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Preparatory examinations total revision package for paper 1

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Total and complete revision package

Total and complete revision package

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  • 1. St. Hilda’s Secondary School 4Express/NA/NA[TT]/5NA Preparation Examinations T4W2-6.2010 Suggested Answer Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee for T4W6.19-21 October 2010 for Secondary 4B/4D/5B.2010 COMPLETE REVISION EDITION Paper 1 1127 / 01 REVISED and Published here for students’ revision by Yeo Yam Hwee 24 October 2010
  • 2. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Always bear in mind to use the FRAMEWORK: T = Tense S = Spelling S = Sentence M = Meaning to help you in your planning of your essay. Be very clear even BEFORE you step into the examination hall, which type of essay is going to give you the biggest personal advantage in terms of self-confidence and proficiency in writing. IS IT An essay on SCHOOL LIFE? A discursive essay on a general topic? An argumentative essay? A single-word essay topic? A narrative-descriptive essay?
  • 3. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Do not write on things or ideas which strongly suggest – sex, rape, gangs, drug or substance abuse, brazen behaviour, secret societies, membership of bizarre clubs or societies, religions, science fiction, incidents of unnatural deaths, suicides, horrors and ghostly experience. The list can go on, but I am quite sure you know what I mean. You plan to fail if you try to SHOCK your examiner with an essay filled with strange content. Being “original” does not mean being “shocking”, “bizarre” or “strange”.
  • 4. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING For narrative writing, use the PAST tense [V²] because the events you recount happened in the past. For information-giving, discussion, or argument, use the PRESENT tense [V1] because the points are always relevant or of concern to you. Plan before writing – always submit only the neatest or the best draft for grading. Under examination or timed condition, do not go beyond Draft 2. Submit Draft 2 should do. Check your work before you submit. Make sure you begin the topic SPOT ON with the first paragraph. Do not drag your feet and pad your essay. Remember an essay is not a novel or a short story. You have a word limit - 350 to 500 words to consider. Always use a new pen. Stick to only one colour. Use either dark blue or black.
  • 5. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Use of Proper Nouns in the English Language. I am very surprised that many 43 students did not know that the first letters of a proper noun phrase have to be capitalized – e.g. St. Hilda’s Secondary School. Your friend’s name should be Pelvin Pan Teng Yok . When you identify the ethnic group of a person, he is either a Chinese, an Indian, a Malay or a Eurasian. He is a Secondary Three school boy. But if there is no specific names being mentioned, then you are right to write: e.g. He studied in a secondary school. [WRONG] e.g. He studied at Pasir Ris Crest Secondary School. [CORRECT]
  • 6. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING “Who” is used with or in connection with human beings only. “Which” is used for all others – living and non-living things, including animals. “That” has been misused by many students. Do not use Non-standard or CLIPPED expressions: Instead of “exam” or “exams”, use the word, “examinations”. Instead of “stuff” or “stuffs”, use the correct word for each specific situation. e.g. [1] She kept her stuff [X] in her handbag. Guy Gal Kid Of course Well Nice Great Stuff Cool No sweat Lame [These are all No-no’s] N.B. THESE MAY BE GOOD ENOUGH FOR CONVERSATION BUT CERTAINLY NOT GOOD ENOUGH FOR WRITTEN WORK, ESPECIALLY FOR INCLUSION IN A FORMAL ESSAY.
  • 7. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING e.g. [2] She kept her personal belongings [Correct] in her handbag. Or e.g. [3] She kept her personal items [Correct] in her handbag. e.g. [4] He was studying in Sec 1. [X] e.g. [5]. He was studying in Secondary One. [Correct]
  • 8. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Use of plural and singular noun words. When you say, “you are taking an examination”, you are only sitting ONE paper. Are you only sitting ONE paper at the GCE N Level Examinations? Of course NOT. So, please always write: e.g. [6]. He failed to do well in his GCE N Level Examinations. [CORRECT] However, of course, if you are only sitting ONE paper, then it is perfectly all right to state: e.g. [7]. It was an important examination [CORRECT] and yet he did not do well in it.
