. Title of the Master’s Thesis FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS’ ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH: THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NARAYANGANJ AND BHOLA SADAR UPAZILLA Student ID Number M102291 Name of the Student Azam Md. Golam Main Academic Advisor Assoc. Prof. Kusakabe Tatsuya ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to explore the factors affecting students’ English achievement at the secondary level in Narayanganj and in Bhola of Bangladesh. To identify these factors, data was collected from both primary and secondary sources; first-hand evidence was assembled from the 10th grade secondary school students, English teachers, principals, guardians, community members and Upazilla Education Officers in the Southeastern part of country, Narayanganj Sadar Upazilla (sub-urban area) and Southern part of the country, Bhola Sadar Upazilla (rural part), following different research instruments such as observations, questionnaires and interviews. Eight secondary-level schools were chosen purposefully for collecting the oral and documentary evidence from two regions. Between the two areas, Narayanganj Sadar is one of the industrial areas in the country, near the capital city of Dhaka. On the other hand, Bhola Sadar is one of the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Also 75 % of the county’s population resides in Bhola. Secondary data was collected by reviewing closely linked existing literatures as well as websites and other written documents. A number
  • 3. of semi-structured interviews were conducted in the written as well as recorded forms with every single stakeholder. Furthermore, a survey in the form of a questionnaire was conducted in a total of 8 schools, having distributed questionnaires on the random basis only among the students, English teachers and school principals during the study time, September-October, 2011. Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numeric interview data. The major findings of the study indicated that: in the case of English achievement, students in Bhola are weaker than the students in Narayanganj. In Bhola, they need trained English teachers and in Narayanganj, teachers expect a lower student to teacher ratio. It was revealed that 75% of English Teachers in Narayanganj also have more than 10 classes every week of English lessons while 50% in Bhola conducted less than 10 classes per week. They do not have adequate teaching-learning materials and aids, standard salary and social status, in particular. In Bhola, teachers factors and in Narayanganj school factors affecting students’ English achievement. It was recommended that each school, public and private, should appoint at least a couple of English teachers who are capable enough to teach English to all secondary-level students meticulously; reasonable teacher-student ratio should be 1:35. Tutors salaries and status should also be enhanced. Government and other stakeholders should give emphasis to providing need based support in Bhola to increase the English achievement of the secondary level. Key words: English achievement, qualitative data, lack of trained teachers, large student sizes. ii
  • 4. Acknowledgement Though it would be difficult to recognize all persons who have contributed to this study, the author wishes to take this opportunity to express appreciation for , and acknowledge assistance from many people whose time, efforts, and cooperation have made possible the completion of this study within the allotted time. Professor Kusakabe Tatsuya, major advisor, has rendered invaluable assistance, guidance and encouragement throughout the entire line up. Professor Yoshida Kazuhiro and Professor Baba Takuya, academic advisors have been especially helpful for gathering scholastic guidance, need based information and have raised important questions, and given encouragement throughout. The author is indebted to Mr Sheikh Farid for his ceaseless cooperation and fueling ideas. Appreciation is extended to Mr. Nazmul Ahsan and Mr. Masumur Rahman for assistance with the research design and other aspects of the study. The author is grateful to the Deputy Commissioner of Bhola and Narayanganj, school principals, English subject teachers in various schools, guardians, community members, students and Upazilla Education Officers from which the evidence was obtained. For proof-reading of the manuscript, recognition is extended to Mr. Julian N. Branch, hailed from U.S and Mr. Omar Ejaz hailed from U.K. iii
  • 5. Dedication To be honest, I would like to offer my piece of work to my beloved parents for their patience, support, and encouragement; without their cooperation it would not have been possible to complete the study. There is no disbelief in my brain that without their ceaseless support and bonafide attitude I could not have worked and finished this schoolwork. I am happy to present my development by this application even though the reality that I have been living far away from them. I also confer this piece of work to my former colleagues in Bangladesh, without whose hold up, responsiveness and regard, it would not have been up-and-coming to stay in Japan for two years and achieve the target. iv
  • 6. Table of Contents Contents…………………………………………………………………………………. .page Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………...i Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………….…… iii Dedication............................................................................................................................iv Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………… v List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………vii List of Figures…………………………………………………………………..………viii List of Acronyms………………………………………………………………….xiii Chapter One: Introduction ………………………………………………………….1 1.1 Background of the Study ………………………………………………………......1 1.2 Problem Statement…………….…………………………………………………….3 1.3 Objective of the Study …… …..………………………………………………….....4 1.4 Significance of the Study……..…...………………………………………………4 1.5 Research Questions ………………...………………………………………………..5 1.6 Conceptual frame work……………………………………………………………...6 1.7 Research Method…………………………………………………………………..…6 1.8 Limitations…………..……….……….…………………………………..…………..7 v
  • 7. 1.9 O rganizat ion o f t he t hes is……… ..…….………………………………...8 Cha pte r Two: Lite rature re vie w …………………………………………. 9 2.1Review of relevant literature ....................................................................... 9 2.2. Education system of Bangladesh………………………………………...12 2.3 Education for All ( EFA)………………………………………………….13 2.4 The state and status of English in Ba ngladesh ……………………..15 2.5 Lesson content of English subject text book for grade ix and x….16 2.6 Curriculum analys is of English …………………………………………..18 Chapter Three: Methodology……………………………………………………………20 3.1 Research design……………………………………………………………. 20 3.1.1 Study site………………………………………………………………… 20 3.2 The study sampling and instrumentations………………………………… .22 3.2.3 Imple mentat ion…………………………………………………………….23 3.3 Description about Bhola and Narayanganj sadar upazilla…………………...24 Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Interpretation………………………………………25 4.1 Aggregate analysis of the students’ opinion………………………………….25 4.2 English teachers opinion…………………………………………………… .54 4.3 School Principals opinion……………………………………………………..81 4.4 Guardians’ opinion……………………………………………………………106 vi
  • 8. 4.5 Community members’ opinions ……………………………………………………. .129 4.6 Upazilla education officer’s opinion…………………………………………………...150 4.7 Questionnaires: Information about English teachers…………………………………....164 4.7.7 Questionnaires: Information about Students……………………………………….....167 4.7.14 Questionnaires: Information about School principals……………………………….172 4.8 Class observation………………………………………………………………………..174 Chapter Five Discussion and Policy recommendations……………………………………179 5.1 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………..179 5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..186 5.3 Policy recommendations ……………………………………………………………….189 5.4 Further Study …………………………………………………………………………...191 References ……………………………………………………………………………….192 Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………193 Appendix 1 : Interview Questions for stakeholders ……………………………………….194 Appendix 2 : Questionnaires for Students………………………………………………..…196 Appendix 3: Questionnaires for English teachers ……………..............................................196 Appendix 4 : Questionnaires for school principals …………...............................................197 vii
  • 9. List of Tables Table 2.3.1 Number of Secondary Schools, Teachers and Enrolment 1995-2009……….14 Table-2.5.1 Lesson content of English subject text book for Grade ix and x…...................17 Table 3.2.1 Description of the sample and instrumentation……………………………….22 Table 4.1.21 Comparison (students)………………………………………………………46 Table 4.2.21 Comparison (English teachers) ……………………………………………..74 Table 4.3.21 Comparison (school principals)……………………………………………..96 Table 4.4.21 Comparison (guardians) .……………………………………………………121 Table 4.5.21 Comparison (community member)……………………………………………144 Table 4.6.21 Comparison (education officer)………………………………………………160 Table- 4.8.1 Classroom environment of the schools……………………………………….174 Table- 4.8.2 Teaching method followed by the English teacher in the schools…………….176 Table-4.8.3 practicing four incorporated skills in the classroom……………………………177 Table-4.8.4Teaching aids and teaching materials……………………………………...……177 viii
  • 10. List of Figures Figure 1.6 Conceptual framework…………………………………………………………….6 Figure 2.3.1 Education expenditure in total budget of Bangladesh………………………......15 Figure : 3.1.2 Map of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh screening location of two research areas ……………………………………………………………….. ………………………..21 Figure4.1.1 Factors for low English achievement( students) …………………………… ..26 Figure 4.1.2 Motivation ……………………………………………………………………...27 Figure 4.1.3 Opinion about present course …………………………………………………..29 Figure 4.1.4 Contribution of modern technology ……………………………………………30 Figure 4.1.5 Recommendations to boost up English learning………………………………..31 Figure 4.1.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………….33 Figure 4.1.7 Skills for English teacher……………………………………………………..…34 Figure 4.1.8 Importance’s of English skill among all subjects……………………………….36 Figure 4.1.9 Environmental contribution …………………………………………………….38 Figure 4.1.10 Indication on English subject comparing to other subject…………………….39 Figure 4.1.11 Study hour on English subject…………………………………………………41 Figure 4.1.12 Number of English books ……………………………………………………..42 Figure 4.1.13 Helping hand…………………………………………………………………..43 Figure 4.1.14 Future plan …………………………………………………………………….44 ix
  • 11. Figure 4.1.15 Participatory method …………………………………………………………45 Figure 4.2.1 Factors for low English achievement (English teacher)……………………....54 Figure 4.2.2 Motivation ……………………………………………………………………...55 Figure 4.2.3 Present courses ………………………………………………………………....57 Figure 4.2.4 Contribution of modern technology………………………………………….…58 Figure 4.2.5 Recommendation to boost English learning…………………………………….59 Figure 4.2.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………….61 Figure 4.2.7 Required English skill for English teacher……………………………………...63 Figure 4.2.8 Importance of English skill among all subject………………………………….65 Figure 4.2.9 English education environment ………………………………………………...66 Figure 4.2.10 Teaching plan ………………………………………………………………….68 Figure 4.2.11 Teachers’ strategy…………………………………………………………...69 Figure 4.2.12 Class room leadership…… ………………………………………………….71 Figure 4.2.13Assistance from principal ……………………………………………………..71 Figure 4.2.14 English language club………………………………………………………....73 Figure 4.2.15 Pair work ……………………………………………………………………...74 Figure 4.3.1 Factors for low English achievement (school principal)……………………..81 Figure 4.3.2 Motivation……………………………………………………………………..82 Figure 4.3.3 Present courses ……………………….……………………………………… 83 x
  • 12. Figure 4.3.4 Contribution of modern technology …………………………………………...84 Figure 4.3.5 Recommendation to boost English learning……………………………….…..85 Figure 4.3.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………....87 Figure 4.3.7 Required of English skill for English teacher………………………………….88 Figure 4.3.8 Importance of English skill among all subject ………………………………..90 Figure 4.3.9 English education environment …………………………………………….....91 Figure 4.3.10 Supervision of English class by Head teacher………………………………..93 Figure 4.3.11 Parental education and income……………………………………………….93 Figure 4.3.12 Criteria to evaluate English subject teacher………………………………….94 Figure 4.3.13 In service training to English teachers……………………………………….95 Figure 4.3.14 Effect of location of school…………………………………………………..95 Figure 4.3.15 Strategy to improve English learning………………………………………...96 Figure 4.4.1Factors for low English achievement (Guardians)…………………………....106 Figure 4.4.2 Motivation……………………………………………………………………..107 Figure 4.4.3 Present course………………………………………………………………….108 Figure 4.4.4 Contribution of modern technology …………………………………………..109 Figure 4.4.5 Recommendation to boost English learning…………………………………...110 Figure 4.4.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………...111 Figure 4.4.7 Required English skill for English teacher…………………………………….113 xi
  • 13. Figure 4.4.8 English skill among all subject………………………………………………...114 Figure 4.4.9 Environmental contribution…………………………………………………..115 Figure 4.4.10 Approach to learn English…………………………………………………....116 Figure 4.4.11 English class supervision…………………………………………………..…117 Figure 4.4.12 Extra class and home work…………………………………………………...118 Figure 4.4.13 Participation of school meeting …….……………………………………......119 Figure 4.4.14 English teacher use teaching material………………………………………..120 Figure 4.4.15 Family education and income………………………………………………121 Figure 4.5.1 Factors for low English achievement (Community member) ……………..129 Figure 4.5.2 Motivation………………………………………………………………….…130 Figure 4.5.3 Offered course………………………………………………………………...131 Figure 4.5.4 Contribution of modern technology ………………………………………….132 Figure 4.5.5 Recommendation ……………………………………………………… …133 Figure 4.5.6 Government assistance………………………………………………………134 Figure 4.5.7 English skill for English teacher …………………………………………..135 Figure 4.5.8 English skill among all subject ………………………………………………137 Figure 4.5.9 Environmental contribution……….…………………………………………138 Figure 4.5.10 Contribution of political promise…………………………………………….139 Figure 4.5.11 Class room management role………………………………………………...140 xii
  • 14. Figure 4.5.12 School supervision……………………………………………………………141 Figure 4.5.13 Involvement as volunteer…………………………………………………….142 Figure 4.5.14 Interaction with English teacher……………………………………………..143 Figure 4.5.15 Teachers’ salary ………………………………………………………………144 Figure 4.6.1 Factors for low English achievement ( Education officer )…………………....150 Figure 4.6.2 Motivation……………………………………………………………………..151 Figure 4.6.3 Offered course………………………………………………………………..152 Figure 4.6.4 Contribution of modern technology………………………………………….152 Figure 4.6.5 Recommendation to boost up English learning………………………………153 Figure 4.6.6 Government assistance……………………………………………………….153 Figure 4.6.7 Skill for English teacher………………………………………………………154 Figure 4.6.8 Importance among all subjects……………………………………………….155 Figure 4.6.9 Environmental contribution………………………………………………….156 Figure 4.6.10 Possible change of English syllabus…………………………………………156 Figure 4.6.11 School Supervision…………………………………………………………...157 Figure 4.6.12 Local need of English………………………………………………………...158 Figure 4.6.13 Teachers’ dissatisfaction……………………………………………………...158 Figure 4.6.14 English learning beyond class……………………………………………….159 Figure 4.6.15 Purpose of English learning………………………………………………….160 xiii
  • 15. Figure 4.7.1Academic qualification of English teachers………………………… ……….164 Figure 4.7.2 Number of English class conducted by English teachers per week…………..165 Figure 4.7.3 In-service training received by English teacher………………………………165 Figure 4.7.4 Number of English teacher……………………………………………………166 Figure 4.7.5 Gender wise English teachers…………………………………………. …….166 Figure 4.7.6 Age composition of English teachers………………………………….. …….167 Figure 4.7.7 Size of family members……………………………………………………….168 Figure 4.7.8 Students’ English achievement in the 10th grade in both regions……………..168 Figure 4.7.9 Students’ favorite subject……………………………………………………...169 Figure 4.7.10 Findings from both regions…………………………………………………..170 Figure 4.7.12 Use of modern technology …………………………………………………171 Figure 4.7.13 Library facilities in schools…………………………………………………171 Figure 4.7.14 Principal as English teacher…………………………………………...…..172 Figure 4.7.15 School type………………………………………………………………..172 Figure 4.7.16 Status of schools ………………………………………………………….173 xiv
  • 16. List of Acronyms BANBEIS: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics BD: Bangladesh DEO: District Education Officer EFA: Education for all MOE: Ministry of Education UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Xv
  • 17. 1 Chapter One Introduction 1.1 Background of the study : The present structure of the formal education in Bangladesh can be divided into six stages: the primary school is 5 years, junior secondary school is 3 years, secondary school is 2 years, higher secondary school is 2 years, undergraduate school is 4 years and graduate school is 1 year. Generally, the medium of instruction in the educational institutions in Bangladesh is Bangla for all subjects except English. This study has aimed to identify the possible factors that have impacts on the English achievement of students at the secondary level in Bangladesh. It is generally agreed that the ability of our learners in English classes, especially at the secondary level, is not satisfactory, due to some underlying factors. On this issue, Das (1998:02) remarks the state of learning and teaching English in Bangladesh is quite miserable. Furthermore, Hasan (2005) discovers that the syllabus and curriculum are examination oriented, and prevent students from acquiring language competency. It is heartening to note that English has a case of historical relevance in Bangladesh. Before 1947, people had more reason to use it as a means of communication. For practical reasons, it was also largely used as a medium of instruction in education. After 1947, the underlying factors to use and learn the language remained almost the same. Since 1971, the state and status of English became more dependent on the constitution (Part 1) and language
  • 18. 2 policies. In this regard, the language gains no constitutional recognition. There is a disagreement between what curriculum should be used in the secondary level. Zillur Rahman Siddiqui , former advisor of the caretaker government and Vice-Chancellor of a public university ( Jahangirnagor University ) of Bangladesh (2003) regrets that ‘we lack a definite national policy on language, based on consensus of the people, and that is the main reason of the apparent downfall of the overall standard of both English and Bangla’. This provides an adequate ‘background to the policy decisions and the current status of English’ (Banu & Sussex, 2001). In Bangladesh, resource allocation for education in general, and English teaching in particular, has been one of the lowest in the world ( Hamid, Sussex and Khan 2009 ).Consequently, quality English teaching, particularly in rural schools, is far from adequate. English, here, is introduced as a compulsory subject from the 1st grade and continues with the same position up to class/grade 15. When the secondary level is measured, English is taught as an obligatory subject consisting of two papers each carrying one hundred marks. The 1st paper of English includes a reading, vocabulary, writing , paragraphing and composition writing test. The 2nd paper encompasses grammar, filling an application form, dialogue writing, summarizing, and story writing. In this study, the secondary level is preferred as at this level students are presumed to receive essential knowledge and proficiency necessary for their later lives. In this study, two areas were chosen as research fields, because
  • 19. 3 there needs to be a large sample size to understand the students’ English achievement at the secondary level in Bangladesh. Therefore, it is significant to take into account, contain factors observed by the researcher against the low achievement in English skill of the secondary-level students having focus on the two contrasting geographical locations. The suburban part Naraynganj sadar upazilla, an industrial area which is situated near the capital city Dhaka and also a remote neighborhood called Bhola sadar upazilla in Bangladesh. 1.2 Problem Statement Bangladesh has a single unified educational system. However, it has diversity in the local areas in terms of religion, culture, socio-economic conditions etc. As Bangla is spoken by 99 % of the people, the practical use of English, especially in the rural areas, has become extremely limited. Bangladesh has had a long period of academic attachment to English to the acquisition of English as a second language. Against such a background, however, it is generally agreed that the standard of competency of our learners in English is not satisfactory in comparison to the time they expend in learning the language. Huq (1986:02) in this regard observes, despite the considerable amount of time devoted to English instruction, the general proficiency and achievement of the majority of the students graduating from high schools is unsatisfactory and disproportionately low. Since the inception of Bangladesh, it has been noticed that the national mean of English in the two public examinations S.S.C ( Secondary
  • 20. 4 School Certificate ) and H.S.C ( Higher Secondary School Certificate) have been amongest the lowest score compared with other fundamental subjects. Among the failures, about 90% fail the English section (Bangladesh Education Statistical Book, 1995). 1.3 Overall Objectives of the Study 1. To identify the differences of the English Education achievement between Narayanganj and Bhola area of Bangladesh; 2. To find out issues of development of English education in secondary schools of Narayanganj Sadar and Bhola Sadar Upazilla in Bangladesh; and 3. To find out the teachers’ demand to the government for improving the students’ English achievement at the secondary level. 1.4 Significance of the Study The knowledge of English is more critical as well as important in the context of the global marketplace, the knowledge of society and in the age of digital information technology. Dr. Mohamamad Farashuddin (2011), former Governor of Bangladesh Bank, and founder Vice-Chancellor of East West University Bangladesh said , ‘‘proficiency in English is a must for the nation to abolish poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy and indignity.’’ This research is aimed at making contributions towards the quality improvements of English education in secondary schools in Bangladesh. By clarifying the factors that influence students’ English achievement, this study attempts to suggest a way of how to improve achievement and effective policy input.
  • 21. 5 The results of this study can be used for a variety of purposes. Principally, it will help teacher-trainers, educational administrators, policy makers, researchers and teachers in Bangladesh to identify the factors likely to increase students’ English achievement. Here, this study will try to point out some areas where steps may be taken to promote English teaching and learning conditions in Bangladesh, encompassing the secondary-level students, rural as well as suburban . 1.5 ResearchQuestions : 1. What are the factors affecting students’ English achievement at the secondary levels of Bhola Sadar and Naraynganj Sadar Upazilla in Bangladesh? 2. What is the actual situation of students’ English achievement at the secondary level in both rural and urban settings? 3. Which policy inputs are useful in improving students’ English achievement?
  • 22. 6 1.6. Conceptual framework 1.7 ResearchMethod In order to get broad information from two territorial jurisdictions; in Bhola and in Narayanganj on Students’ English achievement at the secondary level, the author primarily relied on first hand evidence, sourced stakeholders voices, 328 secondary level students, 32 English subject teachers, 8 school principals, 80 guardians, 40 community members, 2 upazilla education officers as well as other documentary evidence. To get to know the actual picture of English achievement at the secondary level, 4 secondary-level schools ( 2 government and 2 non government) from Narayanganj and 4 secondary-level schools( 2 government and 2 non government) from Bhola areas were selected . All over Bangladesh, English Achievement Bhola Lack of trained teachers Ineffective course Lack of good deal of content Weak base Narayangonj Large student size Lack of studetns' active participation Lack of practice and exercise Ineffective course
  • 23. 7 schools follow unique educational systems, identical curriculums, similar textbooks and so on. Moreover, students are sitting the same public examinations nationwide. Furthermore, academic instructional time and academic year are alike across the territorial jurisdiction of the country. Thus, the study carried out in these two regions can be generalized to all other regions to a certain extent. Among 2/3 sections in each school, the author chose one section from each school in Bhola and in Narayanganj. One section of grade ten was intentionally chosen, and not to interrupt the other subject of studies. The average student number in the model classes was ranging from 36 to 46, and there was a total of 328 students. The author conducted observation meticulously in the classrooms and distributed questionnaires to the stakeholders: students, English teachers and school principals. Most of the oral evidence was recorded and noted immediately on the spot. Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numeric interview data. 1.8 Limitations of the Study The researcher visited two territorial jurisdictions, interviewed the stakeholders, handed questionnaires and observed the classrooms, related to the research. Most of the field work consisted of making tape recordings but did not focus on religious as well as political affairs in these areas. Moreover, as the study was conducted within some chosen schools, the results of the research cannot describe the entire picture of the secondary English education in those two regions.
  • 24. 8 Also, there were 32 teacher samples for this research. This number could be increased to make the findings of the study more dependable about the factors affecting student's English achievement at the secondary level in Bangladesh. 1.9 Organization of the Chapters This thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter one includes background of the study, purpose of the lessons significant to the study, method of study, conceptual framework and limitation of the schoolwork. Chapter two depicts review of relevant literature across the country and beyond the territory, on the issue, factors affecting student's secondary level English achievement in suburban as well as rural areas. Chapter three explains the methodology applied to this study, sample area, sample school, duration, and procedure of the data collection and analysis. Chapter four focuses on analysis of the result and interpretation of the data. Chapter five includes findings and policy recommendation and some suggestions for future study.
  • 25. 9 Chapter Two Literature Review 2.1 Review of the Relevant Literature The author has tried to make an intensive review of related literature about the factors which are affecting students’ English achievement at the secondary level across the country and beyond. Several researches on this topic were conducted in developing as well as developed countries. In developing countries some researchers showed that school factors were more important for students’ English achievement than family factors. Regarding Bangladesh, there is no specific study on the issue. Therefore; further investigation is needed to determine which factors influence students’ English achievement at the secondary level of Bangladesh. Hasan (2005) conducts a linguistic study on the ‘‘English Language Curriculum at the Secondary Level in Bangladesh’’ He discovers 82% of rural and urban secondary school students complain that English is not sufficiently used in the class; with an average 68% of teachers admiting that they do not arrange the practice of the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) of English language in the classroom.
