Research methodology
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Research methodology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY By Kush Saxena (MBA,NET)1 Kush Saxena
  • 2. WHAT IS RESEARCH Research is a thorough, orderly, organized, efficient and logical investigation of an area of knowledge or of a problem. In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. Main components of a research are:  1. Curiosity: Science is knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experiment. Research begins with a broad question that needs an answer.  2. Theory (Hypothesis) Researcher creates an assumption to be proved or disproved with the help of data.2 Kush Saxena
  • 3.  3. Experiment Researchers design an experiment with steps to test and evaluate the theory (hypothesis) and generate analyzable data. Experiments have controls and a large enough sample group to provide statistically valid results.  4. Observation Observing and recording the results of the experiment generated raw data to prove or disprove the theory.  5. Analysis Statistical analysis on the data and organizing it so that it is understandable generates answers to the initial question. Data may show trends that allow for the broadening of the research.  6. Conclusions Research following the scientific method will either prove or disprove the theory3 Kush Saxena
  • 4. Application of Research in Business  Product Research  Customer Research  Sales Research  Pricing Research  Advertising Research4 Kush Saxena
  • 5.  Product Research is related to new product development as well as to existing product into the market. For Example-If sale of a company is declining from a long period of time then the company may interested to know about the reason behind that. This kind of research is needed at every stage of product life cycle.5 Kush Saxena
  • 6. 6 Kush Saxena
  • 7.  Customer Research is related to know about the consumer buying behaviour.How a customer react before purchasing a product is done under customer research.  For Example Big - Bazar7 Kush Saxena
  • 8.  Sales research is done to know about the different exercise done in different area related to sales volume  It is related to know about the sales occurred and the activities of sales team as well.8 Kush Saxena
  • 9.  Pricing is the key factor to measure the success or failure of any organization.  Pricing research is done to know about the customer perception about the price to be fix for a product or service  A company uses this research to fix the prices for goods and services.9 Kush Saxena
  • 10.  Advertising research is done to know the best way by that a company may aware the customer for their product or services.  Advertising research is done to know that which method of advertisement is most appropriate.10 Kush Saxena
  • 11. TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive Research :-  Descriptive research or statistical research provides data about the population or universe being studied. But it can only describe the "who, what, when, where and how" of a situation, not what caused it. Therefore, descriptive research is used when the objective is to provide a systematic description that is as factual and accurate as possible. It provides the number of times something occurs, or frequency, lends itself to statistical calculations such as determining the average number of occurrences or central tendencies.11 Kush Saxena
  • 12.  One of its major limitations is that it cannot help determine what causes a specific behaviour, motivation or occurrence. In other words, it cannot establish a causal research relationship between variables.  The two most commonly types of descriptive research designs are 1- Observation 2- Surveys12 Kush Saxena
  • 13. EXAMPLE OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH EXAMPLE:- How do students in free lectures spend their time? ----------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------13 Kush Saxena
  • 14. ANALYTICAL RESEARCH  In analytical research the researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.14 Kush Saxena
  • 15. EXPLAORATORY RESEARCH  Exploratory research is conducted into a research problem or issue when there are very few or no earlier studies to which we can refer for information about the issue or problem. The aim of this type of study is to look for patterns, ideas or hypotheses, rather than testing or confirming a hypothesis.  Exploratory research often relies on secondary15 Kush Saxena data.