  • 9. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING The expression – “My friends and I” versus “Me and my friends”. “My family and I” is an expression you should NOT even think about writing. Use this technique instead: My family enjoyed regular visits across the causeway from Singapore into Peninsular Malaysia. There was once, however, we were forced to leave my two younger sisters behind. I alone accompanied my father and my mother to Johore Bahru on a weekend shopping trip. My mother had to leave my twin sisters at home with my grandparents so that they could rest and hopefully recover completely after suffering from a mild case of stomache upset. We had had no idea that it was going to be a long while before we ever got to see them again.
  • 10. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING e.g. [8]. My friends and I [CORRECT] visited the patient. e.g. [9]. Me and my friends [X] visited the patient. [THAT STUPID GIRL WHO AIRS HER OPINION ON HOW HER HP COMPUTER HAS BECOME PERSONAL AGAIN IS SO DARN WRONG ABOUT HER GRAMMAR! BUT THEN, SHE’S AMERICAN!]
  • 11. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING A lot of people [a] because a [1word] Lot [another word] Of [third word] = 3 separate words The expression is “A lot of”. Never begin a sentence in your essay with “AND”. Absolutely no SINGLISH, even in dialogue. If you must showcase dialogue, make sure you keep to a pair of exchanges only. Do not use the following in your essay: “Rrrrrinnnngggg….!!!” went the telephone. [X] “Arrggh…” he struggled. [X]
  • 12. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING One of the boys [a] versus One of the boy [X] One of the students [a] versus One of the student [X] USE PUNCTUATION MARKS ACCURATELY. This is especially true for full-stops and commas. PENMANSHIP and PRESENATION SKILLS. Students with poor handwriting and presentation skills usually lose out to those who understand the need to write clearly so that the readers can read better. For writing numerals, 1 – 20. Please use words. This is an English Language Examination after all. e.g. He studied in that school for 20 years.  He studied in that school for twenty years. For indicating years, simply write – 1997 or 2006
  • 13. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING In your Section One Essay, do not use these adverbs in Narrative Writing: Now Today Yesterday Tomorrow Currently Presently If you are retelling an episode in the past – Narrative / Personal Recount / Descriptive.
  • 14. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING You have to get your MODAL + MAIN verb right: Will be Would be Will eat Would eat Can be Could be Can swim Could swim May be Might be May sleep Might sleep Must be Had to be Must climb Had to climb Shall be Should be Shall sing Should sing
  • 15. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Reminders again Preferred method of writing dates internationally – 1 April 1999 N.B. 10 Apr 06 [a] 10 April 2006 [a] When the day of the week is added, a comma is used: e.g. She planned to leave on Monday, 1 April 2006. When only the month and year are used, the month is usually followed by a comma: e.g. She planned to leave in April[,] 2006. Years and centuries should be written as follows: 59 BC AD 432 the 1990s the nineties between 1997 and 2006 from 1998 to 2006 twentieth century verse the sixteenth century
  • 16. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Use only ONE set of dialogue if you really have to. Punctuation: “Am I excused from the examinations?” Mary asked. “Am I excused from the examinations?” asked Mary. Mary asked, “Am I excused from the examinations?” She asked, “Am I excused from the examinations?” ABSOLUTELY NO SINGLISH END OF POST-MORTEM
  • 17. BY NOW YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT 1. You must choose an essay topic which you absolutely (TOTALLY) can do WELL. 2. Your CHOICE topic contains all the words, phrases or expressions which you understand accurately. 3. If you must decide between TWO choices, always pick the one which you are more confident to do well. 4. Do not waste time by changing topic midway.
  • 18. Identifying Correctly The Essay Type N and O Level English Examinations 2010
  • 19. Discursive-descriptive Essays How to produce your paragraphs? How to write your 400-500 words? How to ace it? Written by Yeo Yam Hwee Pasir Ris Crest Secondary School 2001-2008
  • 20. Write about some of the things which make you feel proud of your country. 2. Although Singapore has limited resources, it had grown from a third world country into a developed nation within a span of fifty years. 3. Although an immigrant society, we have people from all over the world who are able to live peacefully and harmoniously with one another. 4. We have four official languages –English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil. Singaporeans accept and use English as the language of communication and business amongst ourselves. 5. Close to ninety percent of Singaporeans live in our own houses. We have free to choose the type of housing according to how much we can afford. Anybody who wants to work is able to get a job of his or her choice. Education standards are high. Cost of living is reasonable but standard of living is amongst the highest in Asia and comparable to other developed countries in the world. 6. Living environment is good. We have planted many trees in our cites and housing estates. Rubbish collection is efficient and the sewage system is world class. We have a low crime rate and well-developed neighbourhood watch system. 7. Singapore has been recently ranked seventeenth out of twenty most liveable cities in the world. Good health care. Good transportation system. Good urban planning. 1. I feel proud about Singapore because my family and I live here. We feel safe and secure. We feel that we can build our future here together.
