Bt brinjal good technology product

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GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS ARE GOOD FOR MANKIND..IT NEED TO BE COMMERCIALIZED IN INDIA TO FEED THE HUNGRY PEOPLE.,LOWER THE PESTICIDE USE.

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  • The unscientific comments about Bt-cotton often reminds us of the six blind men and the elephant who guessed the tail as rope, legs as pole, trunk as wall, ear as fan and the trunk as hose
  • For Indian agricultural biotechnology, March 26, 2002 is significant because it was on that day that the GEAC under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt of India, gave approval for Mahyco’s Bt-cotton for commercial cultivation. This is the first-ever agri-biotech product to receive an official approval in India. Mahyco is Monsanto’s technology partner in India and their Bt-cotton carried Bt-gene licensed from Monsanto.
  • Bt protein needs certain specific conditions for its effective action. It has to be ingested by the target insect which happens when it is feeding. It needs alkaline condition in the intestine for its solubilization, pH of 9.5 or above for activation and specific receptors for binding before it can kill the target insect. All these conditions are available only in the susceptible insect. For example, the protein cannot act in the human or animal intestine because the intestine is acidic, pH is about 1.5 and there are no receptors. The specificity and mode of action of proteins need to be understood.
  • Mode of action of cry toxins: (a) after ingestion by the insect, crystals dissolve in the gut juice. (b) Gut proteases subsequently clip off the C-terminal extension in the longer cry proteins (purple) as well as small N-terminal fragment (yellow). (c) The resulting activated toxin binds to receptors on the epithelial cell membrane a process in which both domain II and domain III are involved. (d) structural rearrangement of domain I might follow allowing a two-helix hairpin to insert into the membrane. (e) Inserted toxins form pores probably as oligomers but the architecture of the pore is still unknown.
  • Whenever a new technology is introduced, there have always been concerns. Bt technology is no exception. But what needs to be understood is that these concerns are proactively considered and answered.
  • Studies made in China, USA and other countries including India have indicated that the populations of parasitic and predatory insects in Bt-cotton fields were more and they contributed to enhanced biological control of sucking pests. There are a few publications on the adverse effects of Bt protein on ladybird beetles and lacewings as well as on the monarch butterfly. But these studies were carried out under highly artificial conditions and are not accepted by the scientific community. (If the manufacturer of a wristwatch says that the watch is shock-proof or water-proof, it does not mean that we should hammer it prove that it is not shock-proof or keep under water overnight to show that it is not water-proof. Experiments should be realistic and logical).
  • Bt brinjal good technology product

    1. 1. THE CONFUSION ABOUT BT BRINJAL BY KUTUBUDDIN MOLLA CSIR JRF PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA
    2. 2. PAST SCENARIO <ul><li>Bengal famine in 1943—around 4 million people died in hunger of eastern India. </li></ul><ul><li>Green revolution made India self –sufficient of food grains by 1978 through the adoption of dwarf high yielding hybrid wheat & rice variety. </li></ul><ul><li>It was possible due to the use of genetically improved seeds (wheat- rht gene ; rice- sd1 gene ) </li></ul>
    3. 3. PRESENT SCENARIO <ul><li>Farmland is decreasing.. </li></ul><ul><li>Population is increasing in a very high rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Production is not increasing—stagnant. </li></ul><ul><li>Several problems came out in recent days.– </li></ul><ul><li>1) increased temperature </li></ul><ul><li>2) salinity </li></ul><ul><li>3) drought </li></ul><ul><li>4) biotic stresses </li></ul><ul><li>Our crop is unable to cope up with these new stresses because they did not face such before. </li></ul><ul><li>That’s why traditional breeding is unsuccessful. </li></ul>
    4. 4. ANOTHER WORLDWIDE FAMINE IS WAITING FOR US.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! <ul><li>So we need a second green revolution.   </li></ul><ul><li>The Process by which we can increase the yield of a particular crop. </li></ul><ul><li>For using genes from non rice sources we have to go for genetic engineering.. </li></ul><ul><li>Even traditional breeding use the technology(genetic engineering) unknowingly. </li></ul>
    5. 7. SO IN PRESENT SCENARIO FOR A SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION WE HAVE TO GO FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY & GENETIC ENGINEERING
    6. 8. BRINJAL CULTIVATION IN INDIA
    7. 9. MAJOR PROBLEMS
    8. 10. FSB DAMAGE
    9. 11. <ul><li>50 - 90% of damage is caused by fruit and shoot borer </li></ul>Shoot damage Fruit Damage
    10. 12. Fruit borer Damage as identified by the consumer
    11. 13. WHY WE NEED BT BRINJAL ?? <ul><li>No natural resistance in germplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Limited success with traditional management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Huge use of pesticides results in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development of resistance in insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful effects on environment, health of farmer and consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bt brinjal has potential to provide economic and health benefits </li></ul>
    12. 14. Speculation about Bt or Bt -Brinjal is like…… The unscientific comments about Bt-Brinjal often reminds us of the six blind men and the elephant who guessed the tail as rope, legs as pole, trunk as wall, ear as fan and the trunk as hose
    13. 15. WE SHOULD KNOW THE ACTUAL & TRUE FACT WHICH IS SCIENTIFIC…………….