  • 26. 10 Another survey shows that the trained teachers are more efficient than non-trained teachers at the secondary level of the English language in Ukraine ( Johnson 2001 ). Moreover, Stephen Krashen (2002) hypothesizes the ‘affective filter’ that consists of various psychological factors, such as anxiety, motivation, and self-confidence which can strongly enhance or inhibit second language acquisition. Snow (1994) advocates that students of any age, and in any culture will differ from one another in various intellectual and psychometric abilities. This is noticed in both general and specialized prior knowledge, in interest and motives and in personal styles of thought and work during learning. Furthermore, these differences often relate directly to differences in students learning progress. Malaka (2001) has explored the motivational problems in teaching-learning English as a secondary language at high school level with a particular reference at 9th,10th,11th standards in Brazil. Rashid (2005) carries out research on the strategies to overcome communication difficulties in the target language situation of Bangladeshis in New Zealand. He found that some distinctive new features have emerged as to the difficulties and the possible use of strategies in the communication of target language. The majority of the interviewees (85%) admitted that a great deal of anxiety; hesitation and inhibition, play a negative role among those who are not relatively fluent in English conversation. Wilkins (1994) points out that a teacher is an important variable in foreign language
  • 27. 11 situations, and teacher’s skill, and personalities are instrumental in creating the conditions for learning a language. Gardner (1985) proposes that second language acquisition is ‘truly a socio-psychological phenomenon. It is concerned with the development of communication skills between an individual and members of another cultural community. Krashen (1982) contends that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, self-efficacy, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are well equipped for success in second language acquisition. . Gardner and Lambert (1972) have emphasized the significance of studying each language-learning setting in its own right, and thereby suggested that the configuration of variables obtained from one setting will not be necessarily valid in another setting. For example, the South Asian learners learn English for historical, political, social and cultural reasons, which are radically different from those of South-East Asian or African learners. Jayanthi (1982) observes the classroom interaction of the higher secondary students in. Punjab. Her study reveals that the factors like smartness of the students, shyness, evaluative capacity, commitment, psychological conditions, observation of world knowledge, time factors, interactional awareness, interaction with text, etc., play a very important role over the effective and efficient interactions of the students. The role of English in Bangladesh is characterized by a multipurpose functionality. For instance, English has been used for years and for different purposes, i.e. medium of
  • 28. 12 instruction in the higher educational institutions, mode of communication beyond the country, Supreme Court language, and gradually it is becoming part of the socio-cultural system. As the use of English is increasing day by day in different forms, there is significant evidence of the use of English along with Bangla as code-mixing and code-switching (Banu & Sussex, 2001).). Walberg’s (1984 ) theory of educational productivity requires nine factors to increase students’ achievement of cognitive and affective outcomes. These factors are (a) student aptitude variables or prior achievement, (b) Age, (c) Motivation or self-concept as on learning a task; the instructional variables of (d) Quality of instruction (e) Quality of instructional experience (f) Home environment (g) Classroom or school environment ( h) Peer group environment, and (I)Mass media ( especially Television) There is no exclusive study on this specific issue (factors affecting students’ English achievement at secondary level in rural and sub-urban area in Bangladesh) has thus so far been conducted in Bangladesh by any researcher. Therefore, it is important to conduct research in the two sub-districts, sub-urban and in the rural areas on the basis of reality of students, English teachers’, school principals, guardians, community members and upazilla education officers, at secondary level in Bangladesh. 2.2 Education system of Bangladesh The education pyramid of Bangladesh consists mainly of the following levels:
  • 29. 13 ( a ) Pre-primary, ( b) Primary, ( c) Secondary, ( d) Higher Secondary, ( e) Undergraduate and ( f) Graduate. After completing two years of pre-primary education, the primary level extends over a period of five years, grade 1-5 catering to children of 6-10 years of age . The Secondary level is divided into two sub-levels. Junior Secondary consists of grades 6-8 and Secondary consisting of grades 9 and 10. At the end of the 10th grade, there is a public examination known as the Secondary School Certificate ( SSC ) which is compulsory to pass by all candidates seeking to attend two-year of Higher Secondary Level Schooling, grades11-12. At the end of 12th grade, there is a further public examination leading to the Higher Secondary Certificate ( HSC) , which is a prerequisite for admission to an undergraduate program. This has two branches: One is the three years pass the course ( degree ) and the other course is a 4 years undergraduate ( Honors ) course followed by graduation or a Master’s degree extends over two years in the case of pass graduates and one year for Honors’ graduates. There are also some private institutions providing English medium education. Bangladesh has a Madrasa system of education which emphasizes on Arabic medium Islam- based education. This system is supervised by the Madrasa Board of the country. 2.3 Education for All ( EFA) The supreme law of the land stimulates the obligation and commitments made in respect of primary education in the international forums. The Government is determined to ensure education for All within the shortest time period. Moreover, Bangladesh was a signatory to the
  • 30. 14 declaration at the World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtein, Thailand, 1990. Success of Bangladesh in primary as well as secondary level across the country regarding achieving gender parity is recognized globally. Moreover, the Government of Bangladesh is committed to implementing education of All ( EFA) . It also mirrors in the national plan of action for Education for All (2002-2015 ). Table 2.3.1 Number of Secondary Schools, Teachers and Enrolment 1995-2009 Year N. of School Total no. teacher Female teacher % of Female teacher Total enrolment Girl enrolment % of Girls 1995 12012 140059 19436 13.88 5115461 2402784 46.91 1996 12978 145188 20198 13.91 5585806 2627073 47.03 1997 13778 157077 22334 14.22 6124325 2921560 47.70 1998 14518 165213 24106 14.59 6769078 3464742 51.18 1999 15460 173897 25867 14.87 7236939 3758823 51.94 2000 15720 174146 26290 15.10 7646885 4020237 52.57 2001 16166 183277 30196 16.48 7887010 4196097 53.20
  • 31. 15 2002 16562 186949 31311 16.75 8162134 4360778 53.43 2003 17386 206557 39580 19.16 8126362 4322568 53.19 2004 18267 214673 47255 22.01 7503247 3925110 52.31 2005 18500 238158 48290 20.28 7398552 3868014 52.28 2006 18700 239431 48615 20.30 7419179 3876914 52.26 2008 18756 209496 46788 22.33 6819748 3661457 53.69 2009 19083 213482 53363 25.00 7356793 3796538 51.61 Source : BANBEIS-2010 Figure 2.3.1 Education expenditure in total budget of Bangladesh. Source: Ministry ofFinance and Bangladesh Bureau ofStatistics-2010 2.4 The State and Status of English in Bangladesh In the constitution of Bangladesh, Bangla is declared as a state language and there is no 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 Education Other
  • 32. 16 mention as to the status of English. Alongside Bangla, the constitution is, however, written in English as the clause 2 ( two) of the Article 153 states,'' There shall be an authentic text of this constitution in Bengali, and an authentic text of an authorized version in English both of which shall be certified as such by the Speaker of the Constitutional Assembly’’. English is a case of historical becoming in Bangladesh. During the period before 1947, under the British, people had more reason to use it as a means of communication. For practical reasons, it was also largely used as a medium of instruction in education. After, 1947, during the Pakistan period, since 1974 to until 1971, the underlying factors to use and learn the language remained almost the same. In Bangladesh period, since 1971 ,on the other hand, English is set in a monolingual situation where its state and status become more dependent on the constitution and language policy. 2.5 Lessoncontents of English subject text book for Grade ix and x : English is a compulsory subject in Bangladesh at the secondary level as part of a foreign language requirement. Its aim is to develop cognitive skills of the pupils, to understand different cultures, languages as well as to develop communicative skills. The new curriculum is encompassing a communicative approach to teaching and learning English in Bangladesh. Textbooks provide learners with a variety of materials such as reading texts, dialogues, pictures, diagrams, are tasks and other activities etc. These materials have been designed and developed to practice the four basic language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). The lesson content, mentioned in the textbook of grade ix and x can be seen in the table
  • 33. 17 below: Table-2.5.1 Lesson content of English subject text book for Grade ix and x Unit Lesson/ Topic 1 Hello and welcome! 2 Home is where the heart is 3 Schools of the world 4 Different skies 5 On the move 6 Eat well 7 What’s on ? 8 Opening the windows 9 Lives and jobs 10 Different strokes
  • 34. 18 11 Day in day out 12 Sparkling stars 13 Believe it or not 14 Buildings and monuments 15 Getting organized 16 Let’s enjoy poetry 17 Different lives 18 Days to remember 19 Holidays 20 Myths and fables 21 Let’s write 22 Mother earth 2.6 Curriculum analysis of English Bangladesh has a single and unified education system. The NCTB introduced the curriculum for the secondary level across the country, but the syllabus was not introduced to
  • 35. 19 the teachers and the textbook writers through any orientation. For instance government did not arrange any proper training for the English teachers encompassing the new curriculum and textbooks. In order to implement change successfully, it is essential to understand that English is not like most of the other subjects specified in the curriculum. For instance, unlike them, English is not a content-based subject, but a skill-based subject. It is not about any particular topic, but, rather, it is about practicing something on 4 skills. The NCTB curriculum suggested an evaluation system that would assess the students’ progress by means of continuous assessment, and attainment by means of an end term examination in line with their ability to use English in communication. However, it was observed that out of eight schools, a few schools only developed evaluation tools in the light of curriculum guidelines. The general-education boards and the schools affiliated under these boards adopted an examination format that matches the one provided in the NCTB curriculum guidelines. However, examination questions were mostly set from the set textbooks. So, students always had a chance to memorize the answers of the questions. As a result, these examinations failed to evaluate students’ ability or achievement to use English in communication.
  • 36. 20 Chapter Three Methodology This chapter depicts the research setting, practical issues, along with research participations, instruments, procedures of data collection, data analysis and et cetera. This study was designed to recognize the potential factors that might have impacts on students’ English achievement at secondary-level schools in the rural areas, Bhola and the Sub-urban regions, Narayanganj. 3.1 ResearchDesign: In this study, the qualitative research design is used to describe the stakeholders in their natural settings. 3.1.1 Study site: The study took place in Bangladesh in a rural area, Bhola, which is one of the largest islands of Bangladesh and also an administrative district in the south-western part of the country. And sub-urban region, Narayanganj, which is an industrial area, especially the jute trade and processing plants and textile sector of the country. Bangladesh is highly diversified
  • 37. 21 in terms of socio-economic aspects. Urban area usually enjoys the comparative advantages, in terms of education, communication, health care etc compared to rural communities. Thus, the selection of a rural area, Bhola and an urban area, Narayanganj as a study field is very meaningful to conduct a comparative study. Narayanganj sadar was selected as a representative of a typical urban area as it is situated at the arm length of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, and as it is endowed with some facilities available for the standard urban life in Bangladesh. On the other hand, Bhola sadar was selected as a Representative of a distinctive rural area of Bangladesh and the standard urban facilities are hardly found in this area. Figure : 3.1.2 Map of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh screening location of two research areas
  • 38. 22 Research Area Two Districts: Narayanganj and Bhola 5 3.2 The study sampling and instrumentations Table 3.2.1 Description of the sample and instrumentations Methodology School Total no. Bhola (rural) Narayanganj ( sub-urban)
  • 39. 23 4 Schools 4 Schools 8 Schools Questionnaire and interview 164 Students Grade 10 164 students Grade 10 328 students Questionnaire and interview 16 English subject teachers 16 English subject teachers 32 English subject teachers Questionnaire and interview 4 School principals 4 School principals 8 School principals Interview 40 Guardians 40 Guardians 80 Guardians Interview 20 Community members 20 Community members 40 Community members Interview 2 Upazilla Education Officers 2 Upazilla Education Officers 4 Upazilla Education Officers In order to get a broader information from Narayanganj and Bhola on students’ English achievement at the secondary level, the author primarily relied on first hand evidence, sourced stake holders voice and another documentary evidence. The interviews were conducted, and the following groups were interviewed: Students, English teachers, principals, guardians, community members, upazilla Education
  • 40. 24 Officers. The interviews allowed the privilege of asking follow-up questions and opinions and views. The interviews were conducted in a recorded form in a separate room in the institution. Questionnaires were distributed to English teachers, principals, and students from the 10th grade. Class observations were conducted in Bhola and in Narayangnaj to conceive an idea over the research period. Furthermore, most of the oral evidence was recorded, penciled and image was taken. To get to know the natural picture of English teaching-learning at secondary level, 4 schools from sub-urban and 4 schools from rural areas were chosen. 3.2.2 Data analysis: Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numeric interview data. 3.2.3 Implementation: The study was conducted in September 2011 and October 2011 3.3 Bhola and Narayanganj Sadar Upazilla Bhola: Bhola as a remote area is having one of the largest islands in Bangladesh. It is also an administrative district in south-western Bangladesh, placed in Barisal Division, with an area of 3,737.21 km². It is bounded by Lakshmipur and Barisal Districts to the north, the Bay of Bengal is to the south, by Lakshmipur and Noakhali districts, the (lower) Meghna river and Shahbazpur Channel to the east, and by Patuakhali District and the Tentulia river to the west.The town has a population of 39,964; male 52.39%, female 47.61%. The literacy rate among the towns (City Corporation) people is 63.9%.It has a lower population densely and
  • 41. 25 has special livelihood groups’ i.e. marine fishers, salt farmers and so on. Also, it has special disadvantaged groups, erosion victims, and island dwellers; It faces the extreme impact of climate change or multi natural disaster. Transport services between remote islands and mainland are poor, primitive and risky. It has 258 schools with 2428 teachers. (Source: BANBEIS-2010,House hold surveys -2010 and the internet) Narayanganj : Narayanganj is located twenty kilometers southeast from Dhaka. It became a district headquarters in February 1984. The prominent river port of Bangladesh is on the Shitalakshya River which divides the town into two parts, namely the Narayanganj Municipal Area and Kadam Rasul Municipal Area. Narayanganj town is the center of business and industry center, especially the jute trade and processing plants and the textile sector of the country. The area of the town is 18.7 sq km with a population of 230,294. Among them male are 53.51%, female 46.49%. The density of the population in on 12,315 per sq km and the literacy rate among the towns people is 60.2%.It has 187 schools and 2,669 teachers. (Source : BANBEIS-2010,House hold surveys -2010 and the internet) Chapter Four Data Analysis and Interpretation As the author mentioned in Chapter 3, the evidence was collected from students, English subject teachers, principals, guardians, community members and upazilla education officers in
  • 42. 26 Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. Inductive Thematic Analysis was employed to analyze the numerical interview data. In this chapter, the author would like to describe the aggregated analysis in the above-mentioned stakeholders in order named earlier: 4.1 Aggregate analysis of the students’ opinion: The author has adopted a semi-structured interview for collecting the qualitative evidence to craft information from individuals. During this field work, the author interviewed 164 students from Bhola and the same number of students from Narayanganj . Factors: The students in the 10th grade were asked to identify the main factors responsible for creating barriers to learn English. On the issue, one of the students (S1) of Bhola said, ‘‘ our education system, ways of teaching are liable for low English achievement’’ .S2 mentioned, ‘‘our environment was not favorable to learn English S3''. Advocated, ‘‘we are many, but teachers are few’’. Figure: 4.1.1 Factors for low English achievement 44% 29% 10% 9% 8% 49% 19% 17% 9% 6%
  • 43. 27 S4 said, ‘‘teachers are teaching in traditional method, a lagging behind from the source where students can meet with English world, and we need ideal contents of English’’ S5 told the author, ‘‘ during our school hour, we were not getting chance to borrow a book from the library’’. In Narayanganj, students were asked in order to get information on the factors. One of the respondents (S1) said, ‘‘ English achievement can be gained properly by practicing English more and more and also reading; hearing can help us S2''. Replied, ‘‘I think, lack of English subject teachers, and lack of environment is liable for low English achievement’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘our environment is not helpful to learn English and sometimes we do not get sufficient teachers S4''. Said, ‘‘we cannot understand the contents, teaching method is not appropriate to learn English. S5 said, ‘‘as a student, I am not getting the advantages to go to a library, which I desire’’. The identified factors can be categorized as five main groups namely – (1) lack of practice 44 % and 49 % (2) lack of English teacher 29 % and 19 % (3) teaching methods 10 % and 9 % (4) lack of a conducive environment 9 % and 17 % ) lack of library facilities 8 % and 6 % at Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. The result showed the lack of practice was the main barrier to succeed in English. Figure 4.1.2 Motivation Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 44. 28 Motivation: The motivation to learn English are summarized as instrumental and integrative aspects. Learners sometimes want to affiliate with a different language community. Such learners wish to join in with the minority or majority language’s cultural activities, find their roots, or form friendships. This is termed integrative motivation which is learning a language for the useful purpose. The second reason is utilitarian in nature. Learners may acquire a second language to obtain employment or a promotion, or help their children’s education. This can be termed instrumental motivation. Students hailed from Bhola and Narayanganj were asked on ‘‘what sorts of motivation are required to learn English?’’ One of the respondents (S1 ) from Bhola said, ‘‘ students should be motivated to get a better job in the future by learning English.’’ S2 told , ‘‘students should be motivated to be a full man’’. In Narayanganj , students were asked the same question. Among them, one of the interviewees (S1) said, ‘‘ students should be motivated to be a doctor’’. S2 asserted, Instrum ental 76% Integrat ive 24% Instru mental 40% Integr ative 60% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 45. 29 ‘‘ students should be motivated positively to learn English to serve the nation’’. The result showed that 76 % of the students were motivated to learn English for instrumental aspects in Bhola while only 40 % in Narayanganj were motivated. On the other hand, the integrative aspects as a source of motivation accounted for 24 % and 60 % in Bhola and in Narayanganj respectively. Present course: Students were asked in Bhola on how much you think the offered course meet social demand. One of the students (S1) said, ‘‘ I think the offered course is not enough to meet the social demand. It is not effective, is shaped only for passing in an exam. It cannot satisfy our thirst for learning English ’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘it is very effective to meet the social demand, as we can get a job after passing the exam ’’. S3 said, ‘‘the offered course is helpful we can bank on it to lead our daily life ’’. Figure 4.1.3 Opinion about present course Not Effecti ve 63% Very Effecti ve 25% Effecti ve 12% Not Effect ive 62% Effect ive 22% Very Effect ive 16% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 46. 30 In Narayanganj pupils were questioned on the same issue to get an idea from them. One of the respondents (S1) said, ‘‘the offered course is not sufficient to meet the social demand in prevailing circumstances; I believe’’. S2 told, ‘‘The present course is helpful to get any scope in a job market." S3 said, ‘‘Our present course is so useful to step further’’. An exclusive interview was conducted in the respondents regarding the effectiveness of the existing English curriculum in the 10th grade categorizing by ‘not effective’, ‘effective’ and ‘very effective’. Most of the respondents of both regions identified the existing course as ‘not effective’ ( 63 % and 62 % students in Bhola and Narayanganj). Few students identified the present syllabus as ‘very effective’ which was (25 % and 16 % ) and ‘ effective’ (12 % and 22 % ) in Bhola and Narayanganj respectively . Figure 4.1.4 Contribution of modern technology Technology: Students in both the regions were asked to answer on the contribution of modern technology for their English achievement. One of the pupils (S1) in Bhola 73% 20% 7% Very Essential Essential Others 0 50 100 150 57% 30% 13% Very Essential Essential Others 0 50 100 Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 47. 31 articulated, ‘‘ I think modern technology is very essential because students can learn more about English by modern machines like, T.V, computer, etc. " S2 said, ‘‘ It is essential, as modern technology help us to improve English, develop our mind’’. S3 told, ‘‘Teacher cannot use it; I think’’. On the issue, one of the respondents (S1) from Narayanganj area advocated, ‘‘If we would like to develop ourselves and our country, we should make the best use of modern technology. It is very much essential for us now and future’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘It is essential, as we can learn about the world, and we can easily learn english’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I cannot use it; we have no computer room’’. The contribution of modern technology was found ‘very essential’ by 73 % and 57 % , ‘essential’ 20% and 30 % , ‘ not essential’ 7% and 13 % students in Bhola and Narayanganj area. Figure 4.1.5 Recommendations to increase English achievement 0 20 40 60 80 49% 23% 23% 3% 2% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 49% 26% 16% 5% 4% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 48. 32 Recommendations: Students from both the regions were asked to recommend how to increase the English achievement. One of the participants (S1) in Bhola said, ‘‘ I have many recommendations and most important is that trained and educated teacher should be given for us’’. S2 said, ‘‘Students should practice English enormously’’. S3 told, ‘‘ I had some recommendation on it. They are- students should practice speaking English, write 1-2 page in English on the daily experience, read English story books, text books and use leading-edge technology''. S4 mentioned, ‘‘ we should have proper opportunity a fluent, easy English syllabus’’. S5 said, ‘‘ we need good environment, and debating club ’’. In Narayanganj, students were asked on the same issue. One of the participants (S1) said, ‘‘ students should read a dictionary so that they can learn more vocabulary; they should watch English news, read English newspapers ’’. S2 said, ‘‘ we need teachers who can make the lesson interesting, amazing and easy’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ we are not getting the chance to use cutting-edge technology to develop our English skill, and we need a computer lab’’. S4 said, ‘‘ Our curriculum is not up to the mark; it has no scope to fuel listening and speaking practice and there is no viva-voce system in the examination’’. S5 spoke, ‘‘authority should take a step to increase our class duration immediately’’. With a view to increase the quality of English learning, in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommendations varied substantially across the regions. The result showed that 48 % of the respondents in Bhola recommended ‘skilled teachers, 23 % on ‘ practice’ 23 % on ‘ use of modern technology 3 % on ‘curriculum’. From the respondents 2 % did not recommend anyone of the above-mentioned factors. On the
  • 49. 33 other hand, the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the respondents recommended the necessity of ‘practice’ as an influential factor (49%) of increasing English skills. The use of ‘modern technology’ , provision of ‘skilled teacher’ , ‘appropriate curriculum’ were recommended by 17%, 26 % and 5 % of the respondents respectively. None of the above-mentioned factors were recommended by only 3 % of the respondents. Thus, the most influential factor for increasing the skill of English was ‘practice’ in Narayanganj and ‘ skilled teacher’ in Bhola. Figure 4.1.6 Government assistance Government assistance: Respondents were asked to respond on government assistance to improve their English ability in both the jurisdictions. One of the respondents (S1) in Bhola said, ‘‘ Government should appoint experienced English teachers for our betterment’’. S2 said, ‘‘ System of English teaching is to be changed, to be made digitalized’’. S3 told, ‘‘we should 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 50% 24% 12% 9% 5% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 37% 35% 13% 10% 5% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 50. 34 be given the conducive environment, as the present environment is chaotic ’’. S4 told, ‘‘ We cannot listen from our teacher, as there are many students in the class". S5 said , ‘‘ Government should change the education system’’. Regarding this issue, one of the respondents ( S1) in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ According to our government declaration, we should be given modern classroom’’. S2 said, ‘‘Government should let the teachers know how to make the students interest in English’’. S3 said, ‘‘ Our environment is not suitable for learning English, as it is not proper to listen and express ourselves fully’’. S4 said, ‘‘ Our class size is very big, should be reduced to fuel English learning’’. S5 said, ‘‘ we have no interval between the classes ’’. The areas of the government jurisdiction of assistance for improving students’ skill were divided into five categories, which were (1) appointment of skilled teachers (2) building modern class room (3) providing good environment (4) optimizing the size of class and (5) others. Figure 4.1.7 Skills for English teacher 32% 7% 10% 24% 27% 41% 11% 10% 8% 30%
  • 51. 35 English teachers’ skill: Students in Bhola and in Narayanganj were questioned about the required skills for the English teachers to increase students’ English achievement. One of the participants (S1) in Bhola said, ‘‘English teachers should know the proper English of teaching method and to teach an ideal content for the students’’. S2 said, ‘‘Teachers should know four skills of English. Without it, they cannot teach us properly.’’. S3 told, ‘‘ Fluency on speaking English, writing, reading and listening capacity can make students curious about learning English and become friendly’. S4 described, ‘‘They should possess creativity and create a favorable environment to learn English in a classroom’’. S5 said, ‘‘Teachers should have perfect knowledge to use cutting-edge technology and teaching by technology’’. By contrast, students in Narayanganj are asked question about the skills of English teacher. Among them, one of the participants (S1) said, ‘‘the teacher should have the skill to make the students understand and to change the content ’’. S2 said, ‘‘To increase students’ English ability, teacher should be skilled more in grammar and enrich their knowledge of English''. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ In the present period, teachers could have the keen idea how to use the cutting-edge technology ’’. S4 told, ‘‘They should have creativity and understand the demand Bhola (Rural) Narayang anj (Suburba n)
  • 52. 36 of the students’’. S5 said, ‘‘The English teacher should be active and friendly attitude to increase students’English achievement’’. The effectiveness of appropriate skills required for English teachers was examined by dividing into five broad categories, which were (1) Problem of content (2) proper knowledge of the teachers (3) friendly attitude (4) creativity and (5) teaching by technology. It is found that the skill of teachers to ‘change content', and the ‘proper knowledge’ of the teachers which was supported by 32 % and 27 % in Bhola and by 41 % and 30 % of the students in Narayanganj respectively. Figure 4.1.8 Importance’s of English skill among all subjects Importance’s of English skill: Students in both areas were asked question about the importance’s of English skills among all subjects. Among them, one of the students in Bhola said, ‘‘English skill helps us to learn more deeply from the books ’’. S2 said, ‘‘ It is an Higher Educatio n 47% Internati onal Languag e 20% Related to others subject 13% To access internet 13% Others 7% Higher Educat ion 33% Related to others subject 19% Others 18% Internati onal Langua ge 16% To access internet 14% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 53. 37 international language. It is important because we can communicate all over the world by using of it’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘When we want to know the other countries and read the famous books, we have to consume ability of English .Also it is associated with all other important subjects''. S4 said, ‘‘Books for higher study and internet resource is available in English''. S5 said, ‘‘ It helps to read many English books’’. Nevertheless, in Narayanganj students were asked the same piece of question. One of the students (S1) in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ At higher levels, every subject is taught in English. Except Bangla..Most of the books are written in English. So, in order to complete higher study, we must have to learn English well ’’. S2 said, ‘‘ Among all subjects, the importance of English skill bears much importance because it helps us to understand them quite easily ’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ It helps to understand the science subjects, i.e. Physics, Mathematics’’. S4 told, ‘‘ It is an international language, and we are living in a global village’’. S5 said, ‘‘ If we know English well, we can search the internet in this modern period’’ The importance of English among all subjects was assessed by students based on the usefulness of English for different purposes, which were broadly divided into five categories such as (1) higher education (2) relation to other subjects (3) use as international language (4) need to access the internet and (5) others. It was found that there was a substantial variation in assessing the importance of English within the different kinds of needs in Bhola and in Narayanganj (33%-14%). However, there was a common tendency of giving higher weight on ‘higher education’ in both of the areas (47% in Bhola and 33 % in Narayanganj).
