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Biomech noteskoodle






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Biomech noteskoodle Biomech noteskoodle Presentation Transcript

  • Bio mechanics
    • Biomechanics studies what makes a body move. It studies internal and external forces (remember a force is a push or a pull) that act on the body and other objects. It is possible to work out how your body should move in order to perform a task more efficiently. So for example we can use biomechanics to make you a better player!
  • Biomechanics Summary
    • Balance and Stability
    • Newton's Laws
    • Force Summation
    • Projectile Motion
    • Levers
  • Balance and Stability
    • This is defined as the ability to hold or maintain a position in space
    • St ability generally depends on:
    • The location of the centre of gravity (COG) with respect to the base of support.
    • The direction of forces involved
  • Balance and Stability
    • Centre of Gravity is the point in the body at which all body parts are in balance.
    • In the anatomical position males generally have a higher COG than woman.
    • The body rotates around the COG
  • Four Main Principles of Stability
    • The closer the line of gravity is to the centre of the base of support, the greater the probability of maintaining balance
    • 2. The broader the base of support, the greater the probability of maintaining balance .
  • Four Main Principles of Stability
    • 3. Our balance is improved when we lower our Centre of Gravity in relation to the base of support. eg:
    • 4. The further one part of the body moves away from the line of gravity, the probability of maintaining balance decreases unless another body part moves to compensate for it. eg.
  • Balance and Stability
    • We can further increase stability:
    • Increase Friction eg________
    • Lean into an incoming Force eg______
    • Increase Rotation eg________
    • Increase Mass eg________
  • Newton’s Laws of Motion
    • Newton’s First Law: Law of Inertia
    • An object at rest tends to remain at rest unless it is acted on by an external force.
    • An object in motion tends to remain in motion and to travel in a straight line with uniform velocity unless acted on by an external force.
  • Newton’s Laws of Motion
    • Newton’s Second Law: Law of Acceleration
    • When a force acts on a body, it’s resulting change in momentum is proportional to the force causing it and inversely proportional to the mass
    • Force = Mass x Acceleration
  • Newton’s Laws of Motion
    • Newton’s Third Law: Law of Action/Reaction
    • For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  • Force Summation
    • To give an object momentum eg throwing, kicking, hitting, the amount of momentum given to the object is determined by the ‘sum of all forces generated by each body part’.
  • Force Summation
    • Five Basic Guidelines to generate optimal force:
    • Use of body segments
    • Stretch out
    • Sequencing of Body segments – larger first
    • Timing of Body Segments
    • Full Range of Motion
    • See Handout
  • Force Summation Note importance of: Stabilisation Timing
  • Force Summation Consider force summation in relation to drawing and driving.
  • Projectile Motion
    • Any object released into the air is a projectile. eg?
    • Six Factors Affect a Projectile’s Path
        • Gravity
        • Air resistance
        • Speed of Release
        • Angle of Release
        • Height of Release
        • Spin
  • Projectile Motion
    • Of the six, the most important factors are Gravity which acts to decrease the height a projectile will travel and Air Resistance which acts to decrease distance.
    • Note a projectile will travel in a parabolic curve unless acted on by another influence
  • Gravity and Air Resistance
    • Gravity
    • Effects an object at a constant of 10N
    • Gravity is a weak attractive force but we cannot escape it!
    • Air Resistance
    • Effects the path of a projectile depending on its mass, speed and/or surface area.
    • Eg Graph the path of a petanque ball vs a shuttlecock
    • The greater the speed of release, the greater the distance traveled.
    • Two Parts:
    • Initial Vertical Speed
    • Initial Horizontal Speed
    • The greater the vertical speed: the higher and longer (time) the projectile will fly.
    • The greater the horizontal speed: the further it will fly.
    Speed of Release
  • Speed of Release Force = Mass x Acceleration To increase force can increase one or both. How? This may create problems such as … Remember Newton’s Second Law:
  • Angle of Release
    • You need an optimum angle to maximise the benefits of vertical and horizontal velocity.
    • If the angle is too high:
    • If the angle is too low:
  • Angle of Release
    • Angling of the release of the bowl allows for what to occur?
  • Height of Release
    • As the Height of Release increases, so does the distance that will be gained.
    • Not really relevant in bowls but definitely in Petanque – How?
  • Spin
    • In order to cause rotation a force has to be applied to one side of the COG.
    • Topspin Causes:
    • Backspin Causes:
  • Levers
    • Levers consist of 3 parts
      • Resistance
      • Effort
      • Fulcrum or Pivot
    1 2 3
  • Levers
    • Two main functions:
    • To increase the resistance that can be moved eg__________
    • To increase the velocity at which an object will move with a given force. eg _______
    • There are 3 types of levers. See handout .