  • 16. APPLIED RESEARCH Applied research is also known as an action research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or any business organization. Marketing research is a part of applied research.16 Kush Saxena
  • 17. An interview survey among clerical staff in a particular office, department, company, Exploratory group of companies, industry, region and so Research on, to find out what motivates them to increase their productivity (that is, to see if a research problem can be formulated) A description of how the selected clerical staff Descriptive are rewarded and what measures are Research used to record their productivity levels An analysis of any relationships between the Analytical rewards given to the clerical staff and Research their productivity levels.17 Kush Saxena
  • 18. Quantitative Research Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to the phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity.18 Kush Saxena
  • 19. Qualitative Research Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon relating to quality. For Example-When we are interested in investigating the reason for human behviour.19 Kush Saxena
  • 20. Types of business Problems Encountered By a Researcher in India20 Kush Saxena
  • 21.  Language Problem- There are so many languages are spoken in India in different regions. It may be a problem for researcher to make different questionnaire.  Lack of Scientific training- Many researchers take a leap in dark without knowing research methods.Ressearch to many researchers and even to their guides is mostly a cut and paste21 job. Kush Saxena
  • 22.  Negative thinking- Most of the companies thinks that the research work is completely waste and experience people can do the same work for the company by their intuition and experience..  Weak Relationship between researcher and management- Sometimes there is a weak relationship between management and researcher and they do not appreciate each other views.22 Kush Saxena
  • 23.  Lack of funds for research work- Generally there is a research department in every organization and some funds are allocated to this department.But many times companies do not provide sufficient fund to this department.23 Kush Saxena
  • 24. RESEARCH PROCESS24 Kush Saxena
  • 25. Identify the research problem Determine the research design Determine the data collection form Determine the sampling method Collection and Analysis of data Present the Report25 Kush Saxena
  • 26. Identify the Research Problem The first step in research process is formulation of research problem. It is most important step in research process as poorly defined problem would not yield useful results. It is rightly said that “ A problem well defined is half solved”.26 Kush Saxena
  • 27. Determine the research design After formulation of research problem, the researcher has to workout a design for the study. A research design is a plan comprising the researchers decision about the whole process taken out to solve the research process. Basic types of research design are  Exploratory Research Design  Descriptive Research Design  Causal Research Design27 Kush Saxena
  • 28. Design the data collection Form Data Primary Data Secondary Data28 Kush Saxena
  • 29. Determine the Sampling Method Sampling Method Probability sampling Non-Probability sampling29 Kush Saxena
  • 30. Collection and Analysis of Data After drafting a satisfactory plan , the most crucial and lengthy stage of the statistical investigation is collection and analysis of collected data. Many statistical tools are used to analyze the data like correlation and regression analysis, ANOVA30 Kush Saxena
  • 31. Present the Report The last step in research process is present the report in a proper format. Basically there are two types of reports 1. Oral Report 2. Written Report31 Kush Saxena
  • 32. RESEARCH DESIGN32 Kush Saxena
  • 33. RESEARCH DESIGN Research design is the blue print for the research. Research design is also known by different names such as research outline, research plan or blue print. According to Miller, “ It is the sequence of the entire process involved in conducting a research study.”33 Kush Saxena
  • 34. METHODS OF RESEARCH DESIGN There are mainly three types of research design and these are as follows-  Exploratory Research design  Descriptive Research design  Causal Study34 Kush Saxena
  • 35. EXPLAORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN Exploratory research design is also known as Formulative Research Studies. The main purpose of such studies is to determine the general nature of problem and the variable related to it. The major emphasis is laid on the discovery of new ideas. It is generally based on secondary data.Explaoratory research design is generally carried out by using 3 methods.35 Kush Saxena
  • 36. Methods of Exploratory Research Design  Secondary or literature survey  Experience survey or discussion with experts.  Study of some specific cases.36 Kush Saxena
  • 37. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN These designs are used for some definite purpose. It is focused on explanation of characteristics of certain group like age,gender,income,education and occupation.37 Kush Saxena
  • 38. CAUSAL RESEARCH DESIGN These designs attempt to specify the nature of functional relationship between two or more variables present in the problem environment.38 Kush Saxena
  • 39. BASIC ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN  Need of the study  Review of previous studies  Statement of problem  Objectives of the study  Formulation of hypothesis  Source of data  Methods of collection ( Primary/Secondary)  Tools & Techniques ( Questionnaire, Schedules)  Data analysis  Financial Budget39 Kush Saxena
  • 40. EXCERCISE40 Kush Saxena
  • 41.  Which one of the following is the basic part involved in any research investigation I. Defining the problem II. Formulating a hypothesis III. Collecting the data IV. All of these41 Kush Saxena
  • 42. Truth is the basic need of research. This is achieved only by I. Primary data II. Secondary data III. Sufficient & Reliable data IV. None of these42 Kush Saxena
  • 43.  Which of the following is not a step in research study I. Field Work II. Problem definition III. Understanding of competitors IV. Research design43 Kush Saxena