  • 54. 38 Figure 4.1.9 Environnemental contribution Environment : How much environment contributes fueling to achieve English was asked question to get respondents in Bhola and in Narayanganj. One of the students in Bhola said, ‘‘ I think free adn fair environment is essential for teaching and learning English. It has lofty contribution’’. S2 said, ‘‘ It is important and can play an important role to fuel English. If we spend most of the time with the English-speaking people and communicate with them, our English learning or skill will be developed’’. S3 told, ‘‘ It helps us to learn easily, it has to some extend contribution’’. It follows that students in Narayanganj were asked question on the same issue. One of the respondents (S1) in Narayanganj said, ‘‘Environment is an instrumental for learning English. We need such an environment, which will help us to understand the lecture of teacher ’’. S2 said, ‘‘Environment is a good contributor to fueling English, so we need good environment. S3 told, ‘‘Every success depends on perfect High contrib ution 63% Mediu m contrib ution 26% Less contrib ution 11% High contrib ution 48% Mediu m contrib ution 35% Less contrib ution 17% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 55. 39 environment. So, environment is useful and can contributes to fueling English’’. Environmental aspects can play an important role in fueling English. A majority of the respondents in Bhola and in Narayanganj ( 63 % in Bhola and 48 % in Narayanganj) agreed that the English-friendly environment was the highest contributor to learning English. Figure 4.1.10 Indication on English subject comparing to other subject English subject: The eleventh question asked for an indication of English subject, comparing to other school subjects. One of the students in Bhola said, ‘‘ I cannot understand the subject easily , it is difficult. I cannot catch the lesson in the school. The subject is not interesting to me at all’’. S2 said, ‘‘ English is very basic subject in our day to day life, but I am not good in this subject’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I think; it is an international language; I feel very interest to learn it, and it is easy to me’’. Conversely, one of the pupils in Difficu lt 37% Neces sary 23% Easy 21% Intere sting 19% Difficu lt 24% Neces sary 18% Easy 31% Intere sting 27% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 56. 40 Narayanganj said, ‘‘ In my view, it is easy to get access and implement to do anything’. S2 said, ‘‘ English is a global language, for our higher study, it is second to none. As it is an essential subject, I feel interest in this subject’’. S3 said, ‘‘It is very tough subject; I cannot conceive this subject by myself". The areas of interest of English subject were divided into four categories, which were (1) Difficult (2) Necessary (3) Easy and (4) Interesting. The results revealed that a significant number of students (37%) in Bhola identified English subjects as ‘difficult’. Very few students ( 21 % ) acknowledged as ‘easy’. However, a mentionable number of (31 % ) pupils from the Narayanganj recognized it as ‘ easy’ and some students identified it as ‘difficult’. It was found that a good number of students in Bhola thought that English is a difficult subject. Study hour: The question asked for an indication of whether the students allocate time to study. One of the interviewees in Bhola said, ‘‘ I spend one and a half hour every day for English study purpose’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘ I spent a couple of hours on study English’’. S3 said, ‘‘ During my study time my parents help me, and I spend more than three hours every day for English study purpose except a holiday''. Figure 4.1.11 Study hour on English subject
  • 57. 41 Nonetheless, one of the students in Narayanganj said, ‘‘Every day, I spend one hour for English study in the morning time’’. S2 asserted, ‘‘ Around three hours, I make myself busy with studying my English lesson with my sibling’’. S3 mentioned, ‘‘ I would like to be a teacher like my father, so, I am devoting time for learning English more than three hours’’. This study found that the highest number of students ( 68%) spent time for study equal or less than 2 hours in Bhola . However, the highest number of ( 71 % ) students devoted more than three hours for studying English subject. In fact, students in Bhola allocates less time for studying English regularly. Figure 4.1.12 Number of English books Less than or equal 1 38% Equal or less than 2 32% Equal or less than 3 18% More than 3 12% Less than or equal 1 37% Equal or less than 2 47% Equal or less than 3 9% More than 3 7% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 58. 42 Number of English books: The question asked to the students for an indication whether they are having enough English related books. One of the respondents from the Bhola said, ‘‘ I have three English-related books and one dictionary’’ .S2 mentioned, ‘‘ I have no English-related book, but during examination, I borrow books from the library’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I have around ten books, and my brother has five books’’. Even so, one of the students from the Narayanganj said, ‘‘ I have five English books’’. S2 mentioned, ‘‘ I love to collect English books. I have unlimited detective, historical novels and some story books’’. S3 said, ‘‘ I have no book at present. I lend books from my friends’’. The result indicated that the greater portion of students ( 62 % ) in Bhola thought that they had less than or equal to 5 books while the minority of students ( 36% ) from the Narayanganj advocated that they had in their ownership more than ten books. It showed that students hailed from the Narayanganj grew an understanding about the importance of the 50% 24% 15% 5% 6% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Less than or equal 5 Equal or less than 10 More than 15 No Books Equal or less than 15 35% 25% 21% 4% 15% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Less than or equal 5 Equal or less than 10 More than 15 No Books Equal or less than 15 Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 59. 43 English. Accordingly, they kept collecting and studying more English book than their counterpart in the Bhola. Figure 4.1.13 Helping hand Helping hand : The next question was asked for an indication about the potential assisting person of the students. One of the participants from the Bhola said, ‘‘ My parents help me a lot. They are well educated’’. S2 told, ‘‘ I get help from my teacher every day from lesson to leisure’’. It follows that one of the respondents from the Narayanganj said to the author, ‘‘ I try to find help from my parents, whenever I feel ’’. S2 said, ‘‘My parents are government employee. They are busy with their job. I expect help from my teacher to prepare my lesson ’’. It was found that quite a high portion of interviewees of both areas agreed that their teachers helped them, and corrected their mistakes while doing other studies . It was observed that Teach er 52% Parent s 32% Broth ers 12% Friend s 4% Teach er 55% Paren ts 38% Broth ers 6% Friend s 1% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 60. 44 teachers were their first helping hand in both the zones. Figure 4.1.14 Future plan Future plan: The next question was asked for an indication of whether the students have any future plans. One of the students from the Bhola said, ‘‘My father is a doctor. I would like to be a doctor in a future''. S2 told, ‘‘my aim is to be an engineer’’. Yet, one of the respondents from the Narayanganj said, ‘‘my plan is to be a teacher like my mother ’’. S2 said , ‘‘ I would like to serve the society. I believe, a philanthropist or a doctor can go door to door to serve the society’’. The study observed that there was a common tendency in both the regions to be a doctor in their future life, which claimed 40% in Bhola and 34% in Narayanganj. Figure 4.1.15 Participatory method 40% 23% 23% 14% 34% 12% 27% 27% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 61. 45 Participatory method: The next question asked for an indication of whether a participatory method has an advantageous effect to learn English. One of the students from the Bhola said, ‘‘ I think, more participation, more knowledge. I believe on the issue of step’’. S2 said, ‘‘ I do not believe it. It consumes time and makes gossiping’’ However, One of the participants from the Narayanganj said, ‘‘It is very natural and popular to achieve the target’’. S2 said, ‘‘Participatory method is good, I like it ’’. The results showed that a majority ( 67 % ) of respondents from the Bhola as well as a majority ( 89% )of the interviewees from the Narayanganj agreed to the point that their teachers should put more emphasis on workable participatory method rather than individual work to cultivate the best results on English. It’s indicated that the participatory way of learning is the potential and popular one among the students in both the regions. 27% 73% No Yes 8% 92% No Yes Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 62. 46 Table 4.1.21 Comparison (Students opinion) Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj Factors Lack of Practice And lack of english teacher44 % and 23 % Lack of Practice and lack of english teacher 49 % and 19 % Motivation Instrumental (76%) Integrative (24%) Instrumental 40% Integrative ( 60 %) Course Not effective 63 % Very effective (25%) Effective (12%) Not effective 62 % Very effective (16% ) Effective (22%) Modern technology Very essential 73 % Essential (20%) Very essential 57 % Essential (30%) Recommendation Skilled teacher 48% Practice (23%) Practice 49 % Skilled teacher (26%) Govt. assistance Appoint skilled teacher 50% Modern classroom (24%) Appoint skilled teacher (35%) Modern class room 37 % Required english To teach easy way 32 % To teach easy way 41 %
  • 63. 47 skill is required for English teacher Proper knowledge (27%) Proper knowledge (31%) Importance Higher study 47% International language (20%) Higher study 33 % Related to other subject ( 19%) Environmental contribution High 63 % Medium (26%),Less (11%) High 48 % Medium 35%, Less (17%) Study of English comparing with other subjects Difficult 37 % Necessary 23% Easy 31 % Interesting 27% Learning hour More than 3 hours 12% More than 3 hours 7 % English books Less than or equal 5 (50 %) Equal or less than 10 (24%) Equal or less than 15 (6%) Less than or equal 5 (35 %) Equal or less than 10 (25%) Equal or less than 15 (15%) Helping hand Teacher (52 %) Parents (12%), Brothers (12%) Teacher (55 %) Parents (38%), Brothers (6%) Future plan Doctor (40 %), Engineer (23%) Doctor (34 %), Teacher (28%)
  • 64. 48 Participatory gain Yes (67 %),No (33%) Yes (89 %),No (11%) Wrap-up: Research results showed that lack of practice with English is the dominant in both areas. Yet, it is more severe in Narayanganj. Because the size of the class was found comparatively bigger in Narayanganj, on average 55 students were found to be taught in a section in Narayanganj. This means; the students of the Narayanganj got relatively less opportunity to continue their English education with their teachers. However, students have the opportunity to learn English among themselves because of the large class sizes. By contrast, lack of English teachers were found as a less significant factor of learning English in both areas but it was relatively more significant in Bhola. The main reasons of this is schools in Bhola suffer from the supplies of qualified English teachers due to lack of teaching materials and teaching aids. The study revealed that in Bhola , 75% schools had less than 5 teachers within these schools. Though, 75% of schools had more than 5 teachers in Narayanganj. The differences of the motivational aspects of learning English between rural and sub-urban areas can be explained by the differences in the socio economic background of students’ families. It is found that most of the families in Bhola are characterized by large family size. Most people in Bhola are engaged in blue -collar jobs. Nonetheless, most of the
  • 65. 49 people in Narayanganj are engaged in white collar-jobs. Besides, the family sizes in Narayanganj are smaller compared to Bhola. These factors are mainly responsible for creating differential between instrumental and integrative motivation. For example, the instrumental motivation for learning English is higher in Bhola because the students are motivated to learn English for getting the job to meet their immediate basic needs. Similarly, the integrative motivation for learning English is higher in Narayanganj because most of their families are not suffering from the requirements of basic needs. As a result, the students of this area want to learn English not only for getting a job but for other purposes, and to also have their sustainable future. Most of the students in these areas identified their English course as ‘not effective’. One of the reasons may be the common course system. The merit and absorptive capacity of the students are not the same across the rural and urban areas. As a result, the common course is expected to be comparatively easy for the sub-urban students, and difficult for the rural students. As a result, students in both areas think that the course is not effective to provide required English knowledge to the students. This implies that there should be a regional need based English curriculum. Students in Narayanganj can have advance English class, but in Bhola, they cannot go into an advance English class. For example, 37% of respondent in Bhola mentioned the English is very difficult comparing to other subjects while 31% of the respondents in Narayanganj identified it as an easy subject.
  • 66. 50 It is found that the demand for modern technology is very high in both areas. But, it is highest in the rural area. This can be explained from two grounds. First, this suggests that the use of modern technology in the education system in Bangladesh is very rare. As a result, students have high a demand to access modern technology for learning English. However, the schools in the sub-urban area have relatively better access to need based cutting-edge technology, for example, use of computer, the internet, etc. This is why; the demand for modern technology is comparatively lower in Narayanganj. Recommendations of the students are consistent with their identification of factors liable for low English achievement. That students in Bhola recommended to appoint the skilled teachers dominantly. Nonetheless, the students in Narayanganj recommended creating the facilities for practicing English. Similarly, the requirements of the students to the government to appoint the skilled teachers are higher in Bhola and construction of modern classrooms is in higher demand with students in Narayanganj. These findings are also consistent with the responses given by the students in both areas of the earlier questions. A significant number of students in both areas revealed that their preferences for acquiring English skills for their English teacher to change the content i.e. teachers are using difficult content. This means the teaching method in both areas is complex. Students in both areas dominantly want to learn English to increase their English fluency. These suggest that there are no sufficient books, journals, and documentary evidence etc in
  • 67. 51 their mother language for pursuing under graduation or graduation . As a result, a result, English becomes the most important factors when students want to pursue graduation in Bangladesh. A conducive environment for learning English is degraded in Bhola compared to Narayanganj. As a result, the demand for an improved English environment is very high in Bhola . Walberg (1984) Theory of Educational Productivity requires nine factors to increase students’ achievement of cognitive and affective outcomes. Classroom or school environment is one of them. If we compare the study of English with other subjects, we find it is difficult in Bhola while it is easy in Narayanganj. It means; the existing curriculum of English is not suitable in both areas. This may be the probable cause of identifying the existing curriculum as less effective by most of the respondents in both areas. Students in Bhola are found to devote more study hours in learning English compare to the Narayanganj. Remarkably, 12% of the students spent more than 3 hours for studying English in Bhola, while this ratio is only 7% in Narayanganj. Despite the English achievement in Narayanganj is still better than Bhola. This finding is also consistent with other findings. English, achievement is determined not only by the study hours but also by other factors. They are students’ family background, conducive environment etc which is relatively better in Narayanganj.
  • 68. 52 Finding on the English books along with text book and assistance of the students learning English also supports the other findings. It is found that a significant number of students in Narayangannj read more than 15 English books along with their English textbook while only 6% in Bhola . In the same way, students in Narayanganj are comparatively more supported by their teacher and parents. This indicates that students in Narayanganj have better access to all favorable components of learning English. Results also found that students in both areas are motivated to learn English for selecting a prestigious job in the future. A significant number of respondents in both areas want to be doctor, engineer and teacher in the future. Finally, the participatory method of learning English can be very effective on the basis of the students’ opinion in both areas.
  • 69. 53 4 .2 English Teachers’ opinions: The author interviewed 32 English teachers from both the regions. Figure 4.2.1 Factors for low English achievement Factors: The English subject teachers at the secondary level of the study were asked to identify the main factors liable for creating barriers to achieve English by the students. Non English Subject Teache r 12% Social Uncon scious ness 19% Lack of Trainin g 19% Lack of Qualifi ed Teach er 25% Large Studen t Size 25% Non English Subject Teacher 6% Social Unconsci ousness 12% Lack of Training 19% Lack of Qualified Teacher 19% Large Student Size 44% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 70. 54 Teachers in Bhola were asked question to answer on factors for students’ low English achievement. One of the English teachers (T1) in Bhola said, ‘‘There are many factors for low English achievement, like, students are many in the class; we are not expecting it’’. T2 said, ‘‘ Most of the factors are family illiteracy and lack of efficient English subject teacher as well as lack of proper environment’’. T3 said, ‘‘ It’s rooted cause is ignorance, families most of them are illiterate. English subjective teachers are not sufficient’’. T4 mentioned, ‘‘Teachers do not have enough training from home and abroad; their quality is low’’. It follows that, teachers were asked question to get an answer on the same issue in Narayanganj. One of the interviewees said, ‘‘The factors that are liable for students low English achievements are namely; 1. Students are many, they are not practicing English in classroom 2. Teachers are not active and sincere and 3. Teachers are not fond of using four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking)’’. T2 said, ‘‘We need good environment, qualified and trained teachers’’. T3 told, ‘‘Students do not get favorable environment in the class room . They ignore it as it is a foreign language. They do not feel interest in it for not having guidance and teachers’’. T4 said, ‘‘lack of trained English subject teacher and guardian are not conscious enough to lead their children properly’’. The identified factors can be categorized as five main groups such as – (1) Large student size 25 % and 44 % (2) Lack of qualified teacher 25 % and 19 % (3) Lack of training 19 % and 19 % (4) Social unconsciousness 19 % and 12 % (5 ) Non English subject teacher 12 % and 6 % in Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. The result showed that a large student size and lack of qualified teacher was the main barrier to succeed
  • 71. 55 in good English. Figure 4.2.2 Motivation Motivation: The motivation to learn English is summarized as instrumental and integrative aspect. Teachers in Bhola were asked question to answer on what kind of motivation is required for students to learn English. One of the teachers (T1) in Bhola answered, ‘‘ English is an international language; It is called the lingua-franca. To get a lucrative and prestigious job both in a local and global market English is a must’’. T2 said, ‘‘Students are motivated to learn English in different ways such as; he or she is convinced that English is an international language, and it is an essential in every spare of life both for higher education and communication’’. T3 said, ‘‘ They should be encouraged being obsessed to learn English for implementing a commitment to country people’’. Nonetheless, One of the teachers in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ They should be encouraged and motivated through praise or prize-giving’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘Students should be motivated to be able to secure a higher Integrati ve 37% Instrum ental 63% Integrati ve 62% Instrum ental 38% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 72. 56 position’’. T3 said, ‘‘ They should be motivated to be a full man ’’. The result was very consistent with the findings from the students’ responses. It was found that 76 % of the students were motivated to learn English for instrumental aspects in Bhola while the same was only 40 % in Narayanganj. However, the integrative aspects as a source of motivation accounted for 24 % and 60 % in Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. Here, it revealed that 37 % of the respondent identified motivation as an integrative factor in Bhola while this ratio was 62 % in Narayanganj.An opposite result found in case of the instrumental factors were 63 % of the respondent in Bhola identified the motion for learning English by the student as an instrumental phenomenon. It was only 38 % in Narayangann. Figure 4.2.3 Present courses Present course: Teachers were asked to give an answer about the existing course in both of the areas. Among them, one of the teachers in Bhola said, ‘I think present course is not Very Effecti ve 25% Effecti ve 31% Not Effecti ve 44% Very Effecti ve 19% Effecti ve 25% Not Effecti ve 56% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 73. 57 effective. Because, the offered courses are not taught properly and perfectly everywhere in our country.If this is possible to change, the result might be changed’’. T2 told, ‘‘ The offered course is supported if the system is visited by the learned visitor from the central authority’’. T3 mentioned, ‘‘I think the offered course will meet the social demand of English learning in prevalent society’’. Nonetheless, one of the teachers in Narayanganj said, ‘‘ The offered courses' namely communicative approaches are sufficient to meet the social demand of English learning. But their application is rare in grass root level’’. T2 said, ‘‘ I think it can meet the domestic demand to some extent. But, it needs to reform to cope with the standard of an international arena’’. T3 also said, ‘‘ I do not think the courses meet the entire demand of English learning in prevalent society. It inspires students to memorize elaborately’’. An exclusive interview was conducted to the English regarding the effectiveness of the existing English curriculum in the 10th grade, categorizing by ‘not effective’, ‘effective’ and ‘very effective’. Most of the respondents in both regions identified the existing course as ‘not effective’ (44 % and 56 % in Bhola and Narayanganj). Few teachers identified the present syllabus as ‘effective’ which was (31 % and 25 % ) and ‘ very effective’ (25 % and 19 % ) . Figure 4.2.4 Contribution of modern technology
  • 74. 58 Modern technology : Teachers hailed from Bhola were asked about the contribution of modern technology. One of the respondents (T1) said, ‘‘ I think modern technology can contribute much for learning English. So, it is very essential’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘It plays a vital role for increasing English skill, and it works many ways. So, I think, modern technology is essential for English achievement’’. T3 mentioned, ‘‘We can implement ICT system, such as computer, projector, internet system’’. More importantly, teachers in Narayanganj replied on the same issue. One of them said, ‘‘ I think modern technology is very essential for English achievement. It can help us a lot’’. T2 said, ‘‘ Modern technology is essential for English achievement. We cannot make our movement properly without it’’. T3 thought, ‘‘we cannot use it in our school’’. The demand for providing modern technology by the government was almost same in both areas. The contribution of modern technology was found ‘ very essential’ by 63 % and 50 % , ‘ essential’ by 25 % and 38 % , ‘ others’ by 12 % and 12 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . Others 12% Essant ial 25% Very Essant ial 63% Others 12% Essant ial 38% Very Essant ial 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 75. 59 Figure 4.2.5 Recommendation to increase English learning Recommendations: Teachers from Bhola were asked about the recommendation to increase English achievement. One of the participants (T1) said, ‘‘ they should be taught by trained teachers; teachers should be selected through demonstration class.’’ T2 mentioned, ‘‘ All sorts of modern facilities should be ensured for them’’. T3 depicted, ‘‘ class duration is not sufficient to teach them all the lessons’’. T4 said, ‘‘ offered curriculum must be changed because there are some short-coming in this course’’. T5 depicted, ‘‘ Conversational English must be included in examination, and private tutoring must be stopped’’. However, one of the teachers from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ English is a skilled-based subject. To increase the English skill of secondary-level, students should try to develop their skills gradually’’. T2 said, ‘‘ My recommendations are 1.The training which the teachers are receiving from the TQI and Intruduce Speak in Exam 12% Stop Private Tutoring 12% Change the Curriculu m 19%Use Modern Tech 19% Enhance Class Duration 19% Skilled Teacher 19% Intruduc e Speak in Exam 12% Use Modern Tech 12% Skilled Teacher 13% Enhance Class Duration 19% Stop private tutoring 19% Change the curricula m 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 76. 60 other courses should be implemented strictly and immediately 2. Government should engage more English teachers in teaching English.’’ T3 told, ‘‘We expect technological support from the government’’ T4 said, ‘‘ Courses should be reshaped. Proper concentration should be given on achieving 4 skills. Courses should be selected considering their practical use’’. T5 said, ‘‘Class tenure is limited, should be enhanced and after school or pre school tutoring should be abolished’’. With a view to enhance the quality of English skill , in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommendations varied substantially across the regions. The result showed that 19 % of the respondents in Bhola recommended ‘skilled teachers, 19 % , on ‘ enhance class duration’ 19 % on ‘ use of modern technology 19 % on ‘change the curriculum’ 12 % ‘ To stop private tutoring’ and the rest of 12 % ‘ to introduce spoken English in an exam on the above-mentioned issues. Nonetheless, the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the respondents recommended the necessity of ‘the change of existing curriculum’ as an influential factor ( 25 % ) to increase English skill. ‘ Enhance class duration’ ,‘ Stop private tutoring’, Skilled teacher’ ‘ Use modern technology’ and Introduce spoken English in examination’ were recommended by 19%, 19 % , 13 % , 12 % and 12 % of respondents respectively. Thus, the most influential factors to enhance the skill of English were ‘skilled teacher’, ‘ enhance class duration’ , ‘Use modern technology’ and ‘ Change the curriculum’ rural and ‘ Change the curriculum’ in Narayanganj. 4.2.6 Government assistance
  • 77. 61 Government assistance: English teachers in both areas were asked to reply about different kinds of assistance from the government. Teachers in Bhola were asked to reply to the questions. One of the teachers (T1) from Bhola said, ‘‘ Fair appointment of skilled English teacher, and making arrangement of effective training for them’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘ Concerned authority of government should keep an eye about an overall matter, should reduce student size especially’’ . T3 said, ‘‘ We need to improve students’English achievement. So, we need government assistance namely 1. Every secondary school should be equipped with modern facilities and provide modern technology for teaching English. 2. An English language lab should be set up in secondary school’’. T4 said, ‘‘ Teacher's social status is very low, should be enhanced’’. T5 said, ‘‘ Teacher's salary is very low should be increased immediately ’’. Yet, teachers from Narayanganj were asked the same question, and one of the interviewees (T1) Provide Modern Technol ogy 12% Teache rs' Social Status 19% Lack 0f Handso me Salary 19% Skilled Teache r 25% Reduce Student Size 25% Provide Modern Technol ogy 12% Skilled Teache r 13% Reduce Student Size 19% Lack of handso me salary 25% Teache rs' social status 31% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 78. 62 said, ‘‘teachers need foreign training to be skilled and to change their mental condition and supplying teaching materials." T2 said, ‘‘ Government should provide modern technology to improve students English achievement’’. T3 mentioned, ‘‘ Government could take an appropriate step to reduce the students size especially in the secondary level’’. T4 told, ‘‘ Teachers cannot keep maintaining their family by the salary they get from the government; it should be modified’’. T5 said, ‘‘ Teachers’social statuses are very low, need to be provided based on present position of the other service’’. Government assistance is needed to improve English skills were divided into five broad categories, which were (1) Reduce students size (2) Provide modern technology (3) To enhance teacher's social status (4) Lack of handsome salary (5) Skilled teachers. The study result revealed that the most important areas for government assistance were to reduce student size and provide skilled teachers in Bhola which was supported by 25 % each. Nevertheless, the most important area for government intervention or assistance in Narayanganj is to raise the teacher's social status (supported by 31 % ) . Only 19 % in Bhola also agreed. The demand for higher salary was observed mostly in Narayanganj where 25 % of the respondents recommended to enhance their higher salary. This ratio was only 19 % in Bhola. The requirement for the skilled teachers was observed very high in Bhola compared to Narayanganj. This ratio was 25 % in Bhola and 13 % in Narayanganj.
