Mechanical Heat Treatment Linked through Gasification to Renewable Energy.A unique opportunity to commercializeadvanced patented technologies for the treatment of waste to produce energy Presented by Neil Roberts
Market Place Challenges• Find an alternative local solution to large scale waste problems• Address high transport and rising disposal costs• Maximise recovery/recycling of saleable products• Convert biodegradable material into saleable fuel• Minimise waste sent to landfill• Linking waste to energy without mass burn• Reduce emissions• Provide sustainable energy to local consumers
Background• Environmental matters are increasingly taking centre stage – and general awareness is growing• Concerns over global warming and the level of greenhouse gas emissions are growing• Interest in the concept of recovering energy from ‘wasted resources’ is growing• Traditional waste treatment technologies i.e. incineration, landfilling , composting and MBT are losing public favour• Unparalleled opportunities exist for those governments that embrace new process technologies / processes
ALARMING FACTS• In 30 years, 2/3 of the world’s population of 6 billion plus people, are expected to live in urban locations• Relying solely on the goodwill of busy people to recycle at source is irresponsible.• Cities are becoming increasingly high rise to accommodate mass urban migration.• Transient workers = limited environmental awareness• Energy consumption may increase 50% by 2035• 70% of energy is consumed in buildings, mainly in AC• By 2035 only 14% of global energy consumption will be from renewable sources.
Strategic and Legislative Context• WM roads, energy, water are integral to the fabric of modern infrastructure its not somebody else’s problem• Limited waste avoid legislation, cheap landfill and energy, put off high tech private sector investment.• WM’s not a pot of gold. Private sector investors need a supporting legislative and policy frameworks.• Sustainable energy technologies are imperative to our cities future success• Consuming todays mineral resources for traditional power generation is cheaper but at what cost to tomorrow’s society?• High value "exit outputs" from renewable gas and electricity are going to become increasingly important
Gulf States Need• Recycling and energy recovery technologies that don’t solely rely on source segregation and comingled collections• Traditional “MBT” technologies relying on a consistent flow of costly source segregated / comingled collections in GCC are struggling• Coherent planning, cohesive thinking, joined-up policy. “otherwise WM will drift on an ad-hoc piecemeal basis.• To stop building the wrong facilities in the wrong places, they will become disintegrated and stranded.• Flexible recycling facilities that are not solely reliant on the fluctuation in supply and demand for recovered recylates that are heavily impacted by global economics
Commercial drivers• New technologies promoting high value exits, i.e. energy-from-waste will replace traditional technologies• "If Waste management companies don’t move into this space, energy and heating firms will• The recyclables market is tiny compared to energy, bankers / investors want to see energy side figures• Investors want 20yr + contracts. 10yrs is too short• Gate fees must reflect savings to the community, transport, road repairs congestion, landfill.• Tomorrows winners will be those Governments that encourage joined up thinking between planning depts, power, water companies and consumers.
Key success factors• Waste to energy delivers best value fastest route to divert waste from landfill, minimize transport and reduce the demand on overburdened power stations.• Waste to district cooling = big environmental win.• Automated solutions are needed that receive mixed Municipal and Commercial Wastes, recovering sustainable high quality saleable commodities fuels.• Clusters of pretreatment plants feeding a central co - located energy plant aligned with an end users.• Sealed or underground collection facilities to prevent scavenging of valued metals, cardboard at source.• Carbon credits
A unique integration of industrial technologies using unsorted municipal and commercial & industrial wastewaste combustion MHT waste chamber Gasification treatment and boiler process plant or heat exchanger Hot air for Steam for existing power Heat stations Exchanger
Integrated Solutions FibreWaste Waste Fuel Gas Power EnergySupply Process Production Production Generation Consumer Steam Heat Generation exchanger District cooling chilling Desalination
Waste to recyclates and biomass fuel Moisture Municipal Recyclates solid waste MHT (MSW) processing Biomass fuel plant Inert landfill1 sort screen shred mix homogeneous feedstock2 wet preparation hot steam processor sanitised waste stream (mixed)3 separation of refined biomass, light plastics; ferrous & non-ferrous metals, mixed plastics, glass, rubble, aggregate and residues
Typical variances in GULF State Waste Profiles:Low moisture, high packaging and food wasteparticularly in highly developed tourism centers.• Paper 18 -25%• Plastic 24 -40%• Organic 22- 45%• Metals 3%• Glass 3- 4%• Textiles 3-8%• Moisture 6%
Feed Preparation Municipal Solid Waste Textile Remover Trommel Bulky/Hazardous items Shredder Homogeneous StockpileOn receipt materials are screened and oversize materials are then shredded andhomogenized with undersize materials to expose the largest surface area to treatment.
