test2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
492
On Slideshare
492
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 報告者: UL1A 001 Kurt 孫軒翎 學習發展概論 心得報告
  • 2. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • When Piaget talked about the infant’s action-structures, he used the term scheme or schema . (e.g., Piaget, 1936a, p. 34) A scheme can be any action pattern for dealing with the environment such as looking, grasping, hitting, or kinking. As mentioned, although infants construct their schemes and later structures. The most prominent reflex is the sucking reflex; babies automatically suck whenever their lips are touched.
    • Reflexes imply a certain passivity. The organism lies inactive until something comes along to Stimulate it. Piaget, however, showed that even a reflex like sucking quickly becomes part of the human infant’s self-initiated activity. For example, when his son Laurent was only 2 days old, he began making sucking movements when nothing released them. Since he did this between meals, when he wasn’t hungry, he seemed to suck simply for the sake of sucking. Piaget said that once we have a scheme, we also have a need to put it to active use. (pp. 25-26,35)
  • 3. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • Furthermore, when babies are hungry, they do not just passively wait for the mother to put the nipple into their mouth. When Laurent was 3 days old, he searched for the nipple as soon as his lips touched part of the breast. He groped, mouth open, across the breast until he found it. (p.26)
    • Babies do not confine themselves to sucking on nipples. Piaget’s children sucked on clothes, pillows, blankets, their own fingers – on anything they chanced upon. In Piaget’s terms, they assimilated all kinds of objects into the sucking scheme.
    • Although assimilation is the most prominent activity during stage 1, we also can detect the beginnings of accommodation. For example, babies must learn to adjust their head and lip movements to find the breast and nurse. Such adjustments also demonstrate the beginnings of organization; babies organize their movements so that nursing becomes increasingly smooth, rapid, and efficient (pp. 29-31,39)
  • 4. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • 在唸完了整段課文後,相信大家對這一個部份有相當程度的了解了。
    • 其實…在作者用心良苦的用 1612 個字母;共 319 個字,詳實的的敘述出他如何藉著從觀察三歲兒子吸手指以及吸奶的行為中,發現嬰兒的學習方式。
  • 5. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • 可是呢…
    • 說真的呢…
    • 老實說呢…
    • 在下整理過後,重點就剩下…
  • 6. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • When Piaget talked about the infant’s action-structures, he used the term scheme or schema . (e.g., Piaget, 1936a, p. 34) A scheme can be any action pattern for dealing with the environment such as looking, grasping, hitting, or kinking. As mentioned, although infants construct their schemes and later structures. The most prominent reflex is the sucking reflex; babies automatically suck whenever their lips are touched.
    • Reflexes imply a certain passivity. The organism lies inactive until something comes along to Stimulate it. Piaget, however, showed that even a reflex like sucking quickly becomes part of the human infant’s self-initiated activity. For example, when his son Laurent was only 2 days old, he began making sucking movements when nothing released them . Since he did this between meals, when he wasn’t hungry, he seemed to suck simply for the sake of sucking . Piaget said that once we have a scheme, we also have a need to put it to active use. (pp. 25-26,35)
  • 7. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • Furthermore, when babies are hungry, they do not just passively wait for the mother to put the nipple into their mouth . When Laurent was 3 days old, he searched for the nipple as soon as his lips touched part of the breast. He groped, mouth open, across the breast until he found it . (p.26)
    • Babies do not confine themselves to sucking on nipples. Piaget’s children sucked on clothes, pillows, blankets, their own fingers – on anything they chanced upon . In Piaget’s terms, they assimilated all kinds of objects into the sucking scheme.
    • Although assimilation is the most prominent activity during stage 1, we also can detect the beginnings of accommodation . For example, we also can detect the beginnings of accommodation . Such adjustments also demonstrate the beginnings of organization; babies organize their movements so that nursing becomes increasingly smooth, rapid, and efficient (pp. 29-31,39)
  • 8. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • when his son Laurent was only 2 days old, he began making sucking movements
    • 當他兒子「拉軟的」才剛出生兩天時,他就開始「吸」了!
    • he seemed to suck simply for the sake of sucking .
    • 而且,他似乎單純的只是為「吸」而「吸」
    • when babies are hungry, they do not just passively wait for the mother to put the nipple into their mouth
    • 當小嬰兒餓了的時候,他們並不會被動的等老媽拿乳頭去堵他的嘴巴 ( 餵奶 )
    • he searched for the nipple as soon as his lips touched part of the breast. He groped, mouth open, across the breast until he found it.
    • 他一碰到老媽的胸部,就用最快的速度去尋找乳頭;他會把嘴巴開開,然後在胸部上找來找去直到他找到為止。
  • 9. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • Babies do not confine themselves to sucking on nipples. Piaget’s children sucked on clothes, pillows, blankets, their own fingers – on anything they chanced upon
    • 小嬰兒並不會只吸乳頭,事實上,「皮癢傑特」的孩子吸衣服、吸枕頭、吸棉被也吸手指,什麼能吸到的都吸
    • we also can detect the beginnings of accommodation . Such adjustments also demonstrate the beginnings of organization
    • 所以我們可以確認到,他們開始學著去調適。這樣調適動作的行為也驗證了他們的行為開始有組織性了
    • babies organize their movements so that nursing becomes increasingly smooth, rapid, and efficient
    • 小嬰兒藉著讓自己行為更有組織,讓小嬰兒的看護與照顧可以更有效率的進行!
  • 10. Stage 1 (birth to 1 month) The Use of Reflexes
    • 所以我們從這個段落可以得知:小嬰兒從出生兩天就開始「學習」了,儘管只是個普通的「吸手指」動作,都是小嬰兒迅速學習與適應環境最好的証明。
  • 11. Stage 1 的課文到底在說什麼?
    • 這是一個吸手指以及找乳頭的故事
    • 這是一個愛與勇氣的故事?
    • 錯 !!!
    • 感謝您的聆聽!