    14. 16. WHAT IS BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TMM Bt cotton EM view of a purified inclusion body EM view of Bt with spores and crystals Endospore Crystal <ul><li>Soil bacterium; ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Different strains produce their own insecticide proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>The protein is called as cry protein for its crystal form. </li></ul><ul><li>Each cry protein selectively affects insects belonging to a particular order (eg.,Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, etc) at their very early larval stage </li></ul>
    15. 17. HISTORY OF SAFE USE AS A SPRAY <ul><li>Since 1938, used extensively as a spray all over the world to control a variety of lepidopteron pests and also mosquito larvae. </li></ul>TMM Bt cotton IN INDIA IN THAILAND IN CALIFORNIA IN INDIA IN AUSTRALIA
    16. 18. GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOPESTICIDES, 2005-06 - $260M TMM Bt cotton 62% Other bacteria $32m Source: CPL Business Consultants, July 2006 Bt spray dominated with 62%. Used in all countries, including the European Union (16.5%), and by all farmers including organic farmers Bt $159m Virus $18m Fungus $37m Nematode $15m
    17. 19. HOW BT BRINJAL DEVELOPED? <ul><li>Bt brinjal is a genetically improved brinjal developed by inserting a cry1Ac gene into brinjal genome </li></ul><ul><li>The Cry1Ac protein gives the brinjal plant in-built resistance against lepidopteran insects like Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Bt as insecticide not new – farmers using it for over 50 years as a spray </li></ul>
    18. 20. PLR1 Non-Bt Bt
    19. 21. SHOOT DAMAGE Non Bt Bt
    20. 22. FRUIT DAMAGE Non bt brinjal Bt brinjal
    21. 23. Bt -Cotton Approved 26 March 2002: A Landmark in India India’s first transgenic crop
    22. 24. Bt Cotton Bt-cotton area & cotton production in India 620 Bt-cotton hybrids & 1 Bt variety have been released so far New Hybrids Bt Cotton area lakh ha
    23. 25. India: Raw Cotton Imports and Exports 1991-2009
    24. 26. Insecticide usage in India IRM Bt Cotton Bollworm insecticides Rs 600 crores in 2002 Bollworm Insecticides Rs 260 crores in 2008
    25. 27. NET RESULT OF BT COTTON APPROVAL <ul><li>INDIA WAS AN IMPORTER OF COTTON BEFORE BT COTTON DEVELOPED…………….. NOW INDIA IS AN EXPORTER . </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA IS NOW THE SECOND LARGEST COTTON PRODUCER IN THE WORLD </li></ul><ul><li>THE NET INCOME DERIVED BY BT FARMERS WAS RS.26,406 (US$600.13)/HA WHILE IT WAS RS.9,059 (US$205.88)/HA FOR THE NON-BT FARMERS . </li></ul><ul><li>NET GAIN IN BT COTTON CULTIVATION IS Rs. 4000 CRORES IN INDIA </li></ul>
    26. 28. ABOUT SAFETY OF BT BRINJAL <ul><li>The controversy began </li></ul><ul><li>Questioned the safety of Bt </li></ul>
    27. 29. Ingestion (occurs while feeding plant tissues) Solubilization (Alkalinity) Activation (pH >9.5) Binding (Specific receptor) Insertion (Damage gut wall) Pore formation Cell lyses D e a t h Selective action of Bt in insects
    28. 30. HOW CRY PROTEINS ACT IN THE INSECT GUT <ul><li>  </li></ul>Fig. 3 Taken from de Maagd RA (2001) Trends in Genetics 17(4), 193-199
    29. 31. DETAILS MODE OF ACTION OF BT PROTEIN
    30. 32. BT HAS NO TOXIC IMPACT IN HIGHER ANIMALS (HUMAN) BECAUSE OF….. <ul><li>Acidic stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Very low pH (∽1.5 in humans) </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of required receptors </li></ul>Bt is safe to non-target organisms-HUMAN
    31. 33. NATIONAL REGULATORY SYSTEMS IN INDIA <ul><li>Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF) </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Biotechnology (DBT) </li></ul><ul><li>There are six competent authorities to handle various issues viz., </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM) </li></ul><ul><li>Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC) </li></ul><ul><li>State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC) </li></ul><ul><li>District Level Committee (DLC ) </li></ul>Two nodal agencies, Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF) and Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of science and technology are responsible for implementation of the regulations in India. The MoEF notified the rules and procedures for the handling of genetically modified organisms (GMO) under the environment protection act 1986(EPA).