Heart of the Patented Process From Homogeneous Emissions Control Stockpile Air separator Recirculation Fans Heat source Burner/Recovered Wet Preparation Drum Patented Processor Processed MaterialHomogenized waste is wet prepped lifted and fragmented to expose the greatest surface areafor heat treatment. Hot air is applied to the moistened materials createsing a hot steamyatmosphere in which the commodities are sanitized and the organics are broken down intounrefined renewable fuels. (waste water can be used)
Refined Renewable Fuel Products Product made to a specific end user specification Proven alternative to fossil fuels or expensive imports Huge source of currently un-used energy, non seasonal Renewable Electricity - Boilers (Steam Generation) - Gasification (Steam Generation) Green Heat for Energy Intensive Industries - Cement Kilns - Boilers Road Transport Fuels * - Synthetic Diesel - Bio Ethanol* Dependant upon emerging technologies
MHT Delivers• Solutions that identify wastes as a valuable raw material resource rather than an unwanted commodity• Innovative technologies based on proven engineering design, process, systems and equipment in industrial buildings• Direct acceptance of municipal and commercial waste with no need for pre-sorting or source segregation• Solution for high rise, transient societies with limited environmental awareness where urbanization is the trend.• Avoids expensive specialist collection receivers and vehicles. (Massive inefficiencies exist in collection and treatment across municipalities)• Maximises value added recovery of premium quality reusable, recyclate products and refined consistent, quality biomass fuel• Overall operating costs lower than other systems
MHT Delivers• Tailors renewable fuels to precise end user specifications, biomass calorific values of fuels can be varied• Links the waste recycling and energy sectors• Energy produced by the process fuels is more than 4 times that consumed – high overall efficiency and positive energy balance• Traditional MBT low value waste refuse derived fuels are limited to heat generation i.e. cement markets that will be impacted by Carbon Reduction Commitment “CRC”).• Sustainable markets in the power generation sector to meet growing demand for the renewable fuels• Greenhouse gas mitigation that address global concerns about carbon emissions• Recovery rates exceed 90% minimising landfill residues, extending the lifecycle of scarce landfill capacity
Linked Proven Technologies• Waste collection – conventional• Waste preparation – conventional shredding plant• Homogenisation – conventional mineral processing• Attrition, sanitisation and separation – proven• Outputs (clean metals and plastics, biomass fuel and feed to power plant) – proven• Power generation through gasification/pyrolysis and steam generation – proven
Biomass fuel to syngas and power generation Biomass fuel Gasification Syngas process heat Boiler orRefined fuel Combustion Gasifier heat cooling13-18 MJ/kg Chamber exchanger power
Gasification• Will deliver a sustainable energy economy• A technically / economically convincing energy solution for a carbon neutral economy.• Uses chemical reactions at high temperatures, distinguishing it from biological processes such as dry fermentation.• Converts carbon materials into carbon monoxide / hydrogen.• Reacts at high temperatures in controlled amount of oxygen.• Resulting syngas mixture can be used to generate electricity, heat or transformed into a diesel-like synthetic fuel.• Uses organic materials, neither emits nor traps greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide.• The secret is in refining the fuel and biomass content to within acceptable tolerance range for gasification.
Modern Integrated Thinking on Best Practice in Waste Management System Collection, Segregation & TransportCommercial & RecyclatesIndustrial Solid MHT Processing PlantWasteMunicipal SolidWaste Gasifier boiler or power production Plant Users of Biomass fuels MHT & power e.g. Power Plants Plants co-located Landfill
Simplified Process Flow sheet – Waste Processing and Heat Generation Feed Heat Generation Preparation District Cooling Or Desalination Plant Heat Recovery (Condensers) Recovered Heat Thermal Processing Boiler & Recyclate Turbine Recovery Gas Cleaning Fuel Products Gassifier Buffer Store
Thermal recovery of energy is 3* more efficient vis Electrical energy conversion potentialFuel production circa 63% of waste inputIf Fuel production 100,000 tonnesCalorific Value Net 14MJ/kgTotal energy content 49MWThermal conversion 68% efficiencyThermal energy potential 33.3 MWthElectrical Conversion 34% efficiency plus grid losses.Electrical energy 11.3 MWe
Heat exchange benefits compared with generating electricity to run district cooling / desalination• Steam turbine driven chillers are inherently variable• Steam designed to satisfy (1/3) of cooling demand = energy costs reduced 10-15% compared with electric chiller plants = 30% reduction in electric demand dedicated to cooling.• Desalination plants use large amounts of energy and specialized, expensive infrastructure and struggle to deliver water for less than $0.60 per thousand litres.• Kuwait was first to adopt seawater desalination, linking electricity generation to desalination. Co-generation, re-uses low pressure waste steam from generators to provide energy for the desalination process minimizing energy and costs.• SO WHY NOT USE WASTES ENERGY TO RUN DESALINATION / AC