  • 21. What makes Singapore a great city state? International long-haul connections with a well-managed, thoughtfully designed airport Low crime rates in relation to murders and domestic burglaries Quality of education and health care Hours of sunshine and average temperature Availability of communications and connectivity Level of social harmony, acceptance and tolerance, which includes a positive climate for ethnic diversity, the employment of women etc. Personal safety when walking on the streets at night. Cost and quality of public transport Quality of the living environment, housing choices, access to nature and key environmental initiatives in urban planning.
  • 22. Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. What is its historical value? What is its current importance? In what ways is it an interesting place? What can one gain from the visit? What is it a must-visit destination? Is it true that if you didn’t visit the river, you had never been to Singapore? Other factors: easy accessibility. Inexpensive. Near to good food centres. Near to business districts, Chinatown, Bugis Junction and so on.
  • 23. What makes a good parent? What does a parent do for his/her child/ren? Amount of contact or interaction time spent with child/ren. Values and beliefs shared with child/ren Awareness of child’s stages of physical and mental development In parent-child talk, how skilfully does the parent listen to the child? Styles of parenting: Is it adaptive to child’s needs or does it remain static? Is communication channel always open between parent and child?
  • 24. What makes a vibrant classroom? What do I mean by a “vibrant” classroom? What do I expect to find in one? Students’ input – efforts and contributions to make classroom activities meaningful. Teachers’ input – efforts and contributions to make students study and learn during lessons The physical environment of the classroom. Space and layout effectiveness. Cleanliness. Sunshine. Adaptability. Multiple-usage. Do students feel that they own their classroom? Students’ attitude Towards one another in class Students’ relationship with teachers Do students and teachers understand their respective responsibilities? Are they motivated to carry them out? Do they understand their goals and objectives?
  • 25. What would you consider to be a vacation well-spent? If I get to spend my vacation my family/ friends/ special ones. If I am free from any stress or pressure and can truly spend time doing nothing. If I visit a place which I really like visiting – an overseas destination If I get to do things which I do not do during school days. If I get to meet people whom I would not meet during school days. If I get to use my time and money interestingly and meaningfully.
  • 26. What are some of the characteristics of a successful shopping centre in your country? It should be easily accessible by public transport. Good shops selling Wide-ranging, fashionable, latest merchandise and services. Good mix of shops, facilities and space for families and other shoppers Competitive pricing and reliable shopkeepers An atmosphere or shopping experience unique to itself which others cannot copy or duplicate. It should organize seasonal or timely social activities for visitors to return to it repeatedly. Always upgrading its facilities and events Understand shoppers’ psychology and make it top priority to attract them to visit.
  • 27. Suggest how your pen pal may spend a meaningful one day stopover visit to Singapore. Invite him to have a meal with me and my family. Take him to the HDB heartlands – my town: visit the wet markets, hawker centres, community facilities Take the public transport - Buses and MRT. Let him mingle with the local crowds. Have short meals outside: savour local food from the different races. Identify your pen pal: Age Nationality Gender Go to iconic places of interest – Unique ones only. One or two will do. e.g. Chinatown, Bugis Street or Little India Listen to his or her requests if there is any. Then act on it so that there is no misunderstanding or disappointment.
  • 28. How does one cultivate a taste for fashion? Start with your wardrobe: What do you actually wear versus what you would like to wear. Learn about colours – When you combine colours, you get surprising tones Keen observation of how other teens dress on different occasions. See and determine who dresses right and ask yourself why so. Read up magazines for fashion tips suitable to your age group to be informed. Keep yourself physically and mentally fit by regular exercises. Discuss with other interested teens on fashion Window shopping during your free time to explore options Always be willing to ask when in doubt. Look into the mirror and be honest with yourself.
