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Employer and employee relations
 

Employer and employee relations

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Employee relations

Employee relations

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    Employer and employee relations Employer and employee relations Presentation Transcript

    • Employer / Employee Relations
    • Content
      • Employee / Employer relations
      • Different approaches to employee relations:
      • Collective bargaining
      • Individual bargaining
      • Employee participation and industrial democracy
      • Role of trade unions and ACAS
      • Principals of employment law
    • What is Employee Relations?
      • Employee and Employer Relations describes the relationship between workers and employers in business
    • Why is it important?
      • Motivation
      • Reputation : Potential customers, investor and staff
      • Output
      • Efficiency
      • Profit levels
    • Collective v Individual Bargaining
      • In the nineteenth century workers used to negotiate their own pay and conditions with their employers- INDIVIDUAL BARGAINIG
      • Collective bargaining occurs when workers allow the union to negotiate on their behalf. Negotiations can be with an individual employer or an employers' association.
    • Different Approaches To Employee Relations
      • The workforce is becoming increasingly flexible with an increased emphasis on part-time and temporary workers and against full-time permanent workers
      • A flexible work force is cheaper for firms, allows them to meet changes in demand, reduces training and allows for specialisation
      • However there is less security, communication may be problematic and turnover is higher
    • Salaries Vs Wages
      • Full time salaried workers tend to have more “rights” and job security than part time temporary workers
    • Employee participation and Industrial democracy
      • Employee participation – workers being involved in business decision making
      • Industrial democracy – the methods which workers can influence business decisions
    • Works councils
      • These are forums where workers and management meet to discuss issues concerning work e.g. working conditions, pay, training
      • Usually members are elected
      • Often used where there are no trade unions
    • Employee shareholders
      • Where workers can gain shares in the company
      • There are tax benefits
      • Idea is by owning shares performance and motivation of the workforce increase
    • Autonomous work groups
      • This is where teams of workers have a high degree of control
      • Authority has been delegated from senior management
      • Basis of groups is that motivation and productivity should be increased
    • Team working
      • Teams are responsible for a specific part of the production process
      • This can help increase motivation
      • Team working is compatible with democratic leadership
    • Quality Circles
      • This is when groups of workers meet to talk about ways to improve quality of products
      • Usually a group of 3-10 workers who meet for 1-2 hours 2-3 times a month
      • These often provide imaginative solutions to business problems
    • The Role of Trade Unions
      • Craft unions : represent skilled workers from one occupation
      • General unions representing mainly unskilled workers from many occupations e.g. TGWU (Transport and General Workers' Union).
      • Industrial unions representing mainly workers in one industry.E.g. NUM (miners' union)
      • Professional or white-collar unions representing skilled workers in mainly service industries.E.g. NUT (teachers' union).
    • The Aims of Trade Unions
      • Improve the pay of workers.
      • Improve working conditions and secure longer holidays.
      • Protect members' jobs.
      • Provide local, social and welfare facilities.
      • Influence government policy
    • The Trades Union Congress
      • Made up of over 90 unions representing more than 9 million members
      • An annual conference decides overall union policy and elects the General Council
      • The General Secretary of the TUC is the trades union spokesman in any negotiations with the government or employers' organisations.
    • Disputes & Restrictive Practices
      • Disputes can arise over pay, working conditions, redundancies etc
      • Restrictive Practices may then follow such as:
      • A closed shop - union insists all workers are T.U members.
      • Demarcation when a union insists that only their members do certain jobs
    • Industrial Action
      • If negotiations break down Unions can:
      • Work to rule :do the bare minimum
      • Impose an overtime ban
      • Strike and refuse to work altogether
      • Picketing: ask other members not to enter
      • ‘ Blacking’: Refusing to deal with certain employees or suppliers because they have refused to participate in I.A
      • Employers can operate a lockout and refuse workers entry or they can dismiss striking workers for breach of contract
    • ACAS
      • Arbitration is when employers agree to an independent referee to try to find common ground
      • Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) has been available to help solve disputes
      • In the 1980s and 1990s there have been an increasing number of single-union agreements where employers negotiate with only one union
    • Employment Law – Individual labour law
      • Looks at the rights and responsibilities of individuals:
        • Equal Pay Act 1970 – both sexes treated equally re: pay
        • Sex Discrimination Act, 1974 – cant discriminate on grounds of sex or marital status
        • Race Relations Act, 1976 - cant discriminate in relation to colour, race, nationality or ethnic origin
        • Disability Discrimination Act, 1994 – cant discriminate due to disability
        • Working Time Regulations, 1998 – this sets a limit on the number of hours worked per week
    • Collective labour law
      • Looks at the operation of trade unions, industrial relations and collective bargaining:
        • Employment Act 1980 – employees aren't obliged to negotiate with unions
        • Trade Union Act 1984
        • Employment Act 1982, 1988, 1990
        • Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act, 1993
        • Minimum Wage Act, 1998
        • Employment Relations Act, 2000
    • Impact of Employment Legislation On Businesses
      • There are positive and negative impacts
      • Can act as a motivator to the workforce
      • Reduction in power of trade unions has increased workforce flexibility
      • Foreign investment has increased as legislation is employment friendly
      • Increases costs
      • Businesses need to employ non productive workers to manage the policies
      • These effects can be more detrimental on smaller firms
    • Summary
      • Employee / Employer relations looks at the relationship between workers and the business
      • Collective bargaining refers to the negotiation between employees and workforce representatives
      • Individual bargaining where a single worker negotiates their working conditions and pay with management
      • Employee participation and industrial democracy – these aim to increase employee involvement in business decisions and can include quality circles
      • Trade unions act to protect and improve the economic and working conditions for their members
      • Acas looks at resolving disputes
      • Employment laws regulate what a business is doing