  • 79. 63 Figure 4.2.7 Required skill for English teacher Skills for English teacher: English teachers were asked about the required skills to increase students’ English achievement in both areas. One of the teachers in Bhola said, ‘‘ Good command in English language, subject based training and well behavior is needed for an English teacher’’. T2 told, ‘‘ A teacher must be strategic so that he/she can make English class amazing and interesting to the students’’. T3 mentioned, ‘‘ An English teacher should be mastered in his subject. He should be very clever and have the ability to understand his pupil’’. T4 said, ‘‘ Teacher should possess technological knowledge’’. Teachers from Narayanganj also asked the same question. One of them said, ‘‘ The first and foremost thing is to be positive. The English teachers should have the four skills. The skill of making lessons content students friendly entailing well -behaved’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘ teaching is a noble Dependi ng on Technol ogy 6% Mastere d on Four Skill 13% To change the content 25% Proper Knowle dge 25% Friendly Attitude 31% Depend ing on Technol ogy 6% To change the content 19% Proper Knowle dge 19% Master ed on four skills 25% Friendl y Attitud e 31% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 80. 64 profession. So dedicated teachers will have the skills of motivating students, understanding the problems of the students, giving the assistance in solving the problems. As we have very few opportunities in our country, we should work considering the limit ’’. T3 said, ‘‘ Proficiency, sound professional training in home and abroad is a vital thing for teacher’’.T4 said, ‘‘Skills of motivating, detecting the problems of the students and giving them solutions. ’’ . The effectiveness of appropriate skills required for the English teachers was examined by dividing the skills into five broad categories, which were (1) Friendly attitude (2) Proper knowledge of the teachers (3) To change the content (4) Mastered on four skill and (5) teaching by technology. It was found that the skill of teachers ‘ Friendly attitude’, ‘Change of content’ and the ‘Proper knowledge’ of the teachers mastered on the four skills were the most significant factors in Bhola which gained the support of the teachers by 31 % , 25 % , 25 % and 13 % in Bhola. However, ‘ Friendly attitude’ , ‘ Mastered on four skill’ , ‘ Proper knowledge’ and ‘To change the content’ supported by 31 % , 25 % , 19 % and 19% in Naraynganj . Other attributes on skills of a English teachers was not remarkably important but the ‘Teaching by technology’ supported by 6 % of the respondents of each area. Thus, it implies that English teachers should emphasize more on mastering ‘the friendly attitude’ than depending on technology. Importance of English : Teachers were asked in both areas about the importance’s of English among all subjects. One of the respondents from Bhola said, ‘‘English is important
  • 81. 65 for learning another subject''. T2 said, ‘‘ All most all the books in higher education are written in English. So, if one has minimum knowledge in English, he may get the advantage from it when he goes for study’’. T3 mentioned, ‘‘ As English is an international language, so it is very essential for all to bring out the theme among the world’s people’’. T4 said, ‘‘ To access the internet it is a vital across the country and beyond the country’’. T5 said, ‘‘ It helps to read many English books’’. Figure 4.2.8 Importance of English skill among all subject More importantly, teachers were asked on the same issue in Narayanganj . One of the teachers (T1) said, ‘‘ English is important to all as it is the global language’’. T2 said, ‘‘ As an international language, it bears a great importance to understand the content of all other subjects ’’. T3 said, ‘‘ I can experience the references in various foreign books, enjoy the topic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6% 13% 19% 25% 37% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6% 12% 12% 19% 51% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 82. 66 on web, movies and English stories and get help from network. And also I can solve many mathematical and scientific problems and equations’’. T4 said, ‘‘ As English is an international language, there is no way to avoid it. Higher degrees in any subject are not possible without it. For example, a student of social science must know English to search for information on Google, search engine, concerning his subject’’. T5 said, ‘‘ It helps us to improve our lexical resource’’. The importance of English among all subjects was assessed by the teachers based on the usefulness of English for different purposes, which were broadly divided into five categories such as (1) Higher education (2) International language (3) Related to other subject (4) Need to access the internet and (5) others. It was found that there was a substantial variation in assessing the importance of English within different kinds of needs regarding Bhola ( 38 % - 6 % ) and in Narayanganj ( 50 %- 6 %). However, there was a common tendency of giving higher weight on ‘higher education’ in both areas ( 38 % in Bhola and 50 % in Narayanganj) followed by international language ( 25 % in Bhola and 18 % in Narayanganj ). 4.2.9 English education environment less Contribu tion 12% Medium Contribu tion 38% High Contribu tion 50% less Contrib ution 12% High Contrib ution 38% Medium Contrib ution 50%
  • 83. 67 Environment : Environmental aspect as mentioned earlier play an important role in fueling English . Teachers were asked in both areas to answer about the contribution of environment to fuel students’ learning. One of the teachers (T1) from Bhola mentioned, ‘‘ Yes, environment has absolute contribution fueling English''. T2 said, ‘‘ Learning completely depends on environment ’’. T3 said, ‘‘ To learn English, family environment is useful. We know that well began half done.’’. It is clear that, teachers from Narayanganj were asked the same inquiry. One of the teachers said, ‘‘ Environment contributes a lot fueling English because without making environment of English-speaking and using zone none can be well versed in English’’. T2 said, ‘‘Environment is probably important factor, for English learning’’. T3 said, ‘‘ Environment plays a role to speed up English skill’’. Unlike the finding found in student interview section, the study revealed a mixed result from the teachers' respondents which where 50 % of the respondents from Bhola identified the friendly environment as a highly contributing were the same ratios in Narayanganj identified the environment as a ‘ medium contributing factor’. Equal proportion 12 % of the respondent identified the environmental aspect as a less contributing factor for fueling English. The result also revealed that the contribution of the environmental factor perceived as high by the 38 % of the respondents in Narayanganj. The same ration of the respondent identified environment as a medium Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 84. 68 contribution in Bhola. Teaching plan : The English teachers in the study area were asked about teaching plans as an English teacher. One of the teachers (T1) from Bhola said, ‘‘ My plan is to improve my own English at first, then I will make a lesson plan for all my English class, and lastly; I will practice English everywhere.’’ Figure 4.2.10 Teaching plan T2 said, ‘‘I always do my activities as per plan. I always try to make my classes enjoyable. I have a plan to teach the students in the fullest sense’’. T3 said, ‘‘ As an English teacher, I shall teach my students with sound mind. So that the students may realize the topic’’. T4 said, I would like to learn more vocabulary; I give them tips to write freely, and sometimes I ask the questions and answer it accordingly.’’. However, teachers from Narayanganj were Increasing vocabulary To practice free writing on a topic Practice English everywhere To make classes enjoyable To ask and answering questions 12% 12% 19% 26% 31% Increasing vocabulary To practice free writing on a topic To make classes enjoyable Practice English everywhere To ask and answering questions 14% 18% 18% 25% 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 85. 69 asked the same question and one of them said, ‘‘ I would like to apply the modern method of teaching. I study more and prepare before conducting any class’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘ At first, I study the related lessons according to a lesson plan, then I prepare lesson notes, arrange teaching aids, and conduct the class accordingly’’. T3 said, ‘‘ To develop all the four skills, I follow some effective measures, like, asked them question, teach them vocabulary, learn them how to write free hand writing and communicate with them in English’’. T4 said , ‘‘ My target is to remove fearless of English from the mind of the students. Secondly, to develop the capacity of listing and speaking among the students. Finally, I want to fulfill the aims and objectives of the courses’’. The teaching plan can be categorized as five main groups such as – (1) To ask and answering question 31 % and 25 % (2) To make classes enjoyable 25 % and 19 % (3) Practice English everywhere 19 % and 25 % (4) To practice free writing 12.5 % and 19 % (5 ) Increasing vocabulary 12.5 % and 12 % in Bhola and Narayanganj respectively. The result showed that to ask and answering question was the main teaching plan in both areas. Figure 4.2.11 Teachers’ strategy
  • 86. 70 Strategy: Teachers were asked about their strategy on pupils to improve their English skill in both regions. From Bhola, one of the teachers (T1) said, ‘‘ At first I suggest them to get by heart rules of grammar with vocabulary, preposition, group verb, phrase and idioms. Then I suggest them to practice and write freely anything’’. T2 said, ‘‘ I would like to take an exam every week for class ten. I also divide the students into two groups. One group captain asks questions to another group and deliver the answer accordingly’’. T3 said, ‘‘ We should follow a communicative method, because the method involves both the teacher and the students’’. Nonetheless, teachers from Narayanganj were asked the same question. One of the teachers said, ‘‘To improve English skill, I arrange debate and discussion of different topics’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘ I am providing unseen topics for developing writing skil,arranging debate and presentation for developing speaking skill, practicing on seen comprehension for Group work 19% Commu nicative method 25% Practic e 56% Group work 25% Comm unicati ve metho d 37% Practic e 38% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 87. 71 developing reading skill’’. T3 told, ‘‘By establishing an environment, I help them to increase their interaction in English’’ An exclusive interview was conducted to the respondents regarding the strategies to improve students’ English skills in the 10th grade categorizing by ‘Practice ’, ‘Communicative method’ and ‘Group work ’. Most of the respondents in both regions depicted ‘Practice’ (56 % and 38 % in Bhola and Narayanganj).Only a few teachers mentioned ‘Communicative method’ which was (25 % and 37 % ) and ‘ Group work ’ (19 % and 25 % ) . Class room leadership: Class room leadership roles to improve students’ English skills divided into five broad categories, which were (1) Conducive environment (2) Problem solving (3) Encouragement (4) Proper leading (5) Group work. The study result revealed that the most important area for classroom leadership was to ensure a ‘conducive environment’ which were 37.5 % for Bhola and 31.25 % for Narayanganj. Problem solving, encouragement and proper leading were supported by 25 % , 19 % , 12.5 % in Bhola . Group work was only supported by 6 % of respondents in Bhola . Figure 4.2.12 Classroom leadership
  • 88. 72 However, ‘Problem solving’, ‘ Proper leading’ and ‘ Group work’ were recognized by 18.75 % in Narayanganj. It was only 12.5 % which was supported by teachers in Narayanganj ‘Encouragement’‘. Figure 4.2.13 Assistance from principal 7% 12% 19% 25% 37% 12% 19% 19% 19% 31% Super vision 12% Arrang e weekly debate 13% Teachi ng aids & facilitie s 19% Imparti al attitud e 25% Encou ragem ent 31% Superv ision 6% Arrang e weekly debate 13% Encour ageme nt 25% Imparti al attitud e 25% Teachi ng aids and facilitie s 31% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 89. 73 Assistance from principal :Teachers in Bhola were asked about different kinds of assistance from the school principal to improve their teaching skills. One of the respondents said, ‘‘ School principal can encourage the teachers and students to fuel English in this school’’. T2 said, ‘‘ We expect impartial attitude from our principal ''. T3 mentioned, ‘‘I need some assistance from principal to improve students’ English skill’’. T4 said, ‘‘ Head teacher can help me through supervision the classroom . Principal can arrange the debate weekly in the school’’. It follows that teachers were asked on the same issue to depict their answer. One of the participants hailed from Narayanganj said to author, ‘‘ We need some assistance from principal; teaching aid and other facilities. Also, impartial attitude’’. T2 mentioned, ‘‘Incentive, encouragement from our head of the institution to increase students and teachers English skill ’’. T3 said, ‘‘ Head teacher should arrange English debate for the students in school,’’. T4 told, ‘‘ Principal could supervise the pupils and teachers during lesson and beyond’’. The responses to the question of assistance provided by the School Principal to improve students English achievement has been categories into 5 broad groups such as encouragement, supervision, arranging a debate, teaching aid facilities and impartial attitude. The result showed that 31% of the respondents in Bhola felt ‘encouragement’ to be the main assistance Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 90. 74 while the result shared 25 % in Narayanganj. The respondents from Narayanganj area identified ‘ teaching aid and facilities to be the principal type of assistance supported by the 31 % of the respondents while only 19 % in Bhola. Other categories of assistance such as supervision, and English debates is not strongly significant in both areas 12 % and 13 % in Bhola and 6 % and 13 % in Narayanganj respectively. The result also showed an interesting finding, that the equal level of respondents ( 25 % ) in both areas expect impartial attitude from the School Principal which is very significant. Figure 4.2.14 English language club English language club : An exclusive interview was conducted at the respondents regarding the effectiveness of the English club in the 10th grade, categorizing by ‘Enhance listening, speaking power’ Authentic pronunciation ’, and ‘Better performance ’ . Most of the respondents in both areas identified the role of an English club as a tool of increasing Better perfor mance 19% Authen tic pronun ciation 31% Listeni ng, speaki ng power 50% Authen tifc pronun ciation 25% Better perfor mance 37% Listeni ng, speaki ng power 38% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 91. 75 ‘Listening and speaking power ’ (50 % and 38 % in Bhola and Narayanganj). Few teachers endorsed ‘Authentic pronunciation’ which was (31 % and 25 % ) and a means of ‘ Better performance’ (19 % and 37 % ) in Bhola and Narayanganj. Pair work: Students working in pairs were found ‘ Better and effective’ 50 % and 38 % , ‘Inspiration’ 25 % and 12 % , ‘ Problem solving ’ 25 % and 50 % in Bhola and Narayanganj through an interview with teachers. Figure 4.2.15 Pair work Table 4.2.21 Comparison (English teachers’ opinion) Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj Proble m Solvin g 25% Inspira tion 25% Better & Effecti ve 50% Inspirat ion 12% Better & Effectiv e 38% Proble m solving 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 92. 76 Factors Large student size And lack of qualified teacher 25 % and 25 % Large student size And lack of qualified teacher 44 % and 19 % Motivation Instrumental (63%) Integrative (37%) Instrumental (38%) Integrative ( 62 %) Course Not effective 44 %, Effective 31% and Very effective 25% Not effective 56 %,Effective 25% and Very effective 19% Modern technology Very essential 63 % Essential 25% Very essential 50 % Essential 38% Recommendations Change curriculum 19 % Enhance class duration 19%, Skilled teacher 19% Use modern technology 19% Curriculum change 25 % Enhance class duration 19% Stop private tutoring 19% Govt. assistance Skilled teacher 25% Reduce student size 25% Teachers ‘Social status31 % Increase salary 25% Reduce student size 19% Required english skill Friendly attitude 31 % Proper knowledge 25% To teach easy way 25% Friendly attitude 31 % Proper knowledge 19% To teach easy way 19%
  • 93. 77 Expert of four skills 25% Importance Higher study 38% International language 25% Higher study 50% International language 19% Environmental contribution High 50 % Medium 38% and Less 12% High 38% Medium 50 %and less 12% Teaching plan To ask and answering question 31%, To make classes enjoyable 25% To ask and answering question 25%, Practice English everywhere 25%,To make classes enjoyable 19% Strategy Practice 56 %,Communicative method 25%,Group work 19% Practice 38 % Communicative method 37%,Group work 25% Class room leadership Conducive environment38%,Problem solving 25%,Encouragement 19% Conducive environment 31%,Problem solving 19% Assistance from Principal Encouragement 31 % Impartial attitude 25% and Teaching aids and facilities Teaching aids and facilities 31 %, Impartial attitude 25% Encouragement 25%
  • 94. 78 19% English language club Fueling listening and speaking 50 %,Authentic pronunciation 31% Fueling listening and speaking 38 %,Better performance 37% Working in pairs Better and effective 50 %,Inspiration 25%, Problem solving 25% Problem solving 50 % Better and effective 38% Inspiration 12% Wrap-up: According to English teachers’ opinion, a large student size is a dominant problem in Narayanganj, while lack of qualified English teachers is the main problem in Bhola. This finding is consistent with the student opinion as most of the students in the urban area mentioned that lack of practice was their main problem for learning English due to large classroom size. Conversely, the students in Bhola mentioned that their main problem for learning English was the lack of English teachers. The opinion of the teachers regarding the motivational aspect of learning English is nearly similar to the opinion of students. That is the students from Bhola should be motivated by the instrumental factor while the students from Narayanganj should be motivated by an integrative factor. According to the English teachers’ opinion, the offered course is not effective to meet the
  • 95. 79 social demand irrespective of the areas. This opinion also supports the students’ view regarding this issue. The use of modern technology as an effective tool to learning English is also supported by the teachers’ like the students in both areas. This implies that the use of modern technology for fueling English skill is indeed as an essential factor in both areas. To add to English achievement for the secondary-level students, the recommendations of teachers substantially differ from the recommendation of the students. Unlike the students' opinion, the teachers in both areas mostly recommended changing the curriculum for increasing English skill, while the main proposal of the students in Bhola was to appoint more skilled teachers and the suggestion of the students in Narayanganj was to improve the environment of practicing four English skills, reading and writing in particular . The English teachers in Bhola recommended to appoint skilled teachers and reduce classroom to the government while the request from English teachers in Narayanganj was to increase the social status , and to increase their salary. This suggest that the English teachers in Narayanganj are relatively more efficient. Thus, they are very sensitive to their social status and salary. So, there should be a differentiation in determining salaries based on location. For example, teachers in Narayanganj should have some additional financial incentive to meet their relatively higher living cost. Teachers’ in both areas thought that a friendly attitude from teachers is a very effective
  • 96. 80 for learning English while the students in both areas requested to have less challenging content to achieve English skill. This opinion implies that the students in both areas were sufferings from a friendly attitude with their teacher. Proper in–service training, long term fundamental training at home and abroad and motivation can make a positive change in the teachers' attitude. The teachers’ opinion regarding the importance of learning English is also consistent with the opinion of the students. This implies that the students in Bangladesh mainly give priority of English for pursuing graduation and /or graduation. Like the students' opinion, the conducive environment can contribute highly for learning English in both areas as per the teachers’ opinion. So, learning English in a friendly environment is very essential for achieving higher leads of English in both areas. The interview results for English teachers revealed some similarities and dissimilarities in the role of their teachings. It was found that the teachers in Bhloa tended to say their teaching plan encompassing asking and answering questions, mostly. Teachers in Bhola also depended on the strategy of practice for improving the instruction of English in the 10th grade. They wanted to ensure a conducive environment as a leader of the English class and required encouragement as a form of assistance from the principal. Moreover, they thought that the English club can contribute to learning English by providing the facilities with listing and speaking. Finally, they evaluated students working in pairs as
  • 97. 81 very effective. By contrast, the teachers in Narayanganj wanted to set their curriculum based teaching plan based on asking and answering questions and practicing English everywhere. They used this strategy of practicing English for increasing the English proficiency in the 10th grade. Like the teachers in Bhola the teachers in Narayanganj also wanted to establish a conducive environment as a class leader, and they demanded teaching aids and facilities and an impartial attitude from the principal as a form of assistance. The teachers’ also thought that the role of the English club for fueling English could be very effective for providing listening and speaking facilities to the students. This club could also help the students to have better performance in their academic English. Finally, working in pairs could be meaningful for problem solving; braining storming, sharing ideas and peach building. It is indeed better and effective. 4.3 School principals’ opinions Figure 4.3.1 Factors for low English achievement
  • 98. 82 Factors: The School principals at the secondary level were asked to identify the main factors responsible for creating barriers for learning English. One of the school principals ( P1) from Bhola said, ‘‘ There are many factors for low english achievement. One of the main factors is lack of skilled teachers ’’. P2 said, ‘‘Students are not practicing English in the class room and beyond the class, also environment is not supporting them fully ’’. Getting beyond the obvious, one of the principals from Narayanganj said, ‘‘Many factors are liable for low english achievement. Such as non-trained teachers, not having english friendly environment, lack of modern teaching and technology’’.P2 mentioned, ‘‘ Lack of proper environment and practice is liable for students’ low english ability’’ The identified factors which were supported by school principals can be categorized as three main groups such as – (1) Lack of English teacher 50 % and 25 % (2) Lack of conducive environment 25 % and 25 % (3) Lack of practice 25 % and 50 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . The result showed that lack of English Lack of practic e 25% Lack of Condu sive Envt 25% Lack of English teache r 50% Lack of Condu sive Envt 25% Lack of English teacher 25% Lack of practic e 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 99. 83 teachers in Bhola, and lack of practice in Narayanganj was the main barrier to succeed in English. Figure 4.3.2 Motivation Motivation: School principals in both regions were asked to answer question about motivation of students to learn english. Among them, one of the school principals from Bhola said, ‘‘ They should learn english to serve the society . They are the future of the nation’’.P2 said, ‘‘They should get a better job to support their family and relatives’’. Is spite of all this, one of the principals from Narayanganj said, ‘‘English is an international language. It will be the only language in tertiary level education. It has priority in having a job and running it well’’.P2 said, ‘‘To build up their sustained future, it is essential to learn and to communicate the world. ’’. The motivation to learn English are summarized as instrumental and integrative aspects. The result showed that 75 % of the students were motivated to learn Instru mental 75% Integr ative 25% Instru menta l 25% Integr ative 75% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 100. 84 English for instrumental aspects in Bhola while only 25 % in Narayanganj. Nevertheless, the integrative aspects as a source of motivation accounted for 25 % and 75 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . Figure 4.3.3 Present course Present course : Head teachers were asked about the effectiveness of the existing course . One of the interviewees from Bhola said, ‘‘ I think the offered course is not effective , should be enriched’’. P2 mentioned, ‘‘ I think, the courses do not play an important role to teach English. Students have to depend on teachers’’. P3 depicted, ‘‘ The offered course can meet the social demand in the existing society, ’’. Nonetheless, one of the head teachers from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ It is ok, but more attention should be needed both in listening and speaking skills’’. P2 described, ‘‘ I think, there are so many lacking of English curriculum to Effecti ve 25% Verry Effecti ve 25% Not Effecti ve 50% Effecti ve 25% Verry Effecti ve 25% Not Effecti ve 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 101. 85 fulfill the social demand and learning English’’. P3 said, ‘‘ It should be enriched. P4 said , ‘‘ I think , the offered course is appropriate to meet the social demand ofEnglish learning in prevalent society’’. An exclusive interview was conducted to the respondents regarding the effectiveness of the existing English curriculum in the 10th grade categorizing by ‘not effective’, ‘effective’ and ‘very effective’. Half of the respondents ( 50 % ) in both regions identified the existing course as ‘not effective’ . One -fourth of the principals in the each area identified the present syllabus as ‘very effective’ which was 25 % and rest of the respondents depicted as‘ effective’ which was 25 % every zone . Figure 4.3.4 Contribution of modern technology Modern technology : School principals in both areas were asked about the contribution of modern technology for English achievement. From Bhola, one of the Essen tial 25% Verry Essen tial 75% Verry Essen tial 25% Essen tial 75% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 102. 86 participants said, ‘‘ I think, the contribution of modern technology for English achievement is good. But circumstances are not favorable’’. P2 asserted, ‘‘ I think, modern technology can play a vital role in developing English learning’’. P3 explained, ‘‘Technology is one of the greatest wonder of our modern life . We can achieve English knowledge thoroughly from home and abroad at a low cost by technology. As an example, I can buy English learning program of BBC named Khola Jalana’’. However, school principals were asked the same question in Narayanganj. One of the school principals from Narayanganj said, I think, modern technology can help the students to understand any topic easily and help the students to achieve the language’’.P2 mentioned, ‘‘ I believe, the contribution of modern technology for enhancing English achievement is very essential. Without ICT there is no way for English achievement ’’.P3 advocated, ‘‘I think, modern technology is very much essential’’. P4 described, ‘‘ The contribution of modern technology has no alternative’’. The contribution of modern technology was found ‘very essential’ which was supported by 75 % and 25 % , ‘essential’ 25% and 75 % , in Bhola and Narayanganj . Figure 4.3.5 Recommendation to increase English learning
  • 103. 87 Recommendation: Head teachers were asked about the recommendation to increase the English achievement of the secondary students in both jurisdictions. One of the interviewees from Bhola said, ‘‘Listening, reading, speaking and writing should be practiced more and more’’. P2 described, ‘‘ The education sector of our country is low esteemed. The pay scale for the teachers’ is miserable. For this region, brilliant student does not come to this sector and the students are being deprived from this service’’. P3 assumed, ‘‘At first, meritorious students should be engaged in schools. Appointment system should be strict to get skilled teacher’’. Conversely, one of the school principals from Narayanganj assumed, ‘‘Creating positive environment in the class room, speaking practicing of English in the class room and using the latest teaching aids will help the students to achieve English’’. P2 believed, ‘‘ To increase English learning of secondary level, we should emphasis on the four basic skills of the languages’’.P3 depicted, ‘‘Government should appoint expert and Skilled Teach er 75% Practic e 25% Skilled Teach er 25% Practic e 75% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 104. 88 meritorious teacher, to arrange regular training , to provide teaching aid and environment for the students’ English achievement’’ . P4 mentioned, ‘‘The recommendation for the English learning of secondary level students are given below: 1.Grammar based learning 2. To increase the vocabulary of the students .3. Phonetics 4. To give an environment to learn English and 5. To open a language club every secondary school’’.With a view to increase English achievement, in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommendations varied substantially across the regions. The result showed that 75 % of the respondents in Bhola recommended ‘skilled teachers’, 25 % , on ‘ practice’ . It followed that , the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the respondents recommended the necessity of ‘practice’ as an influential factors (75%) and skilled teacher only 25% for increasing English skill. Thus the most influential factor for increasing the skill of English was ‘practice’ in Narayanganj and ‘ skilled teacher’ in Bhola. Figure 4.3.6 Government assistance 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Modern Classroom Size of Class Appoint Skilled Teacher 25% 25% 50% 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Modern Classroom Appoint Skilled Teacher Size of Class 25% 25% 50%
  • 105. 89 Government assistance: School principals were asked question about the government assistance to improve students’ English achievement in both regions. One of the respondents (P1) from Bhola asserted, ‘‘Government should give necessary equipment and teachers training should be arranged’’.P2 said , ‘‘ To improve students’ English achievement, skilled subjective teacher must be appointed’’.P3 mentioned, ‘‘Government should appoint learned teachers to improve students’ English achievement and class size is to be reduced’’. Head teachers were asked on the same issue and one of the respondents from Narayanganj said , ‘‘ It is essential to Provide computers, internet access, IT facilities and training at home and abroad’’.P2 said, ‘‘ Modern facilities, environmental support, small classroom, more training facilities, more skilled teachers and technological support are needed by the government’’. P3 said, ‘‘I think government should take initiative; 1. To develop the ICT sector 2. To Train up the English teachers.’ The areas of the government assistance needed to improve the English skill were divided into three categories which were (1) To appoint skilled teachers (2) To reduce the class size and (5) To provide modern classroom. The study result revealed that the most important areas for government assistance were to ‘appoint skilled teachers’ and to ensure ‘moderate class size’ in Bhola and in Narayanganj which were supported by 50% of the School principal in both areas. Also, ‘modern class room’ was reinforced by 25 % of Head Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 106. 90 teachers in both regions. ‘The size of class’ was supported by 25 % of respondents in Bhola , the same number of respondents in Narayanganj recognized on ‘ appoint skilled teacher. Figure 4.3.7 Skills for English teacher Skill for English teacher: School principals were asked question about the required English skill to increase students’ English achievement. One of the participants (P1) from Bhola said , ‘‘Teachers have to acquire latest knowledge and they have to know how to teach English effectively’’. P2 mentioned, ‘‘Students friendly English skill for the English teacher is essential ’’. P3 said , ‘‘ An English teacher must have to acquire technique about English teaching, proper pronunciation is also important ’’. P4 asserted, ‘‘Teacher should have capacity to teach smoothly with friendly attitude during the class and beyond’’. By contrast, school principals from Narayanganj were asked the same question. One of the participants Proper knowle dge 25% Friendl y Attitude 25% To change the content 50% Proper knowle dge 25% To change the content 25% Friendl y Attitude 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 107. 91 from Narayanganj said, ‘‘The teachers should have the good command over the 4 basic skills.’’ P2 said , ‘‘ 1. Teachers need to visualize in both language and linguistic 2.Teachers must be experienced in teaching with modern ideas 3. Teachers will be under continuous monitoring and training’’. P3 asserted, ‘‘Four skills in english learning, listening, speaking, reading and writing are important to be achieved by the teachers. I think, as an English teacher one should possess these skills’’. P4 stressed on friendly attitude and to make easy content. The effectiveness of appropriate skills required for the English-teachers was examined by dividing into three broad categories which were (1) To make easy content (2) Friendly attitude ( 3) Proper knowledge of the teachers . It was found that the skill of teachers to ‘make the content easy’ and the ‘friendly attitude’ of the teachers were the most significant factors which were supported by 50 % of the school principals in both areas. 25 % in both areas was supported ‘proper knowledge’ of the teachers. Other attributes of the skill of the English teachers were not remarkably important but the ‘friendly attitude’ in Bhola which was supported by 25 % of the respondents and in Narayanganj ‘to make easy content’. Figure 4.3.8 Importance of English skill among all subjects
  • 108. 92 Importance of English: School principals were interviewed by the author in both areas on the importance of English skill among all subjects. From Bhola, one of the participants (P1) said, ‘‘ English is very important to take future step for education and to access internet’’. P2 said , ‘‘ English is an international language and we are the member of a global village’’. Most importantly, one of the interviewees from Narayanganj said, ‘‘there is so much importance of English skill among all subjects, because English is the international language. In graduate level, almost all books are written in English. So, we have to know English for our betterment’’.P2 said, ‘‘It makes graduation easier and make international communication easier through using internet’’. P3 said, ‘‘the importances are many. They can strengthen the mental power of the learners to understand or master the other subjects and also help them to share the international issues’’. P4 mentioned, ‘‘English skill is essential to build up the future Interna tional langua ge 25% To Acces s interne t 25% Higher Study 50% Interna tional langua ge 25% To Acces s interne t 25% Higher Study 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 109. 93 career among all the students’’. The importance of English among all subjects was assessed by the principals on the basis of the usefulness of English language for different purposes which were broadly divided into three categories such as (1) To complete graduation (2) To access internet and (3) International language. It was found that there was a common tendency in assessing the importance of English within the different kinds of needs in Bhola as compared to Narayanganj, having given higher weight on ‘higher education’ in both areas (50 % in Bhola and in Narayanganj). ‘To access internet’ and ‘international language’ supported by the same number of respondents (25 % of each area ) . Figure 4.3.9 English education environment Environment: Environmental aspects can play an important role to increase English achievement. School principals were asked question about the contribution of English friendly environment to increase English achievement in both areas. One of the participants 25% 25% 50% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Less Contribution Medium Contribution High Contribution 25% 25% 50% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Less Contribution High Contribution Medium Contribution Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 110. 94 (P1) from Bhola said, ‘‘English achievement completely depends on environment’’. P2 mentioned, ‘‘To learn english , environment is needed. If we can start English learning smoothly from our childhood in the family environment, it can be a great foundation for our future learning’’. P3 said , ‘‘Environment plays an important role to learn english’’. P4 said , ‘‘Environment has few contribution’’. Head teachers from Narayanganj were asked on the same issue, and one of them said, ‘‘Without environment, English achievement is impossible’’. P2 said , ‘‘ English is not our mother language. So, any language except our mother tongue is hard to be learned.’’. P3 described, ‘‘Environment is not so important’’. P4 believed, ‘‘ It contributes greatly’’. Majority of the respondents in Bhola which was supported by 50 % agreed that the English-friendly environment was the highest contributor of learning English. But , ‘ Medium contribution’ supported by 50 % school principals in Narayanganj. A few number of participants ( 25 % ) mentioned as less contribution in both areas . One-fourth of the respondents supported environment as ‘ high contribution’ to increase English in Narayanganj . Supervision of class by principal: An exclusive interview was conducted to the respondents regarding the necessary to supervise of English class by the school principal. The supervision of English class is required to see how much English the students learn and use in their real life situation. The supervision of English class in the 10th grade, having categorized by ‘Often’, ‘Every day’ and ‘some times’. Half of the respondents ( 50 % ) in both regions endorsed as ‘Often ‘and ‘ Every day’ in Bhola and in Narayanganj .