  • 44.  Which one of the following is not a type of research I. Exploratory II. Descriptive III. Analytical IV. Causal44 Kush Saxena
  • 45.  A researcher must possess I. Integrity II. Honesty III. Sincerity IV. All of these45 Kush Saxena
  • 46.  Social Science includes I. Political Science II. Botany III. Physics IV. Zoology46 Kush Saxena
  • 47.  Quantitative Research is I. Variable Based II. Attributes Based III. Hypothetic IV. None of these47 Kush Saxena
  • 48.  Research design is also known as I. Research outline II. Research outline III. Blue print IV. All of these48 Kush Saxena
  • 49. 2 nd UNIT Data Collection & Sampling Methods49 Kush Saxena
  • 50. CONCEPT OF DATA Data is any symbol, sign or measure which is in a form can be directly captured by a person or a machine. For Example-students fill an admission form when they get admission in college. The form consist of raw facts about the students.50 Kush Saxena
  • 51. TYPES OF DATA Data Primary Secondary Data Data51 Kush Saxena
  • 52. PRIMARY DATA Primary data is one which is collected by the investigator himself for the purpose of a specific study. These data are Collected first time as original data.52 Kush Saxena
  • 53. ADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY DATA  More accurate  More Reliable  Good response rate  Ready to use at any time  More validate53 Kush Saxena
  • 54. METHODS OF PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION Structure d Observation Un- Primary Structured Data Communicati Personal on Interview Through Schedules54 Kush Saxena Questionnaire
  • 55. OBSERVATION METHOD55 Kush Saxena
  • 56. OBSERVATION METHOD Under observation method an observer observe the person called subject. Under this observer does not ask any question. The big advantage of this method is that under this method actually happening is observed.  Structured Observation  Un-Structured Observation56 Kush Saxena
  • 57. COMMUNICATION METHOD Personal Interview- Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer asking questions generally in a face to face contact to the another person.57 Kush Saxena
  • 58. ADVANTAGES OF PERSONAL INTERVIEW  More Information and that too in greater depth can be obtained.  Personal interview can as well be obtain easily under this method.  Under this method an interviewer can directly observe the facial expressions of respondent.  This method is more reliable because it is a face- to-face interaction.  An interviewer can collect more & more information.58 Kush Saxena
  • 59. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRE In this method a questionnaire is sent (Usually by post) to the persons with a request to answer the questions and return the questionnaire. A questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order on a set of forms.59 Kush Saxena
  • 60. 60 Kush Saxena
  • 61. MERITS OF QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD  There is low cost even when the universe is large.  It is free from the bias of the interviewer.  Respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers.  Respondents, who are not easily approachable, can also reached conveniently.61 Kush Saxena
  • 62. DEMERITS OF QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD  Low rate of return of the duly filled in questionnaire.  It can be used only when respondents are educated and cooperating.  The control over questionnaire may be lost once it is sent.  It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representatives.  There is also the possibility of ambiguous replies or omission of replies.62 Kush Saxena
  • 63. PRECAUTION IN PREPRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE  Questions should proceed in logical sequence moving from easy to difficult questions.  Technical terms should be avoided.  There should be some control questions which indicate the reliability of the respondent.  Questions affected the sentiments of respondents should be avoided.  Adequate space for answers should be provided to the respondent.  The quality of the paper should be good so that it may attract the attention of respondents.63 Kush Saxena
  • 64. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH SCHEDULES This methods is very much like the collection of data through questionnaire. Schedules are filled by the enumerators who are especially appointed for this purpose. These enumerators along with schedule go to respondents, put to them the questions form the Performa. Enumerators explains the objective of the investigation.64 Kush Saxena
  • 65. DIFFERENCE B/W SCHEDULE AND QUESTIONNAIRE 1. The questionnaire is generally sent through mail but without further assistance. The schedule is filled by the enumerator who can interpret questions when necessary. 2. To collect data through questionnaire is relatively cheaper since we do not need to spend money to appoint any person, on the other hand in schedule there is a need of enumerators and they need money. 3. Non-response rate is high in case of questionnaire but not in schedule. 4. In questionnaire, it is not clear always as to who replies but in case of schedule the identity of65 Kush Saxena respondents is known.
  • 66.  Personal contact is generally not possible in questionnaire but in schedule direct personal contact is established with respondents.  Questionnaire method can be used only when respondents are literate but in case of schedule the information can be gathered even when respondents are illiterate.  The success of questionnaire method lies more on quality of the questionnaire itself, but in the case of schedule much depends upon the honesty of enumerators.66 Kush Saxena
  • 67. SECONDARY DATA Secondary data are those which are collected by some other agency and are used for investigation. It is time and money saving method. The secondary data can be classified as- • Published data • Unpublished data67 Kush Saxena
  • 68. SOURCES OF PUBLISHED DATA  Published Thesis- There are number of students engaged in research work at different institutions/universities of the country. Their work contribute significantly to the availability of secondary data.  Government Reports- Most of the departments of central and state government publish statistics on various subjects. Ex-Ministry of Agriculture publishes monthly report-68 Kush Saxena Agriculture situation in India.