    32. 35. WHAT ARE THE SAFETY CONCERNS? <ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Allergenicity </li></ul><ul><li>Out-crossing / Gene flow </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on non-target organisms </li></ul><ul><li> Environmental impact </li></ul><ul><li>Pest resistance </li></ul>All safety issues were addressed before regulatory approval was given
    33. 36. SAFETY TO NON-TARGET ORGANISMS <ul><li>Feed safety studies were conducted using high dose of Bt -cotton seed-meal / protein on: </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals - goats, buffaloes, cows, rabbits </li></ul><ul><li>Honey bees </li></ul><ul><li>Earthworms </li></ul><ul><li>Biological control agents </li></ul><ul><li>(Lacewing, Ladybird beetles etc) </li></ul>Results revealed no ill effects & Bt is safe !
    34. 38. DOES IT AFFECT BIODIVERSITY?? <ul><li>Any new gene incorporation in a genome increases its genetic diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>In nature, every evolution of a new species is due to some gene incorporation through cross pollination.. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea that Bt brinjal will destroy biodiversity is nonsensical. In fact, since brinjal has no natural resistance (to pests), the introduction of Bt brinjal will help increase genetic diversity. </li></ul>
    35. 39. IS IT A THREAT TO OTHER VARIETIES THROUGH CROSS POLLINATION?? <ul><li>Gene transfer is not an easy phenomenon. It has to be fixed in population through selection pressure. Also, there is no horizontal transfer of the gene — it will not transfer to animals; there is only vertical transfer — from one generation to the next within the same species. </li></ul>
    36. 40. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BT-BRINJAL.? <ul><li>Benefits to consumers and society: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Consumers will have a choice to buy non-infested, undamaged and good quality brinjal fruits. </li></ul><ul><li>2) High levels of pesticide residues are present in a large number of vegetables that we eat daily. Bt brinjal will offer consumers fruits with almost no or significantly reduced level of pesticide residues, well within the prescribed MRL. </li></ul><ul><li>3) It is expected that Bt brinjal may improve marketable yield manifold resulting in availability of more brinjal in the market at affordable price. Krishna and Qaim (2007) predicted a 15% decrease in market price of brinjal at maximum technology adoption. </li></ul><ul><li>4) The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) showed that Bt brinjal would help stabilize the market price (IIHR, 2008). </li></ul>
    37. 41. BENEFITS TO FARMERS <ul><li>Farmers are expected to benefit at multiple levels. Some of these include: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Considerable reduction in cost of production by saving on cost of insecticides and lower labor cost as a result of reduced spraying. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Manifold increase in yield per unit area by saving fruits from damage caused by FSB. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Significant improvement in marketable fruits thereby increasing income per unit area. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Reduction in direct exposure to insecticides leading to lesser health problems. </li></ul>
    38. 42. BENEFITS TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>1) Reduction in pesticide residues in soil and water in brinjal fields. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Lesser pollution of air and local environment due to decreased use of insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Protection of naturally occurring predators and parasitoids and other beneficial organisms due to reduced use of insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Reduction in soil and ground-water contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Safeguarding soil microflora and invertebrates from damage caused by unintended and excessive use of insecticides.   </li></ul>
    39. 43. <ul><li>Protesting is their ROTI,, KAPRA aur MAKAN.. </li></ul><ul><li>That’s why every morning they arise question on a new issue……………. </li></ul>NOW SOME PEOPLE HAS CHOOSEN A NEW PROFESSION- ----------- PROTESTING
    40. 44. STRANGE!! <ul><li>The opponents seem to suggest that Bt-Brinjal kills everything else except FSB – the target pests!!..... </li></ul><ul><li>like the blind people .. </li></ul>
    41. 45. SMT . PRATIBHA DEBISINGH PATIL, THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA “ Efforts towards sustainable agriculture can be greatly augmented with the help of space technology and biotechnology advances”
    42. 46. DR. MANMOHAN SINGH, THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA <ul><li>“ We need to use the potential of biotechnology to meet the requirements of hungry people”. </li></ul>
    43. 47. MR. P. CHIDAMBARAM, THE UNION HOME MINISTER <ul><li>“ Bt cotton has made India a cotton exporting country. We thought of ourselves as exporters of wheat and rice, but today we import wheat. No country as large as India can survive on imports for its food needs,”….”….”The success achieved in cotton must be used to make the country self sufficient in rice, wheat, pulse and oil seed production”. </li></ul>
    44. 49. <ul><li>The scientists & students should come together and speak in one voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Defend the technology – </li></ul><ul><li>defeat opponents </li></ul><ul><li>Silence is not gold. Silencing is! </li></ul>
    45. 50. THANK YOU HAVE A NICE DAY

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