  • 111. 95 Figure 4.3.10 Supervision of English class by school principal One -fourth of the principals of the each area depicted as ‘Some times’ which was supported by 25 % and rest of the respondents portrayed as‘ Every day’ and ‘ Often’ which were 25 % every zone . Figure 4.3.11 Parental education and income Some times 25% Every day 25% Often 50% Som e times 25% Often 25% Every day 50% Essen tial 25% Verry essent ial 75% Essent ial 75% Verry essent ial 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayang anj (Suburban )
  • 112. 96 Parents’ education and income: Parents’ education and income can provide leading edge facilities and conducive environment for the students to achieve English, play an important role. The result disclosed that 75 % of the respondents mentioned parents’ education and income are ‘very essential’ to learn English in Bhola while the same was only 25 % in Narayanganj. However, on the same issue of parental education and income for students English achievements, supported as ‘Essential’ which were accounted for 25 % and 75 % in Bhola and Narayanganj. Figure 4.3.12 Criteria to evaluate English subject teacher Interacti ve with the students 50% Art of teaching and skill 50% Interacti ve with the students 25% Art of teaching and skill 75% Bhola (Rural) Narayang anj (Suburban )
  • 113. 97 English teachers’ evaluation: The criteria to evaluate English teachers was examined by dividing into two broad categories which were (1) Art of teaching and skill (2) Interactive with the students. It was found that the art of teaching and skill of teachers was the most significant aspects supported by 50 % and 75 % of the school principals in Bhola and in Narayanganj. Another category, ‘interactive with the students’ was supported by 50 % and 25 % of the respondents in Bhola and Narayanganj . In service training: Training is an indispensable for teachers to teach pupils at school. Regarding the existence of in-service training for the teachers, a significant number of respondents , which were claimed ‘Yes’ by 50 % in Bhola and 75 % in Narayanganj. Figure 4.3.13 In service training to English teachers No 50% Yes 50% No 25% Yes 75% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 114. 98 Half of the respondents from Bhola and one-fourth from Narayanganj mentioned ‘No’ on the same issue. Figure 4.3.14 Effect of location of school Location of school: The location of school is an important, having its effect ; positive and negative. The result showed that regarding the location,75 % of the respondents were mentioned ‘ very essential’ to learn English in Bhola while the same was only 25 % in Narayanganj . Nonetheless, location of school for students English achievement as ‘Essential’ which was accounted for 25 % and 75 % in Bhola and in Narayanganj . Figure 4.3.15 Strategy to improve English learning Essent ial 25% Verry Essent ial 75% Verry Essent ial 25% Essent ial 75% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban) Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 115. 99 Strategy :An exclusive interview was conducted to the respondents regarding the strategies to improve students’ English skill in the 10th grade, categorizing by ‘Group work ’, ‘Pare work’ and ‘Communicative method ’. Most of the respondents ( 50 % ) in Bhola depicted ‘group work’ whereas same number of participants mentioned ‘ pare work’ in Narayanganj . One-fourth of the respondents in both areas supported ‘Communicative method’. And rest of the respondents (25% each area) supported ‘pare work’ and ‘Group work’. Table 4.3.21 Comparison (School principals’ opinion) Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj Factors Lack of English teacher 50 %, Lack of conducive Lack of English teacher 25% Lack of conducive Comm unicati ve Metho ds 25% Pare Work 25% Group Work 50% Comm unicati ve Metho ds 25% Group Work 25% Pare Work 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 116. 100 environment 25%, Lack of practice 25% environment 25% Lack of practice 50 % Motivation Instrumental (75%) Integrative 25% Instrumental 25% Integrative ( 75 %) Course Not effective 50 %, Very effective 25%, Effective 25% Not effective 50 % Very effective 25% , Effective 25% Modern technology Very essential 75%, Essential 25 % Very essential 25% Essential 75 %, Recommendation Skilled teacher 75%, Practice 25% Skilled teacher 25% Practice 75 % Govt. assistance Appoint Skilled teacher 50%, Reduce size of class 25% and modern classroom 25% Appoint skilled teacher 25% Reduce size of class 50 % and modern classroom 25% Required skill To teach easy way 50 % Friendly attitude 25% Proper knowledge 25% To teach easy way 25% Friendly attitude 50 % Proper knowledge 25% Importance Higher study 50% International language 25% Higher study 50% International language 25%
  • 117. 101 To access internet 25% To access internet 25% Environmental contribution High 50 %, Medium 25% and less 25% High 25% Medium 50 %and less 25% Supervision by School principal Every day 25% Often 50 % Some times 25% Every day 50 % Often 25% , Sometimes 25% Parents education and income Very essential 75% Essential 25% Very essential 25% Essential 75% Criteria to evaluate English teacher Art of teaching 50 % Interactive with students 50% Art of teaching 75 % Interactive with students 25% In-service training Yes 50%,No 50% Yes 75%,No 25% Effect of location Very essential 75% Essential 25% Very essential 25% Essential 75% Strategy Group work 50 % Pare work 25% , Communicative method 25% Group work 25% Pair work 50 % , Communicative method 25% Wrap-up: Research results revealed that lack of English teacher was the leading factor for low English achievement in Bhola and lack of practice was in Narayanganj which partially supported the opinion of the students because a significant number of the pupils in Bhola
  • 118. 102 depicted that their major problem for learning English was the lack of English teacher while the majority of the students in Narayanganj identified the lack of practice as a dominant factor for low achievement in English. The motivation to learn English was summarized as instrumental and integrative aspects. The view of the school principals concerning the motivational feature of learning English was almost alike to the view of students and English teachers. The instrumental motivation for learning English was higher in Bhola as the students of that part were motivated to be trained English for getting need based work or job to meet their family demand. However, the integrative motivation for learning English was higher in Narayanganj because most of their families were not suffering from the obligation of fundamental needs. Most of the school principals in Bhola as well as in Narayanganj recognized the present course as ‘not effective’ .They said that the existing course had been introduced more than one decade back which was not updated in the line with the students’ need .This view was also supported by the students’ and teachers’ opinions. The use of cutting edge technology as a useful instrument of English learning was supported by the school principals in both regions. But it was highest in Bhola. The study showed that 25% of school teachers in Bhola used the technology and the large number (75%) of the teachers at those schools did not use any technology. However, majority of teachers in Narayanganj found to use modern technology fairly. So, the demand for use of modern
  • 119. 103 technology was comparatively lower in Narayanganj. Unlike the opinions of students, and teachers, the view of the school principals regarding the use of modern technology were very essential for achieving English differs in Narayanganj where only 25% of the school principals marked the use of technology as very essential means of learning English. It was mentionable that the schools in Narayanganj have a relatively better access to the use of modern technology than in Bhola. Despite, most of the school principals did not identify it as the most essential factor. The probable reason for this may be that the schools in Bhola had yet to experience the use of modern technology. This was why the principals in Bhola had higher expectations for gaining more in English achievement by utilizing modern technology. Nonetheless, the principals in Narayanganj have already experienced the use of modern technology and assessed the effectiveness of it. Thus the assessments of the principals in Narayanganj were expected to be more reliable. If this is so, there may exist many other alternative options which can promote English achievement along with the use of modern technology. With a view to increase the quality of English learning, in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommendations diverged on the issue across the regions. The principals in Bhola recommended to appoint skilled teacher noticeable than other things. By contrast, the school principals in Narayanganj endorsed on the facilities for practicing English. These findings were also consistent with the responses given by the students in both areas.
  • 120. 104 The areas of the government assistance needed to improve the English skill of the secondary level students were very similar across the regions. The school principals in both areas proposed to the government to appoint skilled teacher, to reduce class size and to modernize classroom for increasing English achievement. In Bangladesh, students of secondary level are addressing unique education system, same curriculum, same academic year, alike public examination provided by the government through Ministry of Education. For this reason, this was very logical to have the provision of equally qualified and skilled English teachers in every school irrespective of the areas. But this study showed that there were no sufficient skilled teachers in Bhola. This means the students in Bhola were not getting equal treatment from the government in terms of providing skilled English teacher, even if they had to face the same curriculum and public examination system. This was why most of the students in Bhola and a good number of the teachers in both areas expected to appoint more skilled teachers. The effectiveness of appropriate skills required for the English teachers to increase students’ English achievement differed across the region. A good number of school principals in Bhola thought that to change the contents was the most required skill for English teachers. It was found that the change of contents was the most striking factor in Bhola. In spite of all this, school principals in Narayanganj thought that friendly attitude of the English teachers were very effective for students’ English learning. This opinion implied that students in Bhola
  • 121. 105 were suffering from lack of ideal contents of teaching and in Narayanganj friendly attitude of their teachers. Thus it implied that the English teachers should lay emphasis on mastering the arts of changing the contents, entailing friendly attitude. The importance of English among all subjects was assessed by the school principals on the merit of the usefulness of English language for different purposes. The opinion of the school principals regarding the issue was also consistent with the opinion among the students and English teachers. These results implied that the students of Bangladesh principally give priority of visualize English for pursuing graduation. Environmental aspects can play an important role for enhancing English of the secondary level students. Like the English teachers’ opinion, the conducive environment could contribute highly for English learning in both areas as per the school principals’ opinion. For learning English, conducive environment was debased in Bhola compared to the counterpart Narayanganj. So, English learning friendly environment was very essential for achieving English in both regions, Bhola in particular. The supervision of English class was required by the school principals to assess how much English the students learned and used in their real life situation, encompassing the existing class room environment. Half of the respondents in Bhola endorsed as ‘often’ while the same portion of interviewees from Narayanganj viewed as ‘everyday’. It implied that the school principals in Narayanganj played an important supervising role comparing to the
  • 122. 106 Bhola. As per the opinions of the school principals, the Parents’ education and income level was very essential in Bhola compared to the Narayanganj .This meant that the educational institutions were not strong enough to teach English in Bhola. This was why the complementary supports from the families were highly required in Bhola in increasing English skill compared to the Narayanganj areas, as schools in Narayanganj were relatively well-equipped than schools in Bhola. The results revealed that the art of teaching and skill of teachers was the most momentous aspects to evaluate English teachers performance, which were supported by 50% and 75% of the school principals respectively in Bhola and Narayanganj. It implied that the English teachers should emphasize more on mastering the arts of teaching of English. The arts of teaching included teaching through changing the contents, friendly attitude, and more interaction among the students. However, the English teachers should first acquire proper English knowledge before applying these arts of teaching. In-service training can play an essential role for teachers to teach students effectively at secondary level. Regarding the existence of in-service training, a significant number of respondents in both areas were claimed as ‘yes’. But the training of the English teachers was varied. Data showed that 50% of the teachers in Bhola had completed in-service training while this ratio was 75% in Narayanganj .The varying ratios of getting in-service trainings in
  • 123. 107 both areas might be one of the sources of creating inequality in the quality of the English teachers between the regions. Thus there should have special intervention in Bhola to promote sufficient in-service training for all newly recruited English teachers. The geographical setting of school is an important, having its effect; positive and negative. The results showed that the location was very essential, which was supported by most of the school principals in Bhola while in Narayanganj mentioned as essential. In fact the schools in Bhola were often deprived from the modern facilities prevailing in Narayanganj due to disadvantages of location. By contrast, schools in Narayanganj had relatively better access to all of the required modern facilities. Thus the school principals in Bhola could realize the importance of the geographical position of the school by depriving of need-based modern facilities. This was why; the principals in Bhola viewed the effect of location as very essential for English achievement. The school principals in Bhola banked on the strategy of group work for improving the English skill the students in the 10th grade .In addition, they evaluated students working in pairs. Also, school principals in Narayanganj used the strategy of pair group work for increasing the English skill of the students. Few school principals stressed on communicative method as part of their strategies in both areas. This implied that the schools in Bhola suffered from lack of qualified students. As a result, group work was relatively better within the limited number of meritorious students. Nonetheless, schools in Narayanganj were
  • 124. 108 characterized by sufficient numbers of meritorious students. Thus pair work was very effective in Narayanganj. 4.4 Guardians’opinions Guardians were interviewed both in both regions about the factors affecting students’ English achievement at secondary level. Figure 4.4.1 Factors for low English achievement Depen d on text book 25% Hardly use gramm ar book 50% Lack of teachin g manua l 25% Depen d on text book 20% Hardly use gramm ar book 37% Lack of teachin g manual 43%
  • 125. 109 Factors : The first question was asked for an indication to identify the main factors responsible for creating barriers to achieve English. One of the guardians (G1) from Bhola said, ‘‘There are many factors for low english achievement. One is teachers are hardly following any grammar book and largely depend on text book for teaching English ’’. G2 said, ‘‘Teachers are conducting the English class every day without following any teaching manual ’’. By contrast , one of the guardians from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ Many factors are liable for low english achievement . Lack of teaching manual and any specific grammar book.’’.G2 mentioned, ‘‘Teachers are most of the time chartering the text book, beyond the book, they have limited jurisdiction of knowledge’’ The identified factors are supported by guardians can be categorized as three main groups such as – (1) Lack of teaching manual 25 % and 43 % (2) Depend on text book 25 % and 20 % (3) Hardly use grammar book 50 % and 37 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . The result showed that Teachers hardly use particular grammar book in Bhola and lack of teaching manual in Narayanganj was the main barrier to succeed in English. Figure 4.4.2 Motivation Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 126. 110 Motivation: The second question was asked for an indication to answer about motivation of students to learn English. Among them, one of the guardians (G2) from Bhola said, ‘‘ They should learn english to lead the society and the nation, in particular . They are the future of the nation’’.G2 said, ‘‘ They should get a better position in the service to lead their family and relatives’’. However, one of the guardians from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ They should be motivated to get a first-class job in the service’’.G2 said , ‘‘ Students should be motivated to build up their future career and sustainable future. Also, English is an international language’’. The motivation to learn English are summarized as instrumental and integrative aspects. The result showed that 75 % of the students were motivated to learn English for instrumental aspects in Bhola while the same was only 25 % in Narayanganj . Nonetheless, the integrative aspects as a source of motivation accounted for 25 % and 75 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . Figure 4.4.3 Present course Instru menta l 75% Integr ative 25% Instr ume ntal 25% Integ rative 75% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 127. 111 Offered course: The third question was asked for an indication of whether the offered courses could meet the social demand. One of the interviewees from rural area said, ‘‘ I think the offered course is not effective , should be enriched’’. G2 mentioned, ‘‘ I think, the present course is not standard one, should be amended and replaced by the need based new one’’.G3 said , ‘‘ The course is enough to address the current demand is largely effective’’ Nonetheless, one of the guardians said, ‘‘ The present course is typical, students are not getting the chance to practice listening and speaking English through this course, so, it should be modified and modernized ’’. G2 described, ‘‘ I think , the offered course is proper to meet the social demand in customary society’’ .The findings indicate that half of the respondents ( 50 % ) in both regions identified the existing course as ‘not effective’ . One -fourth of the guardians from Narayanganj identified the present syllabus as ‘ effective’ which was 25 % and 50 % of the respondents from Bhola depicted as‘ effective’ .In fact, majority of the respondents endorsed the course as not effective. Not effecti ve 50%Effecti ve 50% Not effectiv e 75% Effecti ve 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 128. 112 Figure 4.4.4 Contribution of modern technology Modern technology: The fourth question was asked for an indication of whether the modern technology has the contribution to English achievement.. From Bhola , one of the participants said, ‘‘ I think, students can understand any topic easily and meticulously through technology . So, it is very essential for the students across their life’’. G2 said , ‘‘ I think, it can play an important role to learn English ’’. By contrast , guardians were asked the same question in Narayanganj. One of guardians from Narayanganj said, I think, at present society, technology can help the students to understand any topic easily and help the students to achieve the language. It is pivotal’’.G2 mentioned, ‘‘I believe, modern technology can contribute for all, pupil in particular to increase English learning’’. The contribution of technology was found ‘very essential’ supported be 75 % and 75 % , ‘essential’ 25% and 25 % , in Bhola and Narayanganj . The findings indicate that a large portion of the guardians Very essent ial 75% Essen tial 25% Very essen tial 75% Essen tial 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 129. 113 in both areas thought that technology is very significant to envision English for the secondary level students. Figure 4.4.5 Recommendation to boost English learning Recommendation: The fifth question was asked for an indication to enhance the English learning of the secondary level students both the jurisdictions. One of the interviewees from Bhola said, ‘‘Students are not getting technological help, which is very essential for their English learning. Moreover, the present curriculum is not effective to learn English perfectly.’’. G2 described, ‘‘They should keep practicing every day on all skills alone or with pairs. Also, they should proper cropping by the knowledge based teachers’’. Nonetheless, one of the guardians from Narayanganj assumed, ‘‘ Authority should provide proper environment in the campus to practice English round the clock. Students should be given appropriate chance to use the technology every day. Their present curriculum is at a large defective, does Practi ce 25% Skilled teach er 50% Tech and curric ulum 25% Practic e 25% Skilled teacher 25% Techno logy and curricul um 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 130. 114 not permit to be mastered on four skills.’’G2 mentioned, ‘‘Most of the brilliant students after graduation do not feel interest to join in this profession. For this reason, students are not getting skilled teacher in this level of schooling.’’. With a view to increase the quality of English learning, in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommendations varied substantially across the regions. The result showed that 50 % of the respondents in Bhola recommended ‘skilled teachers’, 25 % , on ‘ practice’ . However, the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the respondents recommended need based ‘technology and curriculum’ as an influential factors (50%) and skilled teacher only 25% for increasing English learning. Thus the most influential factor for enhancing the skill of English learning was ‘technology and curriculum’ in Narayanganj and ‘ skilled teacher’ in Bhola . Figure 4.4.6 Government assistance Moder n classr oom 25% Skilled teach er 25% Good enviro nment 25% Large Stude nt Size 25% Mode rn class room 25% Skille d teach er 25% Good enviro nmen t 25% Large Stude nt Size 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 131. 115 Government assistance: The sixth question was asked for an indication of whether the government assistance is looked-for improving students’ English acquisition. One of the respondents from Bhola asserted, ‘‘ Government is the main actor to reduce the students size and to provide the conducive environment’’.G2 depicted, ‘‘ To improve students’ english achievement, skilled subjective teacher have to be appointed. Also, modern classroom can play an important role to cultivate English in this stage’’. Guardians were asked on the same issue in Narayanganj and one of the respondents from Narayanganj said , ‘‘ Given their English achievement, students should be given proper environment and skilled teacher’’.G2 said, ‘‘ Modern facilities, and smaller class size are putting favorable position for the students to get better score on fundamental subject English.’’. The areas of the government assistance needed to be improved the English skill were divided into four categories which were (1) Appointment of skilled teachers (2) Reduce the class size and (5) Provide modern classroom and (4) Good environment. The study results revealed that four groups were given the same weighted on the government assistance in both regions . Skill for English teacher: The seventh question was asked for an indication of whether English skill is required for the English teacher. One of the participants from Bhola said, ‘‘Teachers of English subject in this stage, have to acquire update knowledge and they must have to know how to teach English easily’’. G2 asserted, ‘‘Teacher should have the capacity of teaching efficiently with friendly attitude, encompassing the pupils during the class and beyond’’. By contrast , guardians from
  • 132. 116 Narayanganj were asked the same question. One of the participants from Narayanganj said, ‘‘The English teachers should have the good command over the 4 basic skills, reading, writing, listening and speaking.’’. P4 stressed on friendly attitude and to make the content easy . Figure 4.4.7 Required skill for English teacher The effectiveness of appropriate skills required for the English-teachers was examined by dividing into three broad categories which were (1) To make the content easy (2) Friendly attitude ( 3) Proper knowledge of the teachers . It was found that the skill of teachers , ‘friendly attitude ’ was the most significant factor supported by 50 % of the guardians in both areas, followed by to make the content easy and proper knowledge supported by Bhola and Narayanganj . Thus it implies that the English teachers should emphasize more on mastering the arts of making the content easy with friendly attitude, acquiring the deep To teach easy way 25% Proper knowle dge 25% Friendl y attitud e 50% To teach easy way 25% Proper knowle dge 25% Friendl y attitud e 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 133. 117 knowledge in English than depending on other stuffs like creativity or teaching by technology. Figure 4.4.8 Importance of English skill among all subject English skill among all subject: The eighth question was asked for an indication of importance of English skill among all subjects. From Bhola , one of the participants said, ‘‘ English is important in our present life to take future step for education and to access internet’’. G2 said , ‘‘ English is an international language and English is having thick relation with other academic subjects ’’. By contrast , one of the interviewees from Narayanganjsaid, ‘‘ There are so many importance of english skill among all subjects, because english is the global effective language. In higher study, all books are written in Higher study and internet 25% Relate d to other subject 50% Interna tional langua ge 25% Higher study and internet 50% Related to other subjent 25% Internat ional langua ge 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 134. 118 English. So, students should have to know English for their betterment’’.G2 said , ‘‘It is easy for the students to access internet by visualizing English . Also, many technical words are written in English in the various subjects’’. The importance of English among all subjects was assessed on the basis of the usefulness of English language for different purposes which were broadly divided into three categories such as (1) Higher education and to access internet (2) Related to other subject and (3) International language. It was found that there was a common tendency in assessing the importance of English within the different kinds of needs in Bhola as compared to Narayanganj , having given higher weight on ‘higher education’ in Narayanganj and ‘related to other subject’ in Bhola ( 50 % in Bhola and Narayanganj). ‘International language’ supported by the same number of respondents ( 25 % in each area ) . Figure 4.4.9 Environmental contribution Environment: Environmental aspects can play an important role in achieving English. The ninth question was asked for an indication about the contribution of English learning High contri bution 50% Less contri bution 50% High contrib ution 75% Less contrib ution 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 135. 119 environment to increase English in both areas. One of the participants from Bhola said, ‘‘Environment has high contribution to enhance English. Environment makes to know language to life ’’. G2 mentioned, ‘‘to learn english in the school, environment is desirable’’. Guardians from Narayanganj were asked on the same issue, and one of them from Narayanganj said, ‘‘Without perfect environment , learning english is next to impossible’’. G2 described, ‘‘Environment is not so important’’. Majority of the respondents in Bhola and Narayanganj which was supported by 75% and 50 % on the point that the English-friendly environment was the highest contributor of learning English. A few number of participants ( 25 % ) mentioned as less contribution in Narayanganj , but half of the participants supported environment as ‘ less contribution’ to increase English learning in Bhola . Figure 4.4.10 Approach to learn English Approach to learn English: The tenth question was asked for an indication of whether an approach can contribute to learn English. One of the participants from Bhola said , ‘‘Teachers Teaching byTechn ology 25% To Teach Easy Way 25% Friendly Attitude & knowled ge 50% Teachin g byTechn ology 25% To Teach Easy Way 50% Friendly Attitude and knowled ge 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 136. 120 of English subject in this step, should possess to handle the technology for teaching English, have to acquire updated knowledge and they must have to know how to teach English through making the content easy’’. G2 asserted, ‘‘Teacher should have enormous knowledge on English subject with friendly attitude, surrounding the pupils during the class and beyond’’. By contrast, guardians from Narayanganj were asked the same question. One of the participants from Narayanganj said, ‘‘The English teachers should have the good control over the 4 basic skills, reading, writing, listening and speaking. Also, to make the content easy with the students friendly environment ’’. G2 stressed on using of technology and make the step for the students to use the technology without fear and favor.’’ The effectiveness of appropriate skills of approach required for the English-teachers was examined which were divided into three broad categories namely; (1) To make the content easy (2) Friendly attitude and knowledge ( 3) Teaching by technology . It was found that the skill of present approach of teachers , ‘friendly attitude and knowledge ’ was the most significant factor supported by 50 % of the guardians in Bhola when ‘to make the content easy’ was supported by 50 % of guardians from Narayanganj. Figure 4.4.11 English class supervision by guardian
  • 137. 121 Supervision of English class: The eleventh question was asked for an indication of whether guardian supervises the schools. From Bhola , one of the guardians said , ‘‘Once in a month , I supervise the school performance of the pupils ’’. G2 mentioned, ‘‘every week day, I supervise the activities of the pupils’’. G3 told, ‘‘Twice in a month’’. However, Guardian from Narayanganj said, ‘‘I supervise the schools twice in a month, very closely and sincerely’’.G2 said, ‘‘Once in a month, I supervise the activities of the students’’. G3 said , ‘‘ Every weekday I supervise their activities’’ The results indicate that they regularly supervising the institutions to increase students’ regular performance in both areas are very important. Figure 4.4.12 Extra class and home work for students 0 5 10 15 20 Every week day Once in a month Twice in a month 25% 50% 25% 0 5 10 15 20 Every week day Once in a month Twice in a month 50% 25% 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 138. 122 Extra class and Home work : The twelfth question was asked for an indication of whether extra class and home work claiming better result for the students English achievement. Guardian from Bhola said, ‘‘It is very essential for their better performance of English subject. I totally agree with the concept, needs to be implemented ’’. G2 said, ‘‘ It is essential to make their routine work smoothly’’. Nonetheless, one of the guardians from Narayanganj said, ‘‘’It is instrumental to fit them to address the present challenges of English’’.G2 thought, ‘‘It is essential to make themselves regimental with the habit and action of English with environment ’’. The results show that a high portion of guardians in both areas agreed on the issue that extra class and home work is pivotal for them to address their schooling activities, english in particular. Figure 4.4.13 Participation of school meeting Very essential Essential 75% 25% Very essential Essential 50% 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 139. 123 Participation of school meeting: The thirteenth question was asked for an indication of whether the community and parents are regularly participating the school meeting. From Bhola , one of the guardians said, ‘‘We attend the school meeting regularly’’. G2 depicted, ‘‘Occasionally , we attending the meeting’’. In Narayanganj, one of the guardians mentioned, ‘‘ Every meeting ,we are attending ’’.G2 thought, ‘‘ We are not attending the school meeting regularly, as we are busy with our household activities’’ It was found that quite a high portion in both jurisdictions, agreed that they regularly participate in the school meeting. Teaching materials: The fourteenth question was asked for an indication of whether the English teacher uses teaching materials. One of the interviewees from Bhola said, ‘‘English teacher use the teaching materials sometimes’’. Regula rly 75% Occasi onally 25% Regul arly 50% Occasi onally 50% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 140. 124 Figure 4.4.14 Teaching materials use by English teacher G2 depicted, ‘‘English teachers always use the teaching materials’’. By contrast , one of the guardians from Narayanganj said, ‘‘In this school, English teachers from time to time use the important items of teaching materials’’. G2 denoted, ‘‘English teachers are habituated with using the teaching materials’’. The results indicate that 25 % of teachers always use teaching materials in Bhola while the same was 75 % in Narayanganj. It depicts that teachers in Narayanganj are comparatively habituated to use technology than in Bhola. Family income and education: The fifteenth question was asked for an indication whether income and education of guardian contributes in developing English skill of their child. Parents’ education and income can provide educational supports and conducive environment for the students to achieve English, play an important role. One of the guardians from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ It is too much important to provide the learning materials and others Always 25% Someti mes 75% Always 75% Someti mes 25% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj(Su b-urban)