  • 69.  International Reports- International organizations like FAO,WHO,ILO regularly publish their statistics. Sources of Unpublished Data Some of research institutions collect data but they normally do not publish it, such as unpublished thesis submitted to university for the award of Ph.D. degree.69 Kush Saxena
  • 70. PRECAUTIONS IN THE USE OF SECONDARY DATA  Suitability of the data  Adequacy data  Reliability of the data  Period of data  Units of measurement  Accuracy of data70 Kush Saxena
  • 71. EXCERCISE71 Kush Saxena
  • 72.  Mailed questionnaire method of enquiry can be adopted if respondents a) Live in cities b) Have high income c) Are educated d) Are poor72 Kush Saxena
  • 73.  Secondary data a) Should be avoided b) Should be used after careful editing c) Should be used as their face value d) None of these73 Kush Saxena
  • 74.  A researcher wants to study the future of congress in India. For the study which tool is more appropriate a) Questionnaire b) Schedule c) Interview d) Rating Scale74 Kush Saxena
  • 75.  Primary data are a) Always more reliable b) Less Reliable c) Depends upon agency collecting them d) None of these75 Kush Saxena
  • 76.  Some of the sources of the primary data are a) Confidential reports of the firm b) Reports of firm’s sales, purchase etc. c) Reports and publication of government d) None of the above76 Kush Saxena
  • 77.  Primary data is preferred over secondary data because a) It is concise and accurate b) It contains no error c) It shows greater detail d) None of these77 Kush Saxena
  • 78. SAMPLE DESIGN & SAMPLE SIZE78 Kush Saxena
  • 79. Investigation Census Sample79 Kush Saxena
  • 80. 80 Kush Saxena
  • 81. 81 Kush Saxena
  • 82. CENSUS INVESIGATION & SAMPLE INVESTIGATION When the information on each and every unit of he population is collected, it is called census investigation. On the other hand when each and every unit is not investigated but only a part of population called sample is investigated, it is called sample investigation.82 Kush Saxena
  • 83. Superiority of sample over census investigation  The most apparent one is that sample investigation is cheaper than census investigation.  Sample investigation is less time consuming rather than census investigation.  A sample survey obtain data that could not possibly otherwise.  A more minute and detailed study of problem is possible when the units are less in number.  When the population is too large and geographically sacttered,then study on each and every unit is not possible.83 Kush Saxena
  • 84. The Sampling process The Sampling process consists of five sequential steps. These steps are as follows- 1. Defining the population 2. Identifying sampling frame 3. Choosing appropriate sampling design 4. Determine the sample size 5. Selecting the sample84 Kush Saxena
  • 85. Defining the population It is the aggregate of all elements , usually prior to the selection of the sample. The population is said to be completely defined if at least the following terms are specified-  Elements  Sampling units  Extent  Time85 Kush Saxena
  • 86. For Example For monitoring the sales of our product, the population might be Elements-Our Products Sampling units-Retail outlets, Super market Extent-Bareilly,Moradabad,Badaun,Pilibhit Time- May 1st 201386 Kush Saxena
  • 87. Identifying the sampling frame A complete list of population units is the sampling frame. The sampling frame should be selected which consists of almost all the sampling units. For Example- If we wish to identify the sale of Maggi then all retailers are our sampling frame and all retailers selling Maggi are our sampling units.87 Kush Saxena
  • 88. Choose appropriate sample design Basically there are two types of sampling design and these are  Probability Sampling  Non Probability Sampling88 Kush Saxena
  • 89. Determine the sample size Deciding a sample size is the most important step because too large sample implies a waste of time and money and too small sample will not yield good results. factors affecting the sample size-  Nature of population  Size of population  Desired level of accuracy  Time & Money availability89 Kush Saxena
  • 90. VARIOUS SAMPLING METHOD Sampling Method Non Probability Probability Sampling Sampling90 Kush Saxena
  • 91. Probability Sampling  Simple Random Sampling  Systematic Sampling  Stratified Sampling  Multi stage sampling Non Probability Sampling  Judgment Sampling  Convenience Sampling91 Kush Saxena
  • 92. EXCERCISE92 Kush Saxena
  • 93.  Which one of the following is a non probability sampling a) Stratified b) Systematic c) Convenience d) Cluster93 Kush Saxena
  • 94.  A statistical population may consists of a) An infinite number of units b) A finite number of units c) Either a or b d) None of a or b94 Kush Saxena
  • 95.  A study based on complete enumeration is known as a) Pilot survey b) Sample survey c) Census survey d) None of the above95 Kush Saxena
  • 96.  A researcher selects only 10 members out of 6000 population and considers it good because a) He was a good researcher b) He was guided by his supervisor c) The population was homogeneous d) All of these96 Kush Saxena
  • 97.  The final result of a study will be more accurate if the sample drawn is a) Taken randomly b) Fixed by quotas c) Representation to the population d) Purposive97 Kush Saxena
  • 98.  A simple random sampling may be selected by a) Lottery method b) Random numbers c) Stratification d) a & b98 Kush Saxena
  • 99.  When a research problem is related to heterogeneous population, the most suitable sampling method is a) Cluster sampling b) Convenient sampling c) Stratified sampling d) Lottery method99 Kush Saxena
  • 100.  A study based on complete enumeration is known as a) Sample survey b) Census survey c) Pilot survey d) None100 Kush Saxena