Structures in the mouth that aidsdigestion: Teeth – cut, tear, crush andgrind food. Salivary glands – produce andsecrete saliva into the oralcavity. Parotid (beneath the cheeks) Submaxillary (below the jawbone) Sublingual (below thetongue)– saliva moistensthe food and contains enzymes(ptyalin or salivary amylase)that begins digestion of starchinto smaller polysaccharides
the tube that connects yourmouth and your stomach A straight muscular tube that is about10 inches (25 cm) long whichconnects the mouth with thestomach Food takes about 4 to 8 seconds as itpasses through to the stomach. Its walls contain smooth muscles thatcontracts in wavy motion(Peristalsis). Peristalsis propels food and liquidslowly down the esophagus intothe stomach. Cardiac Sphincter (ring-like valve)relaxes to allow food into thestomach.
J-shaped muscular sac Has inner folds (rugae) thatincreases the surface area of thestomach. Churns and grinds together thebolus into smaller pieces. Food is mixed with gastric juices(hydrochloric acid and enzymes)secreted by the stomach walls. HCL helps break down food andkills bacteria that came along withthe food.
Pepsin – major enzyme; converts proteinsinto peptides in the presence of HCL. Mucus – lubricates food and protects thegastric lining from strong digestive juices. Converts the bolus into a liquid (chyme)after 4 hrs of mechanical and chemicaldigestion Chyme passes through the pyloricsphincter into the small intestine.
Tube that is 20 feet long. Continues to digest food Food stays in your small intestine for 4to 8 hours Has three parts: Duodenum – upper part; about 10 in;connected to the stomach.– where the digestive juicesfrom the pancreas and the liver combinewith chyme making it thin and watery. Jejunum – about 8 ft Ileum – about 12 ft
Mixing: Segmental contraction that occurs in small intestineSecretion: Lubricate, liquefy, digestDigestion: Mechanical and chemicalAbsorption: Movement from tract into circulation or lymphElimination: Waste products removed from body
PancreasProduces a juice that containsenzymes (amylase and insulin)to break down carbohydrates,fats and protein.Secretes the juice into theduodenum through thepancreatic duct.
Storage tank for bile (a greenish-yellow liquid)that helps your body break down and use fatsLocated under your liverShaped like a pear Stores bile in between meals Secretes bile to the duodenumthrough the bile duct duringmealtime. Bile contains bile salts, pigments,cholesterol and phospholipids. Bile is an emulsifier NOT anenzyme. Emulsifier – dissolves fat into thewatery contents of the intestine.
Waste is pushed into the expandedportion (rectum) of the largeintestine. Solid waste stays in the rectumuntil it is excreted through theanus as feces. Appendix hangs on the right sideof the large intestine. Tube that is 5 feet long Gets waste from small intestine Waste stays for 10 to 12 hours
Colon is part of largeintestines. The colon formswaste material that is goingto be sent out of body.They are of three types…1. ascending colon2.transverse colon3. descending colon The rectum and anus are partof large intestines. Theyrelease waste material fromthe body.