  • 141. 125 essential items’’ . G2 mentioned, ‘‘ It has no contribution to lead the students’’. Figure 4.4.15 Family education and income However, one of the guardians from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ It is second to none. Students are entirely dependent on parents income and their educational link give them proper guidelines ’’. G2 mentioned, ‘‘ It is not important to get better score in the examination. And it does not affect at all’’. The result disclosed that 50 % of the respondents mentioned parental education and income does not contributes to learn English in Bhola while the same was only 25 % in Narayanganj. However, on the same issue majority of the interviewees supported as ‘too much’ in Bhola and Narayanganj. Table 4.4.21 Comparison (Guardians’ opinion) Too much Not at all 50% 50% Too much Not at all 75% 25% Bhola (Rural ) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 142. 126 Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj Factors Hardly use grammar book 50 %, Lack of teaching manual 25%, Depend on text book 25% Hardly use grammar book 37% Lack of teaching manual 43 % Depend on text book 20% Motivation Instrumental (75%) Integrative 25% Instrumental 25% Integrative ( 75 %) Present Course Not effective 50 % Effective 50% Not effective 75 % Effective 25% Modern technology Very essential 75 % Essential 25% Very Essential 75 % Essential 25% Recommendati on To appoint skilled teacher 50%, Technology and curriculum 25%, Practice 25% To appoint skilled teacher 25% Technology and curriculum 50% Practice 25%, Govt. assistance Skilled teacher 25% Reduce student size 25% Good environment 25% Modern classroom 25% Skilled teacher 25% Reduce student size 25 % Good environment 25% Modern classroom 25% Required skill Friendly attitude 50 %, To teach easy way 25%, Friendly attitude 50 % , To teach easy way 25%,
  • 143. 127 Proper knowledge 25% Proper knowledge 25% Importance of English among all subject Related to other subject 50%, Higher study and internet 25% Global language 25%, Related to other subject 25% Higher study and internet 50%, Global language 25% , Environmental Contribution High 50 %, Less 50% High 75 %, Less 25% Teaching approach Friendly attitude and knowledge 50 % To teach easy way 25%, Teaching by technology 25% Friendly attitude and knowledge 25% To teach easy way 50 % Teaching by technology 25% Supervision by Guardian Once in a month 50 % Twice in a month 25% Every week day 25% Once in a month 25% Twice in a month 25% Every week day 50 % Extra class and home work Very essential 75% Essential 25% Very essential 50% Essential 50 % Participation of school meeting Regularly 75 % Occasionally 25% Regularly 50 % Occasionally 50% Teaching materials use Sometimes 75 %, Always 25% Always 75 %, Sometimes 25%
  • 144. 128 by English teacher Parents education and income Too much 50 % Not at all 50% Too much 75% Not at all 25% Wrap-up: On the basis of the view of the guardians, lack of any specific English grammar book was a major factor in Bhola while lack of teaching manual was the main problem in Narayanganj for low English achievement of the students. It was revealed that teachers as well as students were not following any particular grammar book though unified education system was existing across the country. Also, teachers were not following teaching manual as the supply of this item was not implemented properly and timely. The opinion of the guardians about the motivational aspect of learning English was nearly similar to the opinion of students, teachers and school principals. That is the students in Bhola should be motivated by instrumental factor while the students in Narayanganj should be motivated by integrative factor. According to the guardians’ opinion, the present course was not effective to meet the social demand in prevalent society supported in both regions. This opinion is also supported by other stakeholders, students, teachers, school principals. The use of technology as a helpful device of English learning was also sustained by the
  • 145. 129 guardians’ like the students, teachers and school principals in both areas. It entailed that utilization of modern technology for English learning was really an instrumental phenomenon in both regions. Guardians in Bhola proposed to appoint skilled teacher in Bhola. By contrast , guardians in Narayanganj urged to provide technology and need based curriculum to increase students’ English achievement. The guardians in both regions suggested ensuring the favorable environment for practicing English by the students. The recommendations of guardians to a large extent varied from the recommendation of students and teachers. It revealed that guardians in Bhola felt enormously to appoint English teacher for the students’ better achievement while the guardians in Narayanganj stressed on providing modern technology and need based wide-ranging curriculum. The guardians in both regions identified at least four areas such as: employing skill teacher, reducing student size, providing good environment and modernizing the classrooms for government interventions which are equally weighted in both regions. The guardians’ suggestions regarding the areas of government assistance support the suggestions of other stakeholders. Thus government should consider these issues very carefully. The guardians’ in both regions believed that friendly attitude of the English teachers was very vital followed by to make the content easy for English learning. This assessment implied that the students across the regions were deprived of their basic needs and pleasure of learning. In-service and foundation training can promote the teachers to acquire these skills
  • 146. 130 very effectively. The importance of English among all subjects was assessed by the guardians on the basis of the usefulness of English language for different purposes .Guardians in Bhola dominantly wanted to learn English by their children to do better in other subjects as English is dominating in most of the basic subjects such as science, mathematics as a medium of instructions beyond English subjects in Bangladesh. However, guardians thought that students should learn English to pursue higher study. The guardians’ opinion regarding the importance of learning English was also consistent with the opinion of the students. This implied that the students of Bangladesh should basically give right of way English learning for deeper understanding other subjects and pursuing their graduation. Like the students and teachers opinion, the English learning environment could contribute greatly for English wisdom in both areas as per the opinion of the guardians. Thus, conducive environment is an obvious for students’ virtual achievement of English at secondary level in both areas. The interview results with guardians revealed that they expected friendly attitude and deep knowledge of English regarding the approach to teach students’ English in Bhola .By contrast , guardians in Narayanganj expected the students’ friendly contents from teachers regarding the approach of teaching. The opinion of the guardians varied across the regions on the supervision of English class by them. Most of the guardians in Bhola endorsed once in a month while in Narayanganj
  • 147. 131 supported every weekdays. It implied that the intensity of supervisions by the guardians is relatively higher in Narayanganj. This may be one of the most influential factors for the higher achievement of English in Narayanganj than in Bhola. Most of the guardians in both regions identified the extra class and home work for students’ English achievement was very essential. It implied that extra class and home work was pivotal for students’ better results in English subject. Nevertheless, the efficacy of the extra-class and homework is very strong in Bhola compared to the Narayanganj. This means the usual course of the classes is not sufficient to meet up the required demand for effective learning of English in Bhola. The probable reasons may be that the existing curriculum is relatively difficult for Bhola and the educational institutions in Bhola are not well- endowed with the qualified English teacher. As a result, the guardians in Bhola mostly marked the necessity of extra class and homework as very essential. The issue of participation in the school meeting by the guardians and community members was assessed across the regions. Majority of the guardians in both areas stressed their physical presence and contribution in the school meeting. It implied that the interviewees could add some policy suggestions for the betterment of the students on the unlock agenda. The opinion of the guardians about the use of teaching materials and teaching aids by the English teachers varied across the regions. Majority of the respondents in Bhola mentioned that teachers sometimes used teaching aids and material. But, in Narayangnaj ,most of the guardians said that teachers always utilized need based teaching materials and aids. It was
  • 148. 132 found that majority of the schools in Bhola employed text book, black board, white board, picture and poster as teaching –learning materials and aids. But, in Narayanganj, most of the schools could use modern technology in addition of the mentioned teaching aids for enhancing English of the students. It implied that students in Bhola had the high demand to access into the modern teaching materials and aids for learning English. However, in Narayanganj, they had less demand and comparatively better access to teaching materials and aids. Parents’ education and income can provide need based educational support ,teaching materials and aids for the students to achieve English, play an important role round the clock. The results revealed that 50% guardians in Bhola mentioned that parental education and income can contribute ‘too much’ in developing English skill for their children. However, 75% guardians in Narayanganj supported on the same issue.It implied that both the areas felt enormously parental education and income to increase English for their children. 4.5 Community members’ opinions Community members were interviewed in both regions about English achievement
  • 149. 133 of their contiguous secondary school students. Figure 4.5.1 Factors for low English achievement Factors : The first question was asked for an indication to identify the main factors responsible for creating barriers to learn English. One of the community members (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘There are many factors for low english achievement. One is teachers are not skilled on English. Also, students are weak from their inception ’’. C2 said, ‘‘Students are attending their English class every day, but they are not always practicing ’’. Getting beyond the obvious, one of the members from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ Many factors are liable for low english achievement . Lack of efficient and experience English teacher is one of them’’.C2 mentioned, ‘‘ Teachers are teaching , but students are not practicing regularly and their basic are not good to absorb it’’ The identified factors identified by the community members can be 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15% 10% 45% 20% 10% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 25% 15% 25% 20% 15% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 150. 134 categorized as three main groups such as – (1) Lack of English teacher 40 % and 25 % (2) Weak base 50 % and 30 % (3) Lack of practice 10 % and 45 % in Bhola and Narayanganj .The result showed that the most dominant factor was a weak base in Bhola and lack of practice in Narayanganj are liable for students’ low English achievement. Figure 4.5.2 Motivation Motivation: The second question was asked for an indication to answer was about the motivation of students to learn English. Among them, one of the community members (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘ They should learn english to do good to the people and the country ’’.C2 said, ‘‘ They should be motivated to get a higher position in the service ’’. It follows that , one of the community members from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ They should be motivated to get a cadre service job through Bangladesh Civil Service ’’.C2 denoted, ‘‘ Students should be motivated to build up their future step and make it sustainable’’. The motivation to learn English is summarized as instrumental and an integrative aspect. The result showed that 70 % of the Integr ative 30% Instru mental 70% Integra tive 70% Instru mental 30% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 151. 135 students were motivated to learn English for instrumental aspects in Bhola while the same for in Narayanganj was only 30 % . In spite of all this, the integrative aspects as a source of motivation accounted for 30 % and 70 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . Figure 4.5.3 Offered course Offered course: The third question was asked for an indication was whether the offered courses could meet the social demand. One of the interviewees (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘ I think the offered course is not effective, and it should be amended’’. C2 mentioned, ‘‘ I think, the present course is not standard one, communicative English should be included in the syllabus ’’ .It follows that , one of the community members said, ‘‘ The present course is cliché, students are not getting the chance to practice listening and speaking English through this course, so, it should be modified and modernized ’’. C2 described, ‘‘ I think , the offered course is good to meet the social demand in this society’’ .These findings indicate that more Effecti ve 40% Not Effecti ve 60% Effecti ve 20% Not Effecti ve 80% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 152. 136 than half of the respondents ( 60 % in Bhola and 80 % in Narayangan ) in both regions identified the existing course as ‘not effective’ . Figure 4.5.4 Contribution of modern technology Modern technology: The fourth question asked for an indication was whether the modern technology has the contribution to English achievement. From Bhola , one of the participants (C1) said, ‘‘ I think, students should be given the chance to use the cutting edge technology to achieve of English knowledge’’. C2 asserted, ‘‘ I think, it can play an important role to learn English ’’. It is clear that, members were asked the same question in Narayanganj. One of members from Narayanganj said, I think, Student are not getting the chance to use the technology. It is very essential.’’. C2 mentioned, ‘‘ I believe, modern technology can contribute for all, pupil in particular to increase English learning’’. The contribution of modern technology was found ‘very essential’ supported by 60 % and 60 % , ‘essential’ 40% 60% 40% Very Essential Essential 0 5 10 15 60% 40% Very Essential Essential 0 5 10 15 Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 153. 137 and 40 % of community member in Bhola and Narayanganj area. The findings indicate that a large portion of the members both the areas believed that modern technology is very significant to visualize English for secondary level students. Figure 4.5.5 Recommendation Recommendation: The fifth question was asked what is your recommendation to increase the English skill of secondary level students? One of the interviewees (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘Students are not getting technical help, which is very vital for their English learning. Moreover, the present curriculum is not helpful to learn English flawlessly.’’. C2 described, ‘‘ They should keep practicing regularly during their class time and beyond . They also need help from skilled teacher’’. More importantly, one of the members from Narayanganj assumed, ‘‘ Authority should take appropriate step to appoint skilled teacher and curriculum should be updated.’’C2 mentioned, ‘‘Students are not getting the chance to visit 0 2 4 6 8 10 20% 20% 50% 10% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 35% 30% 30% 5% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 154. 138 computer or language lab and they are not practicing enormously’’. With a view to enhance the quality of English skill, in the secondary level, the respondents’ recommended varied substantially across the regions. The results showed that 50 % of the respondents in Bhola recommended ‘skilled teachers’, 20 % , on ‘ practice’ . Nonetheless, the result showed a different scenario in Narayanganj where most of the respondents recommended need based ‘practice’ as an influential factors (35%) and skilled teacher only by 30% of respondents to increase English achievement. Thus the most influential factor to develop the skill of English was ‘practice’ in Narayanganj and ‘ skilled teacher’ in Bhola. Figure 4.5.6 Government assistance Government assistance: The sixth question was asked what kinds of government assistance are required to improve students’ English achievement?. One of the respondents (C1) from Bhola asserted, ‘‘ Government should keep focusing appointment of skilled teacher and the classroom should be digitalized ’’.C2 depicted, ‘‘ In the secondary level, students size 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Appoint Skilled Teacher Modern Classroom Good Envt Standard student siize 40% 20% 20% 20% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Appoint Skilled Teacher Modern Classroom Good Envt Standard siize of Class 25% 20% 25% 30% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 155. 139 is larger, should a lower student to teacher ration’’. Community members were asked on the same issue in Narayanganj and one of the respondents from Narayanganj believed, ‘‘ In the government and non-government schools , we feel teacher shortage, English subject in particular. Students are not getting expected learning friendly classroom to learn English through technology’’.C2 said, ‘‘Modern facilities, and smaller student size are putting constructive position for the students to get better score on basic subject English.’’. The areas of the government assistance needed to improve students English level were divided into four categories which were (1) Appointment of skilled teachers (2) Optimizing the class size and (5) Modern classroom and (4) A good classroom environment. The study results revealed that the most important areas for government assistance were to appoint skilled teachers and to ensure a smaller class size of students which were supported by 40 % and 30 % in Bhola and Narayanganj . Figure 4.5.7 Skill for English teacher 40% 20% 10% 20% 10% 30% 15% 10% 35% 10%
  • 156. 140 Skill for English teacher: The seventh question was asked what kind of skill is required for English teachers to increase students’ English achievement? One of the participants (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘Teachers of English subject in this level should learn how to teach by technology encompassing friendly attitude and easy content ’’. C2 said, ‘‘ English teacher should possess proper knowledge on English , including grammar and creative thinking to make the students interest on English’’. Therefore, community members from Narayanganj were asked the same question. One of the participants from Narayanganj said, ‘‘The English teachers should have the good command over the 4 necessary skill.’’. C2 stressed on friendly attitude and to teach through modern technology along with originality’’. There are five broad categories that determine the effectiveness of English teachers which are (1) To make easy content (2) Friendly attitude ( 3) Proper knowledge of teachers (4 ) Teaching with technology and (5) Creativity . It was found that skills of the teachers , ‘friendly attitude ’ was the most significant factor supported by 35 % of the members in Narayanganj, and ‘to make easy content ’ supported by 40 % of members in Bhola . Thus it implies that the English teachers should emphasize more on mastering the arts of easy way of teaching with a friendly attitude, acquiring the deep knowledge in English than depending on other belongings like creativity or teaching by Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 157. 141 technology. English skill among all subjects: The eighth question was is there an indication of an importance of English among all subjects? From Bhola, one of the participants (C1) said, ‘‘ English is imperative to take step for graduation, and it is an international language’’. C2 said, ‘‘English is an essential to access to internet and many mechanical words in the text are written in English ’’. By contrast, one of the interviewees from Narayanganj said, ‘‘ There are so many importance of english skill among all subjects, because english is the universal valuable language. In graduate level, almost all books are written in English.’’.C2 said, ‘‘It is easy for the students to access internet and to get admission for graduation by encompassing English ’’. Figure 4.5.8 Importance of English skill among all subjects English among all the subjects was assessed on the basis of usefulness in different Higher Educati on 40% Related to others subject 30% Internati onal Langua ge 15% To access internet 15% Higher Educati on 50% Related to others subject 20% Internati onal Langua ge 15% To access internet 15% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 158. 142 purposes which were broadly divided into four categories such as (1) Higher education (2) Related to other subject and (3) International language and (4) To access internet. It was found that there was a common tendency in assessing the importance of English within the different kinds of needs in comparing the two regions with a higher weight on ‘higher education’ in both areas ( 40 % in Bhola and 50 % in Narayanganj). Environment: Environmental aspects can play an important role in fueling English. The ninth question was asked how much environment contributes increasing English achievement. One of the participants (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘Environment has high contribution to fueling English. Environment makes to know language across the life ’’. C2 mentioned, ‘‘To learn english in the school, environment is desirable’’. Figure 4.5.9 Environmental contribution Community members from other parts were asked the same type of question, and one of High contributio n 60% Less contributio n 40% High contributio n 90% Less contributio n 10% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 159. 143 respondents from Narayanganj said, ‘‘Without ideal environment, education of English is impossible’’. C2 described, ‘‘Environment is not so important, its contribution is not mentionable’’. The Majority of the respondents in Bhola and Narayanganj agreed that the classroom environment was the highest contributor to learning English, which was supported by 60 % and 90 % of the interviewees. Political promise: The tenth question was asked how much do you feel political promise can contribute to learn English?. One of the participants (C1) from Bhola said to the author, ‘‘Political promise i.e.to implement enhancing the quality of English education can play an important role’’. As through political commitment, government can make a policy later.’’ C2 said, ‘‘Government plan and policy is co-related. It is essential’. Also commitment is need based assurance’’. Figure 4.5.10 Contribution of political promise Very essen tial 55%Essen tial 45% Very essenti al 70% Essenti al 30% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 160. 144 However, community members from Narayanganj were asked the same question. One of the participants from Narayanganj said, ‘‘Usually before national election, political party promise to do some activities, and after forming the government, try to fulfill the obligation ’’. C2 stressed on responsibilities were adored by the political parties ,implement through commitment .It is essential’’. The effectiveness of an appropriate political promise was divided into two broad categories which were (1) Essential (2) Very essential. It was found that a political promise is very essential which was supported by 55 % of the members in Bhola and 70 % of in Narayanganj .Thus it implies that a political promise is very important to implement the ambition into action through commitment. Figure 4.5.11 Class room management role Class room management: The eleventh question was asked what do you think about classroom management role of an English teacher. From Bhola, one of the community Import ant 60% Improp er 40% Import ant 60% Improp er 40% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 161. 145 members (C1) depicted, ‘‘ It is important for the students’ English learning. Teachers can easily and freely talk to them and make them understand very smoothly and effectively’’. C2 mentioned, ‘‘English teacher can make an environment to keep practicing English in class and make them expert on particular skill. But most of the cases teachers’ are obsessed to private tutoring, doing improper activities, far from responsibilities to their job ’’. However, community member from Narayanganj said, ‘‘I think , teacher has the power to play leadership role to make them into groups and get to know through participatory method’’.C2 said, ‘‘ Teacher is like a guiding star, can give them idea to follow the right direction, road to the sustained destination by wonderful teaching .But they are not doing so’’ The results indicate that a larger portions of members think that teachers can play a vital role in the class room to increase students’ regular performance in both areas. Figure 4.5.12 School supervision 15% 35% 20% 30% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Four times Three times Two times Once 30% 20% 30% 20% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Four times Three times Two times Once Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 162. 146 Supervision : The twelfth question was asked how often do you supervise the school each month?. Neighborhood member from Bhola said, ‘‘ I come here three times in a month with my child and supervise their activities to improve students’ English achievement’’. C2 mentioned, ‘‘ I have a routine to supervise the school activities every week and meet the teachers and principal ’’.However, community member in Narayanganj told, ‘‘ To improve students English achievement , I come and supervise the function once in a month’’. C2 asserted, ‘‘ I come to this school every week and attend the school program to help the school management and students ’’. The results showed that a significant number of community member supervised the school activities more than three times in a month in both areas to improve students’ English achievement. Figure 4.5.13 Involvement as volunteer Involvement as volunteer: The thirteenth question was asked To what extent are parents Always Sometimes 40% 60% Always Sometimes 60% 40% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 163. 147 and community members are involved as volunteer?. From Bhola, one of the members said, ‘‘We attend the school function regularly’’. C2 depicted, ‘‘occasionally, we are attending the meeting .But we observe the functions focusing the student welfare’’. However, one of the members in Narayanganj mentioned, ‘‘every meeting, we are attending and trying to give input instantly ’’. Also another member said, ‘‘we are not attending the school meeting regularly, as we are busy our job and other activities’’ It was found that quite a high portion of members in both jurisdictions, agreed that they are regularly involve the school activities. Interaction with English teacher: The fourteenth question was asked How often do you interact with English teacher to improve students’ English skill? One of the interviewees (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘I am a local citizen, thinking about the welfare of the school and interacting with the English teacher once in a month at least.’’. C2 said , ‘‘At least twice in a month I come to this school and supervise the English class through interaction. ’’. Figure 4.5.14 Interaction with English teacher Once Twice 60% 40% Once Twice 40% 60%
  • 164. 148 Nonetheless, one of the society members from Narayanganj said, ‘‘Every month, two times , at least I come to supervise their activities and talk to the English subject teachers and the principal about students’ English achievement t.’’. C2 said, ‘‘English teachers are conducting the class every day , but I cannot attend all the activities, .So , once in a month , I interact the English subject teacher in this school. Sometimes, I invite them in my house ’’. The results indicate that 60 % of society members agreed that they interact with English subject teachers once in a month in Bhola . But the same amount of (60% ) neighbors mentioned that two times a month they can interact with the teachers. Teachers’ salary: The fifteenth question was asked do you think teachers’ salaries are insufficient?. One of the participants (C1) from Bhola said, ‘‘Teachers are not getting enough salary to meet their social needs and bear the expenses of their kids. Also, their position in this society is low’’. C2 said, ‘‘Teachers are completely obsessed with private tutoring, so , they are getting money from that source’’. Figure 4.5.15 Teachers’ salary Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 165. 149 The author asked the same question to the member of Narayanganj. One of the interviewees mentioned, ‘‘their salary is not enough in this present context, comparing to other country, like India or Pakistan’’.C2 said, ‘‘they are drawing salary to lead the moderate life, it’ enough’’. The results show that a good number of members agreed to the point that teachers’ salary is not sufficient, and should be increased immediately. Table 4.5.21 Comparison (Community members’ opinion) Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj Factors Lack of English teacher 45 % , Lack of conducive environment 20% Lack of English teacher 25% Lack of practice 25 % Motivation Instrumental (70%) Integrative 30% Instrumental 30% Integrative ( 70 %) Not sufficie nt 60% Suffici ent 40% Not sufficie nt 70% Suffici ent 30% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 166. 150 Course Not effective 60 % Effective 40% Not effective 80 % Effective 20% Modern technology Very essential 60 %, Essential 40% Very Essential 60 % Essential 40% Recommendations Skilled teacher 50 %, Practice 20% Use of modern technology 20%, Skilled teacher 30% Practice 35 %, Use of modern technology 30%, Govt. assistance To appoint skilled teacher 40%, Reduce student size 20%, To provide environment 20% Modern classroom 20%, To appoint skilled teacher 25% Reduce size of class 30 % , To provide environment 25%, Modern classroom 20% Required skill To teach easy way 40 % Friendly attitude 20% Teaching by technology 20%, To teach easy way 30% Friendly attitude 35 % , , Teaching by technology 15% Importance of English skill among all subjects Higher study 40% Related to other subject 30% Higher study 50% Related to other subject 20% Environmental contribution High 60 %, Less 40% High 90 %, Less 10%
  • 167. 151 Political promise Very essential 55 % Essential 45% Very essential 70 % Essential 30% Class room management role Important 60 % Improper 40% Important 60 % Improper 40% Supervise per month Three times 35 %, Once 30% Twice 20% Four times 30 % Twice 30%, Thrice 20% Volunteer attachment Sometimes 60 %, Always 40% Always 60 % Sometimes 40% Interact with English teacher Once 60 %, Twice 40% Twice 60 %, Once 40% Teachers’ salary Not sufficient 60% Sufficient 40% Not sufficient 70 % Sufficient 30% Wrap-up: The opinions of the community members suggest that the lack of English teachers is the reason for low English achievement in Bhola and in Narayanganj. Nonetheless, lack of practice is another dominant factor in Narayanganj. This supports the opinion of school principals and partially by the students’ and teachers’. Thus the lack of English teachers is indeed liable for low English achievement in Bhola and in Narayanganj. The motivational factors for learning English are completely similar in the opinion of
  • 168. 152 community members, students, teachers, and school principals. Students’ in Bhola are mostly motivated by the instrumental factor while students in Narayanganj are mostly motivated by integrative factor. The opinions of students, teachers, school principals and guardians, say the existing course are not capable of meeting the social demand as per the opinion of community member. This result indicates that the English course should be designed by accommodating all social demands in the curriculum. The use of modern technology is also marked by the community member as essential in both the regions like the opinions of other respondents. This is why it is very important that the educational institutions in Bhola and Narayanganj should immediately introduce the use of modern technology for enhancing the English teaching to the students. The community members recommend employing skill teacher mostly in Bhola while the community members in Narayanganj recommend encouraging practice of English among them mostly. This view is supported by the students and guardians opinion in Bhola. Thus in Bhola, to appoint English teachers is essential. Government should provide assistance to employ more skilled teachers in Bhola as per the opinion of the community members. On the basis of community members’ opinion to adopt the ideal students’ friendly content should be implemented required in Bhola while the friendly attitude of the teachers should be in Narayanganj.
  • 169. 153 The importance of English among all subjects should be determined by the requirement of graduation in both areas according to the community members’ opinion. Environmental contribution for enhancing English achievement is also very high as per community members’ opinion in Bhola and in Narayanganj. The community members understand that political promises are a very essential in both areas. But, it is relatively more important in Narayanganj than in Bhola. Community members in both areas identify classroom management as an important factor for learning English. The concentration of supervision of schools, English classes in particular by the community member is also very high in Narayanganj like the supervision of the guardians. Thus the community members and the guardians in Bhola are very watchful about the supervision of English classes. Parents and the community members are involved as volunteers mostly in Narayanganj. The result shows that 60% of the community members always volunteer for activities in Narayanganj while this ratio is only 40% in Bhola. The more volunteers in Narayanganj may contribute to attain the higher achievement in English subject in Narayanganj. The interaction with English teachers by the community member is more in Narayanganj than in Bhola. The results show that 60% of the community members interact with English teachers twice in a month in Narayanganj. This ratio is only 40% in Bhola. Thus the interaction with English teacher might have a positive impact on students’ English
  • 170. 154 achievement. In response to the question of teachers’ salary, the community member in Narayanganj mostly identified the existing salary structure as insufficient. This argument is logical in the background of reality as the living cost is remarkably higher in Narayanganj compared to Bhola. 4.6 Upazilla Education Officers’ opinions: The author interviewed upazilla education officers from both regions. Figure 4.6.1 Factors Factors: The first question was is there an indication of whether the factors are liable for students’ English achievement? Upazilla education officers from Bhola said, ‘‘There are many factors for low English achievement, like, lack teachers .we are expecting it’’. Upazilla education officer fromNarayanganj said, ‘‘ The factors that are liable for students low English achievement are 1. There are many students in the class and they are not using English in classroom 2.Teachers are not active and sincere and 3. Students cannot keep attention on lesson for overcrowded of the students ’’. The findings indicate that lacks of English teachers Lack of English Teachers Bhola Large Number of Student Narayanganj
  • 171. 155 are responsible for students’ low English achievement in Bhola followed by large student size in Narayanganj. Motivation : The motivation to learn English is summarized as instrumental and integrative aspects. Upazilla education officer from Bhola was asked to answer on what sorts of motivation are required for students’ to learn English. Education officer from Bhola answered, ‘‘ English is a global language. To get a well-paid and high-status job both in local and international market English is a must’’. Education officer fromNarayanganj said, ‘‘ They should be encouraged being passionate to learn English for implementing promise to country people’’. Figure 4.6.2 Motivation The results indicate that upazilla education officer in Bhola advocated on instrumental motivation. But, upazill education in Narayanganj visualized on integrative motivation for the students to learn English at the secondary level. Offered course: The third question was is there an indication of whether the offered course meets the social demand of English learning? Upazilla education officer in Bhola said, ‘I think it is not effective because, the offered courses are not taught properly and perfectly’’. An Bhola Instrumental Narayanganj Integrative
  • 172. 156 education officer from Narayanganj mentioned, ‘‘I think, the offered course is essential to meet the social demand of English learning in prevalent society’’. The findings indicate that the offered courses are not effective in the eyes of the upazilla education officer in Bhola. Figure 4.6.3 Offered course However, it is effective in Narayanganj and endorsed by the upazilla education officer from Narayanganj. Figure 4.6.4 Contribution of modern technology Contribution of modern technology: The fourth question was is there an indication of whether the modern technology lends a hand for English achievement? Upazilla education officer hailed in both areas said, ‘‘Modern technology for fueling English can give us much Bhola Not Effective Narayanganj Effective Bhola Narayanganj Very Essential
  • 173. 157 contribution. The findings indicate that education officers in both areas agreed to the point that the presence of modern technology is very essential. Recommendations: The fifth question was is there an indication about the recommendation to increase English skill? Figure 4.6.5 Recommendations to increase English achievement Both the participants said, ‘‘they should be taught by trained teachers, teachers should be selected through demonstration class. And also needs to create an environment of speaking English in the classroom, houses, with parents and others’’. The findings indicate that both the education officers agreed that skilled teacher and favorable environment which is students friendly to achieve English is inevitable to enhance English achievement in the secondary level. Figure 4.6.6 Government assistance Bhola Narayanganj Skilled Teacher & Environme nt
  • 174. 158 Government Assistance: The sixth question was is there an indication of whether government assistance is required to improve students’ English achievement? Upazilla education officer in Bhola said, ‘‘ We need help from the government to provide some fundamental things like teachers training and modern technology in order to improve students’ English acquisition ’’. An education officer from Narayanganj mentioned, ‘‘ The concerned authority of higher level should keep an eye about overall matter, should ensure good environment and teachers should be given chance to take training across the country and beyond.’’ Both the education officer stressed on teachers training, so it is primarily required from the government. Another demand of adopting technology raised by Bhola and also a good environment raised by Narayanganj to improve the english ability. Figure 4.6.7 Skill for English teacher Teachers Training Modern Technology Bhola Good Environment Teachers Training Narayanganj Bhola Proper Knowledge Narayanganj To change the content
  • 175. 159 Skill for English teacher: The seventh question was is there an indication of whether english skill is required for the english teachers to increase students’ English achievement? Education officer in Bhola said, ‘‘To increase students’ English ability through teaching-learning process in the classroom, teachers should possess proper knowledge on four skill i.e reading, writing, reading and speaking round the clock’’. Education officer from Narayanganj told, ‘‘ To increase students’ English achievement students’ required to speak, read, listen and write perfectly ’’. The results showed that proper knowledge of English is required for teacher supported by the education officer in Bhola and to visualize English through entailing easy content , one of the main rudiments for English teacher sustained by the Narayangajanj. Figure 4.6.8 Importance of English among all subjects Importance of English among all subjects: The eighth was is there an indication of whether there is any importance of English skill among all subjects? An education officer from Bhola said, ‘‘The importance of English among all subjects is inevitable. It is very much needed for brushing graduation .Also to access internet in this global competition’’. However, the education from Narayanganj stressed, ‘‘English is an international language and we have Higher Education To Access Internet Bhola Global Language Communication Narayanganj
  • 176. 160 to achieve the capacity to communicate with other nations’’. The results show that officer in Bhola is agreed to the point that for keep going education and to access the internet, English skill is important among all subjects. Whereas English is a global language and for communication purpose is a vital and it was endorsed by the education officer Narayanganj encompassing all subjects. Environment: The ninth question was is there an indication of whether environment contributes fueling English learning?. Environmental aspect as mentioned earlier can play an important role in fueling English. Figure 4.6.9 Environmental contribution Education officer from in both areas mentioned, ‘‘Environ is having high contribution to enhance English all the way in the secondary level ’’. The results indicate that both the officers endorsed conducive environment is one of the high contributors for enhancing English. Figure 4.6.10 Possible change of English syllabus High Contribution Bhola Narayanganj
  • 177. 161 Possible change of English syllabus: The tenth question was is there an indication of whether they support any possible change of English syllabus.? Two officers from both parts believed,‘‘ Present syllabus is not up to the mark to address the present challenges , is ineffective needs to be changed for the betterment of the pupils ’’. The results indicate that present syllabus is not effective because it cannot meet the social holistic demand. Figure 4.6.11 School supervision per month School supervision: The eleventh question was in there an indication of whether the education officer supervises the schools per month. Education officer in Bhola depicted, ‘‘Once in a month, I supervise the school performance of the pupils ’’. However, education officer from Narayanganj said, ‘‘I supervised the schools twice a month, very closely and meticulously’’. The results indicate that they regularly supervising the institutions to fuel their YES Narayanganj Bhola Once Bhola Twice Narayanganj
  • 178. 162 regular performance. Local need of English : The twelfth question was is there an indication of whether English skill is having the local needs. Education officer from Bhola said, ‘‘English is needed and has a positive demand in the locality to get a good job’’. However, education officer from Narayanganj said, ‘‘at present, English is required for various purposes Also to enlighten the society’’. Figurer 4.6.12 Local need of English The results indicate that English is required for practical purpose supported by both areas and it is pivotal to serve the nation , penned by the Narayanganj . Figure 4.6.13 Teachers’ dissatisfaction To get a good Job Bhola To Enlighten the Society Narayanganj Less Salary Bhola Less Social status Narayanganj
  • 179. 163 Teachers’ satisfaction: The thirteen questions were is there an indication of whether the English teachers’ are satisfied about teaching of English? Education officer from Bhola said, ‘‘they are getting less salary from the government, cannot meet their social as well as family demand and they are not satisfied as a whole.’’ By contrast, education officer from Narayanganj said, ‘‘they have less social position, compared to other job of the same community and cohort ’’. It was found that teachers are frustrated with their salary and social position, asserted by the both areas. Figure 4.6.14 English learning beyond class English learning beyond class: The fourteenth question was is there an indication of whether the students can learn English beyond class.? Education officers from both the jurisdictions said, ‘‘By cooperation with other students and using audio and computer , again and again beyond the class, students can be skilled ’’. It was found that English learning is possible beyond the class through cooperation and practice, supported by the officers Purpose of learning English: The fifteenth question was is there an indication of learning English. Both the areas education officers said, ‘‘the purpose of English learning is to become Cooperation & Practice Bhola Narayanganj
  • 180. 164 expert on four skills, reading, writing, listening and speaking ’’. The results show that they agreed that English should be learned for lifelong resources. Figure 4.6.15 Purpose of English learning Table 4.6.21 Comparison (Education Officers’ opinion) Issues/ Factors Bhola Narayanganj Factors Lack of English teachers Large student size Motivation Instrumental Integrative Course Not effective Effective Modern technology Very essential Very essential Recommendations Skilled teacher and good environment Skilled teacher and good environment Govt. assistance Teachers training and technology Good Environment and teachers training Required skills Proper knowledge To change the content To improve studetns' English ability NarayanganjBhola
  • 181. 165 Importance Higher study and to access internet Global language and communication Environmental contribution High High Change of syllabus Yes Yes Supervision of school Once in a month Twice in a month Local demand To get a job To enlighten society Teachers’ dissatisfaction Less salary Less social status English beyond class Cooperation and practice Cooperation and practice Purpose to learn English To improve students’ English ability To improve students’ English ability Wrap-up: (Education officers’ opinion) The education officer working in Bhola sadar upazilla thinks that lack of English teacher is the main factor liable for low English achievement in his area. The opinions of the school principals’ of this area are nearly the same regarding this issue. On the other hand, education officer in Narayangonj sadar upazilla mentions that large class size is responsible for low achievement in English in his area which is supported by the English teachers’ opinion on the same issue of this area.
  • 182. 166 The education officer in Bhola also mentions the motivational factors of learning English is instrumental, the offered course is not effective for meeting the social demand, and the use of modern technology for English learning is very essential in his area. He recommends to placing more skilled teacher and ensuring learning friendly environment to increase the English achieving in the secondary level. As per his opinion, government should provide sufficient training for the teacher and allocate required funds to the school for improving the teaching technology. The education officer in Narayongoj mentioned that motivational factors of learning English is integrative, that the offered course is effective for meeting the social demand, and the use of modern technology for English learning is very essential in his area. He recommends for appointing more skilled teachers and ensuring conducive environment to increase the English achievement in the secondary level as well. On the basis of his opinion, government should ensure student friendly learning environment in the schools and provide sufficient trainings for the teacher The education officer in Bhola thinks that English teachers should have proper knowledge of English language to increase student’s English ability. He also adds the importance of English skill among all subjects is determined by the demand for English in pursuing higher study and the necessity of English to access internet. As per his opinion, the contribution of environment is very high for increasing the students’ English skills. However, the education officer in Narayangonj thinks changing the content should be the important skill of English
  • 183. 167 teacher to increase student’s ability. He also adds the importance of English skills among all subjects is determined by the demand for English as a global language. As per his opinion, the contribution of environment is very high for increasing the students’ English skills. It is noted that both of the education officers recommend changing the existing English syllabus. The supervision of schools by the education officer is more intensive in Narayongonj compared to Bhola. Local demand for English skill in Bhola occurs from the necessity of getting job. Conversely, this demand is created in Narayongonj from the necessity of serving the society by the students. According the opinion of education officers, English teachers are dissatisfied in Bhola due to salary and in Narayongonj due to social status. Both officers have the same opinion regarding off-class learning of English by the students. They think that student in both of areas can learn English by practicing among them, selecting their pairs beyond their English class. Finally the purpose of learning English is the same in both areas which is improving students’English ability. 4.7 Questionnaires Three sets of questionnaires made by author were administered in English achievement predictions. A questionnaires to students, English teachers and School principals. Information about the English teachers Figure 4.7.1Academic qualification of English teachers:
  • 184. 168 Based on the evidence produced by English teachers through questionnaires, the information about the teachers who teach English in the secondary level in 8 selected schools in Bhoal and in Narayanganj can be summarized as follows: Academic qualification of English teachers: The study had taken 32 teachers in both areas. Among the 16 respondents in Bhola, 34% had BA with B.Ed; the same number was MA with B.Ed. Among the study group 8% had a MA English, 8% M.A, 8% B.A, and rest of 8% were the holder of MA, M.Ed. By contrast, among the 16 English teachers in Narayanganj, having the percentage of 38% in M.A English, 19% in B.A (Hons) M.A,13% M.A, M.Ed, M.A with B.Ed 12%,6% M.A (ELT) ,6% B.A and the rest of 6% M.A. degree. The study revealed that among the 32 English teachers, 19% of teachers had a B.A BA 8% MA 8% BA with Bed 34% MA with BEd 34% MA English 8% B.A ( Hons),M .A 0% M.A, M.ED 8% M.A ( ELT) 0% BA 6% MA 6% BA with Bed 0% MA with BEd 12%MA English 38% B.A ( Hons), M.A 19% M.A,M.ED 13% M.A (ELT) 6% Bhola (Rural) Narayanganj (Sub-urban)
  • 185. 169 ( Hons) ,M.A, 6% M.A(ELT) in Narayanganj. But these kinds of qualifications were not found in Bhola. Figure 4.7.2 Number of English class conducted by English teachers per week Number of English classes conducted by English teachers per week. It was revealed that 75% of English teachers from Narayanganj used to conduct more than ten classes every-week on English lesson while 50% from Bhola conducted less than ten classes every-week. Figure 4.7.3 In-service training received by the English teacher In-service training received by the English teacher: In service curriculum based training is an important tool to improve the quality of teachers. The training of teachers was varied. A total of 16 teachers in Bhola received in total 19 hours of inservice training on participatory 2 2 3 1 0 1 2 3 4 > 10 < 10 > 10 < 10 Bhola Narayanganj 0 50 Bhola Narayanganj 19 27
  • 186. 170 teaching strategies, and skills based on contemporary perspective of effective foreign language learning.Whereas, Narayanganj 16 teachers received 27. Figure 4.7.4 Number of English teacher Number of English teacher: The number of English teacher is instrumental in teaching the students based on the lesson plan. The study revealed that in Bhola, 75% of schools had less than 5 teachers each. However, 75% of schools had more than 5 teachers in Narayanganj. Figure 4.7.5 Gender wise English teachers Gender wise English teacher: The findings revealed that the highest percentage of female teachers in the English subjects was in Bhola and lowest was in the Narayanganj. Nevertheless, in both areas, the male teachers were dominating figures. >5 25% <5 75% Bhola (Rural) >5 75% <5 25% Narayanganj (Suburban) 0 5 10 15 Rural Sub-urban 11 14 5 2 Male Female
  • 187. 171 Figure 4.7.6 Age composition of English teachers Age composition of English teachers: Age limit is an important factor regarding any profession, teaching in particular. Among the 16 English teachers in Bhola, most of them (75%) are above 35 years old. However, in Narayanganj, 10 English teachers are having more than 35 years old. This study results revealed that English teachers comparatively younger in Narayanganj than that of Bhola. Information about Students: Based on the evidence sourced students, both the areas, through questionnaires, the information can be summarized as follows: Size of family members: Family size is an important thing towards the schooling of children. Here, the author categorized the number of siblings ranging less than 4 or more than 4 members in a family in both areas. The figure shows that in Bhola, 36 families are having more than 4 members in a single family, while in Narayanganj their total number is 21families. Regarding the small size of families, it can be depicted that in Bhola only 5 families, are having less than 4 members whereas 31 family in Narayanganj are claiming less than 4 0 5 10 15 Rural Sub-urban 12 10 4 6 >35 <35
  • 188. 172 members. Figure 4.7.7 Size of family members The results showed that the family size is significantly large in Bhola compared to the other region of the country, where the family size is manageable and small. Figure 4.7.8 Students’ English achievement in the 10th grade in both regions Students’ English achievement: The study results revealed that students in the 10th grade, among all the schools, four of them were located in Bhola , got lower scores compared to the other four schools, located in 0 10 20 30 40 <=4 >4 <=4 >4 <=4 >4 <=4 >4 <=4 >4 <=4 >4 <=4 >4 <=4 >4 A B C D A B C D Bhola (rural) Narayanganj (urban) 53.88 54.88 55.96 56 64.44 70.08 64.8 75.6 A B C D A B C D Bhola Narayanganj
  • 189. 173 Narayanganj. Figure 4.7.9 Students’ favorite subject Students’ favorite subject : The figure shows that in Bhola, students’ most favorite subject is English, claimed by 25%, followed by Mathematics 20%, other optional subjects 15%, Bangla 14%, Accounting 10%, Computer 9% and Biology 7%. By contrast, in Narayanganj, among the school subjects, English is their preferred subject, which is claiming 20% of the students. The least favorite subject is Biology in that region. In both regions, English is the most favorite subject and Biology is the least favorite subject. The results revealed that the students from Bhola , one fourth of them preferred the fundamental subjects of English and one fifty of the total students in Narayanganj chose the same subject where Biology is the least preferred subject , again in both regions. Figure 4.7.11 Findings in both regions Biology 7% Compu ter 9% Accoun ting 10% Bangla 14% Others 15% Math 20% English 25% Bhola (Rural) Biology 5% Account ing 10% Bangla 14% Comput er 15%Math 18% Others 18% English 20% Narayanganj (Suburban)
  • 190. 174 Findings from both regions: Students in Bhola as well as in Narayanganj has been addressing some basic problems across the year. In Bhola, most of them thought about lack of English teachers, Bhola in particular. Moreover, they addressed difficult content and lack of friendly attitude from their teachers. However, students from Narayanganj, felt their class size was enormously large, and the environment of the class or cohort was not friendly and conducive to practice . Also, they . Bhola (rural) Narayanganj (sub-urban) • Large student size; • Lack of practice & exercise • Lack of students’ active participation • Lack of trained teachers; • Lack of easy content • Lack of Friendly attitude • Lack of Environment; • Ineffective Curriculum; • Classroom facilities & • Lack of teaching material and teaching aid
  • 191. 175 were not able to participate actively in any group work or pair work during the school hours. Nevertheless, students from both areas believed that their environment to achieve English were not conducive. Also, they depicted that their curriculum was not effective to meet the social demand. Moreover, they did not get enough need based classroom facilities i.e. computer, internet, overhead projector along with teaching materials. What’s more, they did not have enough time to use the modern technology. Figure 4.7.12 Use of modern technology Use of modern technology: The Use of modern technology is an important factor to make teaching more effective, interesting and attractive. But the use of teaching aids, and modern technology was not satisfactory in the classes which are showed through the data collected from students. This study showed that 25% of school teachers in Bhola used the cutting-edge technology and a large number ( 75%) of teachers in those schools did not use any technology. However, 50% of teachers in Narayanganj learned how to use modern technology fairly, and the rest of the teachers did not use it. Figure 4.7.13 Library facilities in schools 1 3 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 Yes No Yes No Bhola Narayanganj
  • 192. 176 Library facilities in schools: The use of library facilities is one of the important factors to fuel learning; English in particular. Out of the four schools in Bhola, a large number of students did not get a chance to gain the facilities of library. However, 75% schools in Narayanganj could make available library facilities for the students . Information about the school principals: Based on the evidence from the questionnaires, the information about the principals in both areas can be summarized as follows: Figure 4.7.14 Principal as English teacher Principal as English teacher: School principals are the anchors who play an important role within the school and beyond. Among the 8 respondents, 25% were the English teacher in the research area. The majority of the principals did not have a background in English. 2 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 Bhola Narayanganj No.ofSchool Yes No Yes 25% No 75%
  • 193. 177 Figure 4.7.15 School type School type: There are many types of school in Bangladesh. Among the 4 schools in Bhola, 50% were girls’ schools, 25% were boys and the rest were co-education. However, in Narayanganj, 50% of the schools were co-education and the other schools were both 25% boys and girls schools. The results revealed that girl dominated schools were found in Bhola whereas jointly patronized schools in Narayanganj. Figure 4.7.16 Status of schools Status of schools: Given their status, schools can be categorized as government, MPO (monthly payment order) and government registered. In the research areas, three types of 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Girls Boys Co Education Girls Boys Co Education Bhola ( Rural) Narayanganj ( Sub-urban ) 50% 25% 25% 25% 25% 50% Govern ment 50% MPO 25% Govt. Register ed 25% Bhola (Rural) Govt 50% MPO 50% Narayanganj (Sub urban)
  • 194. 178 schools were noticed. In Bhola, 50% of schools were government run, 25% of the MPO and the rest of government registered. By contrast, half of the schools were found government oriented and the rest of MPO in Narayanganj. The study results revealed that in both regions, government patronized schools . Observation 4.8 Observation: During the period, from September to October, 2011, the author observed 16 classes out of 8 schools located in two upazillas , Bhola sadar (rural ) and Narayanganj sadar ( sub-urban ) of the two districts. During classroom observation, the researcher observed the full period of the 10th grade classes. The classrooms observed and recorded the evidence by the author. The physical and practical conditions of the classroom were measured on a four degree scale (0-3), not at all, , poor, average and excellent. Classroom Environment: Seating arrangement is an important factor in teaching-learning English, in particular. Out of 16 classes, observed in the research area, excellent seating arrangement i.e. students’ friendly learning environment found only one classroom; 4 of the classrooms with average seating arrangement and the last 3 schools with poor seating arrangement .And ,school was visualized as A, B, C and D. Table- 4.8.1 Classroom environment of the schools Observ Urban ( Narayanganj ) Rural ( Bhola )
  • 195. 179 ational Criteria School A School B School C School D School A School B School C School D Seating arrange ment Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Poor Poor Availab ility of light and air Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Excellent Excellent Poor Poor Class size 52 54 45 69 59 55 45 41 Teacher work load Per week 12 classes Per week 13classes Per week 11 classes Perweek 10 classes Per week 12 classes Per week 11 classes Per week 8 classes Per week 7 classes Accessi bility Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Excellen t Excellen t Movem ent of teachers Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Excelle nt Excelle nt Content of class Grammar , verb Women power Tribal people Mother Teresa Grammar voice Sharing Friends Eskimos Medium of teaching Mixed language Mixed language English Bangla Mixed Mixed Bangla Bangla Teaching method According to the observation, it was noticed that a significant number of teacher followed a discussion methods, a good number of instructor followed a question-answer lecture
  • 196. 180 method; few teachers followed pair work/group work and very few followed simulation and role plays. It was noticed that these all methods were not followed by any teacher completely. Generally, they did not utilize teaching techniques with pair work/ group work, role play and simulation. Also, it was found that teachers did not have a common tendency of encouraging students to answer questions and ask questions during the class which occurred in Bhola. The following characteristics of their teaching style and methods were revealed. Table- 4.8.2 Teaching method followed by the English teacher in the schools Teachin g method Urban ( Narayanganj ) Rural ( Bhola ) School A School B School C School D School A School B School C School D Discuss ion Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Poor Poor Questio n answer Excellent Average Excellent Poor Average Excellent Poor Poor Lecture Excellent Average Excellent Poor Excellent Average Poor Poor Pair/gro up work Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Poor Poor Simulat ion Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Poor Poor Role play Excellent Average Excellent Poor Average Average Poor Poor Practicing four incorporated skills in the classroom: English ability is mirrored through visualizing four skills, reading, writing, listening and speaking. English is a fundamental subject from the 1st in the school, is very important. This observation showed that among the four skills, listening and speaking were the mostly ignored in the classroom. Widely exercised
  • 197. 181 skills were reading and writing. Thus, it was apparent that these four skills were not practiced in the classroom completely. Table-4.8.3 Practicing four incorporated skills in the classroom Skills Urban ( Narayanganj ) Rural ( Bhola ) School A School B School C Schoo l D School A School B School C School D Listening Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Poor Poor Speaking Excellent Average Excellent Poor Excellent Excellent Poor Poor Reading Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Excellent Excellent Poor Poor Writing Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Excellent Excellent Poor Poor Teaching aids and teaching materials: Most of the school teachers use blackboards or whiteboards supplied by the government. A total of 50 % of schools had microphone, OHP, Audio –visual aid supplied by the government. 50% of institutions collected picture and posters by themselves. But, these schools did not possess any technology. The table shows the extension of use of the teaching aids available to them. Table-4.8.4 Teaching aids and teaching materials Teach ing aids Urban ( Narayanganj ) Rural ( Bhola ) School A School B School C School D School A School B School C School D Textb Excellent Excellent Excellent Average Excellent Excellent Average Averag
  • 198. 182 ook e Black board Excellent Average - Poor Excellent Average Poor Poor White board - - Excellent Poor - - Poor Poor Pictur e & poster Excellent Average Excellent Poor Excellent Average Poor Poor Tchno logy. Average Average Excellent Poor Average Average Poor Poor The present study revealed that teacher-student ratio in Narayanganj was 1:55 and in Bhola 1:50. As a result, teachers failed to manage the classes according to the given lesson plan. During observation, no language lab was found in government and non-government institutions. Significant improvements were observed in case individual work by the students and so forth. But, most of the teachers did not use or follow lesson plans, pair teaching, open question, proper teaching aids and teaching materials, technology, grammar books. In classroom observation, most of the English teachers during their class, conducted the class with English-Bangla mixed language and 25% of the teachers conducted their class in English. The test of listening and speaking skills is not included in public examinations and as a result practices of these two skills are habitually overlooked in and out of the classroom.
  • 199. 183 Chapter Five Discussion and Policy Recommendations 5.1 Summary of findings The study was intended to find out significant factors that influence students’ English achievement in the secondary schools in Bangladesh with a specific focus on Bhola and Narayanganj. Four secondary schools in Bhola and four schools in Narayanganj at the same level were selected as the sample schools for this study. Six categories of respondents such as students in the 10th grade, English teachers, school principals, guardians, community members and upazilla education officers were selected for conducting the study and the sample size for each category for each region was 164, 16, 4, 40, 20 and 1 respectively. However, the sample sizes for the students in the 10th grade were not equal across the educational institutions. Because the numbers of the students were not equal in each schools. The number of students as respondents was selected proportionately to the number of students. Thus the number of respondents across the schools varies between 36 to 46. The survey was conducted between September, 7, 2011 - October, 19, 2011. This study is descriptive in nature. The study revealed important findings, which can provide policy implications and suggestions to improve the quality of students’ English achievement at the secondary level in Bhola and in Narayanganj.
  • 200. 184 Students: Research results showed that lack of practicing English is the dominant factor in both areas. Still, it is more severe in Narayanganj. Because the size of the class was found comparatively bigger in Narayanganj, for example, on average 55 students were found in Narayanganj. This means; students in Narayanganj got less friendly environment to continue their English practice with their teachers. However, students with appropriate opportune moment to conduct practice among themselves within the large size of students in the classes were pair work or group work. However, the lack of English teachers were found to have a less significant factor in learning English regarding both areas, but it was relatively more significant in Bhola . The main reasons for these factors are schools in Bhola suffer from qualified English teachers due to lack of need based facilities i.e. residential, economical, social. The study revealed that in Bhola 75% of schools had less than 5 teachers. By contrast, 75% of schools had more than 5 teachers in Narayanganj. The differences of the motivational aspects with learning English between rural and sub-urban area can be explained by the differences in the socio economic backgrounds of the students’ families. It is found that most of the families in Bhola are characterized by large family sizes. Most of the people in Bhola are engaged in blue -collar jobs. Nonetheless, most of the people in Narayanganj are engaged in white collar-jobs. Besides, the family size in Narayanganj is smaller compared to Bhola.
  • 201. 185 These factors are mainly responsible for creating differences between instrumental and integrative motivation. For example, the instrumental motivation for learning English is higher in Bhola because the students of that part are motivated to learn English for getting job and to meet their immediate needs. Similarly, the integrative motivation for learning English is higher in Narayanganj because most of their families are able to meet their basic needs. As a result, the students of this area want to learn English not only for gaining employment but for other purposes. Students in both areas dominantly want to learn English to complete their graduation. This suggests that there are no sufficient books, journals, documentary evidence in their mother language for pursuing their graduation. As a result, English becomes the most important factor when students want to continue their graduation in Bangladesh. English teachers: Large student size is a dominant problem in Narayanganj, while the lack of qualified English teachers is the main problem in Bhola. This finding is consistent with the student opinion as most of the students in Narayanganj mentioned that lack of practice was their main problem for learning English due to large class sizes. Conversely, students in Bhola mentioned that their main problem for learning English was the lack of English teachers. The opinion of the English teachers regarding the motivational aspect of learning English is nearly similar to the opinion of students. Students in Bhola should be motivated by the
  • 202. 186 instrumental factor while the students from Narayanganj should be motivated by an integrative factor. Learners sometimes want to affiliate with a different language community. Such learners wish to join in with the minority or majority language’s cultural activities, find their roots, or form friendships. This is termed integrative motivation which is learning a language for the useful purpose. Teachers’ opinion regarding the importance of learning English is also consistent with the opinion of the students. This implies that students in Bangladesh mainly give priority to English learning for pursuing graduation. School principal: Research results revealed that the lack of teachers was the leading factor for low English achievement in Bhola. Lack of practice was in Narayanganj which partially supported the opinion of the students because a significant number of the pupils in Bhola depicted that their major problem for learning English was the lack of teachers.While the majority of the students in Bhola identified the lack of practice as a dominant factor of low achievement. The motivation to learn English was summarized as instrumental and integrative aspects. The view of the school principals concerning the motivational feature of learning English was almost like the view held by students and English teachers. The instrumental motivation for learning English is higher in Bhola as the students of that part were motivated to be skilled for getting needs based work or jobs to meet their family demands. Instrumental motivation is
  • 203. 187 utilitarian in nature. Learners may acquire a second language to obtain employment or a promotion, or help their children’s education. This can be termed instrumental motivation. However, the integrative motivation for learning English is higher in Narayanganj because most of their families were not suffering from the obligation of fundamental needs. The importance of English among all fundamental subjects i.e. science, mathematics, higher mathematics was assessed by the school principals on the merit of the usefulness of English language for different purposes. The opinion of the school principals regarding the issue was also consistent with the opinion of the students and English teachers. These results implied that students in Bangladesh predominantly give priority of achieving English for pursuing further study. Guardians: Guardians were asked question for an indication to identify the main factors responsible for creating barriers to learn English. On the basis of the view of the guardians, the lack of any specific English grammar book was a major factor in Bhola while the lack of teaching manuals was the main problem in Narayanganj. It was revealed that teachers as well as students were not following any particular grammar book through a unified educational system across the country. Also, teachers were not following teaching manuals as the supply of this item was not implemented properly and timely. The opinion of the guardians about the motivational aspect of learning English was nearly similar to the opinion of students, teachers and school principals. That is the students in Bhola
  • 204. 188 should be motivated by instrumental factors while the students in Narayanganj should be motivated by integrative factors. The importance of English among all subjects was assessed by the guardians on the basis of the usefulness of English for different purposes .Guardians in Bhola predominantly wanted to their children to learn English, in order to do better in other subjects. In spite of all this, it is clear that English is dominating in most of the basic subjects such as science, mathematics and so forth, as a medium of instruction beyond English language subjects in Bangladesh. But, guardians thought that students should learn English to pursue their graduation. The guardians’ opinion regarding the importance of English was also consistent with the opinion of the students. This implied that students of Bangladesh should be given easy English content for a deeper understanding of other subjects and to continue their education. Community members: Opinions of community members suggest that a lack of English teachers is liable for low English achievement in Bhola and in Narayanganj. Nonetheless, lack of practice is another dominant factor in Narayanganj. This supports the opinion of school principals and to some extent that of students and teachers. Thus the lack of teachers is indeed liable for low English achievement in both regions. The motivational factors for learning English are completely similar in the opinion of community members along with the opinions of students, teachers and school principals. That is the students in Bhola are mostly motivated by certain instrumental factors while the students in Narayanganj are mostly motivated by integrative factors.
  • 205. 189 The importance of English among all subjects should be determined by the requirement of graduation in both areas according to the opinion of community members. Upazilla education officers: The education officer working in Bhola sadar upazilla thinks that the lack of English teachers is the main factor for low English achievement in his area. The opinions of the school principals of this area are nearly the same regarding this issue. On the other hand, the education officer of Narayanganj sadar upazilla mentions that the large student size is responsible for low achievement in his area which is supported by the English teachers’ opinion on the same issue of this area. The education officer in Bhola also mentions the motivational factors of learning English is instrumental and the education officer in Narayanganj mentions that motivational factors of learning English is integrative, He also adds the importance of English skill among all subjects is determined by the demand for English as a global language. As per his opinion, the contribution of the environment is very high for increasing the students’ English skills. From this discussion, the factors affecting students’ English achievement at the secondary level in Bhola and in Narayanganj can be summarized as follows- Bhola: 1. Lack of skilled English teachers 2. Lack of practice 3. Lack of conducive environment
  • 206. 190 4. Large students sizes 5. Lack of teaching manuals 6. Lack of using particular grammar books Narayanganj : 1. Large students sizes 2. Lack of practice 3. Lack of conducive environment 4. Lack of using particular grammar books 5. Lack of teaching manuals 6. Lack of English teachers 5.2 Conclusion The present study has been conducted to scrutinize the factors towards English attainment levels of the secondary school students .The study is expressive in nature. It tried to find out the factors affecting students’ English achievement in the secondary level in Bhola and Narayanganj. A qualitative method was used to assemble evidence from the schools under surveyed. For addressing the specific research questions, regarding the earlier mentioned chapter 1 an important finding in this study is that students’ English achievement is mainly affected by the teachers’ factors in Bhola and school factors in Narayanganj. The second, significant finding is that students’ English achievement is better in Narayanganj than in Bhola. Third,
  • 207. 191 there was a vital finding that is teachers in both regions were demanding training, social status and standard salaries. The present study revealed that pupils learning English at the secondary level showed more dependency on the textbook. The textbook, in response, was not found very interesting to the students as most of the students from both regions said their textbook was rather boring .In case of the existing examination system, a significant number of students from both areas thought they could predict the possible question of their up-coming examination to a greater extent. However, the students showed a driving force to acquire knowledge on English. They had an interest to know and learn new things in the classroom from the teachers and their peers. It was found that teacher-domination and teacher-talk remarkably were featured in both these areas of the English language classroom. The teachers in Bhola region liked to translate the lessons into Bangla and similarly they chose to explain them in Bangla. Students’ learning grammar rules were stressed. Students were found habituated to memorizing questions and answer as a means of preparing for their examination in both areas. Also, they practiced writing and reading for classroom preparation. However, the students did not seem to get sufficient opportunities to practice their speaking and writing skills in groups with their associates. It was also found that the students could not freely ask questions to their teachers and got inadequate opportunities to practice grammar rules through contextualization of them.
  • 208. 192 Teachers appeared not to have a friendly attitude towards the students in Bhola. By contrast, teachers became aware to difficult content in Narayanganj. It is important to note that students wish to enhance classroom academic performance. They attended class regularly. When they face difficulties they remained absent minded as they do not have adequate trained teachers in Bhola. However, in Narayanganj, they encountered large class size. Actually, both the areas, they felt cutting edge technology in the classroom for their English accomplishment. Schools have already been well-known for their online presence to meet the attractiveness of social media platforms. Now, schools are breaking ground with a creative wave of connections. Students can engage directly through Skype interviews to ask all kinds of questions about English achievement and beyond. It is an original medium that allows students to work together with complex subject matters rather than relying only on the paper or book. It was noticed that there was a common tendency in Bhola , aiming to learn English to get a job . Even so, a significant number of students in Narayanganj involved themselves to learn English to devote their life for the good of people in society. But, there was a common tendency in both regions to place emphasis on English. It was also revealed that most of the students in both regions had a positive tendency to seek help from their parents, teachers, peers, private tutors and senior students towards academic activities. It is heartening to note that a range of activities can ensure learners’ involvement in their
  • 209. 193 English education; make the class interactive and enjoyable. At the same time, we also need to take initiatives for the improvement of slow learners and irregular students in English acquisition. Besides, government promise, involvement of local community as well as conscious citizens, authority and the English language teaching specialists in the whole process can ensure a higher achievement of students’ English capability through addressing these factors. In fact, the findings of the present study would have to be articulated to judge the effective domains of English education to the policy makers, educationists, curriculum developers, and researchers. 5.3 Policy Recommendations Based on the findings, the following recommendations can be made for the policy makers for improving English achievement in Bangladesh at secondary level-: 1. Government should appoint skilled teachers in Bhola to mitigate the imbalanced teacher-student ratio, the vacant posts of English teachers should be placed without delay in Bhola . In addition, some new posts for English teachers can be made in both the regions. 2. Government should take initiatives to make available need based teaching aids and teaching materials, for using these aids professionally. Providing such teaching materials should be followed by an appropriate training for the English teachers so that they can use these materials efficiently in the classrooms.
  • 210. 194 3. There is room for improving the quality of education, English, in particular, by provision of long term teacher training. Teachers should be trained for English , especially for those who do not have a language background. 4. The period of English classes needs to be increased .Also, extra classes may be considered in both regions. 5. Teachers should make the content student friendly along with a friendly attitude in the class. 6. The modern effective techniques, i.e. question-answer, pair-work, group-work, role-play, storytelling, simulation and so on should be introduced immediately in the class. 7. English textbooks should be introduced on an international scope based along with an attractive setup so that the students can enjoy themselves through reading and understanding. Also, specific grammar books need to be introduced in the secondary level. 8. The number of female teachers should be increased at the secondary level in both areas , especially in Narayanganj. 9. Smaller class-size should be rationalized in all educational institutions in both regions especially in Narayanganj. The ideal class size would ranging between 30-35 students per class/ section. 5.4 Suggestion for further Study
  • 211. 195 This study is indicative in nature. However, as Bangladesh is a profoundly populated country and the sample size is small; many findings have and have not yet been empirically proven. More detailed studies on various factors which are affecting students’ English achievement in rural vis-à-vis sub-urban regions in Bangladesh are to be developed.
  • 212. 196 References Banu, R. & Sussex, R. (2001). English in Bangladesh after Independence: Dynamics of Policy and Practice. In B. Moore (Ed.), who’s Centric Now? The Present State of Post-Colonial English (pp. 123-157). Oxford: OUP. Das, Subrata Kumar. (September, 1998 ) . ‘ Better Methodology for English Teaching’ , The Bangladesh Observer, 11 Observer Magazine. P. 02 Farashuddin ( 2011) 5th Bangladesh English Language Teachers Association ( BELTA) International Conference at city’s BIAM Foundation Dhaka,2011 Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second-language Learning. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. Gardner, R. C. (1985a). Social psychology and Second Language Learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold Publishers. Hamid, M.O; R.D. Sussex and A. Khan. 2009. Private Tutoring in English for Secondary School Students in Bangladesh. TESO2 Quarterly 43, no.2: 281-308 Haque, Mazharul ( 1986 ) ‘ The present Status in the Teaching of English’ BELTA Journal , pp,1-5 Hasan, Kamrul, M ‘‘A Linguistic study of English Language Curriculum at the Secondary Level in Bangladesh- A communicative Approach to Curriculum Development. ‘Language in India volume 48 (2005):1-240. Hedges,L. V. , & Stock, W. ( 1983 ) . The effect of class size : An examination of rival hypothesis. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 3-85. Johnson, Robert. ‘‘Trained Language Teacher.’’Linguistics Quarterly (2001): 57-102 Krashen, Stephen.(2002-First Internet edition, December 2002). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. University of Southern California. Malaka, odeassa. ‘‘Motivation and Learning English among the Teenager.’’Linguistics Journal 17.1 (2001): 123-210 Schumann, J. (1978). The Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition Schumann, J.(1986).Research on the acculturation model for second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 7, 379-392. Siddiqui, Zillur Rahman.( 2003, 14 August). English in the Education system: Policy and Strategy.The Daily Janakantha.A 3 UNESCO (2000). Education for All; Status and Trends 2000; Assessing Learning Achievement. UNESCO, Paris. Walberg H.J ( 1984) .Improving the productivity of America’s schools. Educational leadership .41 (8).19-27
  • 213. 197 Appendix 1: Interview Questions for stakeholders Common Questions 1. What factors are liable for low English achievement? 2. What kinds of motivation are required to learn English? 3. How much do you think the offered course meet the social demand in prevalent society ? 4. What do you think about the contribution of modern technology for English achievement ? 5. What is your recommendation to increase English achievement of secondary level students ? 6. What kinds of government assistance are required to improve students’ English success? 7. What kinds of skill are required for the English teachers to increase students’ ability? 8. What are the importances’s of English skill among all subject? 9. How much environment contributes fueling English learning? Students 10. What do you think about English subject, comparing with other subject? 11. How many hours do you spend every day for English study purpose ? 12. How many English related books do you have at home along with text books? 13. Who helps you a lot in your learning of English? 14. What is your future plan after graduation? 15. Is there any advantageous effect of participatory method to learn English ? English teachers 10. What is your teaching plan as an English teacher ? 11 What are the strategies do you find in grade ten to improve students’ English skill ?. 12 What is your class room leadership role to improve students’ English achievement? 13 What kind of assistance do you need from principal to improve students English skill ? 14 What is the role of an English language club for students’ English learning? 15 How do you evaluate students’ working in pairs? School principals 10 Why the supervision of English class is necessary by school principal?. 11 How do you think parents’ education and income can contribute students’ English skill?
  • 214. 198 12 What are the criteria to evaluate English subject teachers? 13 Is there any in-service training to English teachers? 14 What is the effect of location of school for students’ English achievement? 15 What is the strategy to improve students’ English learning? Guardians 10 Which approach is better and effective to teach students’ English ? 11 How often do you supervise students’ English class each month?. 12 What do you think about extra class and home work for students’ English achievement? 13 How frequently the guardians’ and community are positively participating in the school meeting? 14 Does the English teacher use teaching materials and teaching aids? 15 Do you think that your income and education can contribute in developing English skill for your child? Communit y members 10 How much do you feel political promise can contribute to learn English? 11 What do you think about classroom management role of an English teacher? 12 How often do you supervise the school each month? 13 To what extent are parents and community people are involved as volunteers? 14 How often do you interact with English teacher to improve students’ English skill? 15 Do you think teachers’ salaries are insufficient? Education officers 11 How often do you visit school in a month ? 12 How do you think about the needs of english skills of students' in this locality? 13 How do you think about teachers' satisfaction to teach english ? 14 How a student can learn english beyond class ? 15 Which purpose english should learn by pupils in secondary level ?
  • 215. 199 Appendix 2: Questionnaire for students Name:……………………………………………….Gender……………Age:………. Name of school:……………………………………….District : …………………….. Grade/Class :……………………………………………Section : …………………… 1. How many members do you have in your family? 2. What is the highest level of education that your father has completed? 3. What is the highest level of education that your mother has completed? 4. What does your father do? 5. What does your mother do? 6 How many days have you beenabsent for the last thirty days? 7 Have you ever repeated any grade since you started secondary school? 8 Which subject do you like most? 9 Do you have any scope to learn and interact in English outside class? 10 Do your parents encourage you to excel in English learning? Appendix 3: Questionnaire for English teachers Name:…………………………Gender……………………….Age:…………….. School:…………………………………………………district: ………………………… Educational qualification:………………………………………………………. 1. How many trainings have you got to be an English teacher? 2. How often do you arrange English debate in a year? 3. Have you received any in-service training? 4. How often do you have a discussion among English teachers about English teaching?
  • 216. 200 5. Do you use any modern technology for English achievement of students? 6. How often does your principle come to visit your class? 7. What sorts of activities do you carry out for students’ to learn English beyond class? 8. Is there any potential project to improve students’ English achievement? 9. Is there any bonus/ incentives for effective teaching? 10. How often do you arrange open session for students to improve their English skill ? Appendix 4: Questionnaire for school principal Name:…… ………………… ………... School name:……………………………… Year of establishment:……………Educational qualification ………………………….. 1. How many English classes do students have in a week in class ten? 2. How many English classes does an English teacher conduct in a week? 3. How many English teachers do you have in this school? 4. Is there any principal/ head teacher who has ever been an English teacher? 5. What type of school is it? (Please tick ) 6. a) Government b) Government registered c) Fully private d ) MPO 7. Do you have any computer room / lab in your school? 8. How often do you visit students’ English class in a month? 9. Do you have any library in your school?