  • 29. What makes an effective study plan in your preparations for the examinations? Are you motivated? Time frame for revision? Range of Subjects to cover Individual or Group? Plan realistically. Start early. Be prepared to prioritize. Stay healthy. Be focused. Self-motivation and continual monitoring of progress. In each subject, do you list up the topics which need more time to prepare and which do not? What methods are more effective than others to tackle such topics. Revision requires a quiet / conducive environment- How do you set about creating one? Consult your parents Or teachers whether in doubt
  • 30. How would you plan an itinerary for a backpacker friend who is stopping over in Singapore on its National Day? Take him to the National Day Parade Take him to the city area / business district to soak in the atmosphere Invite your friends to meet him so that he/she has the opportunities to talk to our young people. Take him to iconic places of interest – Istana Take him to the National Museum – History of Singapore Go to some of the nightspots – Clarke Quay, Boat Quay, Robertson Quay. See how Singaporeans celebrate at night.
  • 31. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules.
  • 32. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Introduction Advantage 1 Advantage 2 Advantage 3 Disadvantage 1 Disadvantage 2 Disadvantage 3 Conclusion
  • 33. Argumentative – but how to structure your essay? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Introduction Advantage 1 Advantage 2 Advantage 3 Disadvantage 1 Disadvantage 2 Disadvantage 3 Conclusion 50% 50% IMPORTANT NOTE: When you choose to write on this topic, you cannot afford to lean towards one side. You need to take a balanced view because “advantages” and “disadvantages” must be given more or less equal coverage. Also, there is nothing to agree or disagree about.
  • 34. Argumentative – but how to structure your essay? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Introduction Advantage 1 Advantage 2 Advantage 3 Disadvantage 1 Disadvantage 2 Disadvantage 3 Conclusion 50% 50% IMPORTANT NOTE: You should always be clear in writing down your each claim in the following way: State your claim Support claim with elaboration Support elaboration with examples Wrap up this claim before moving on to the next claim.
  • 35. Argumentative – but how to structure your essay? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. 50% 50% IMPORTANT NOTE: You should always be clear in writing down each of your claim in the following way: State your claim Support claim with elaboration Support elaboration with an example Wrap up this claim before moving on to the next claim. By planning their own schooling schedules, students will be able to better manage the other things they want to do. Effective students do not get unnecessarily stressed out because they know what are the things they have to do first, before moving on to the next. Students who do well in examinations are probably the ones who understand clearly when to study hard and when to play hard. If young people have the opportunity to plan their time, they will become better managers of time when they grow up.
  • 36. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Total chaos will rein if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. What do you think? Students should be allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Discuss. Academic performance will improve if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Do you agree? Truancy and absenteeism will become a thing of the past if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules.
  • 37. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Students should be allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Discuss. WHY? Even if “Do you agree that” is missing from the essay topic, we know that we can take sides if we choose to attempt this question. “Discuss” does not mean you write a DISCURSIVE essay. It means you have to stake a CLAIM and support that claim with elaboration and examples. There must also be a HOWEVER paragraph to inform the readers that you are aware of the alternative CLAIM.
  • 38. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Total chaos will rein if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. What do you think? This is a SWEEPING STATEMENT. It is negative in tone and so is rather controversial. This provides a fertile ground for argumentation. You have very strong reasons either to agree or to disagree with this CONTROVERSIAL statement.
  • 39. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Academic performance will improve if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Do you agree? This is a SWEEPING STATEMENT. Although positive in tone, this claim is also rather controversial. This provides a fertile ground for argumentation. You have very strong reasons either to agree or to disagree with this CONTROVERSIAL statement.
  • 40. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Truancy and absenteeism will become a thing of the past if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. [X] There is no “Do you agree?” or “What do you think?” It does not mean that you should merely take what is stated here and follow the DRIFT blindly. You think it through and then take your position and present your arguments.
  • 41. Discursive or Argumentative? Explain and discuss the functions of your school uniform. There is nothing to agree or disagree with. So this is mainly a DISCURSIVE essay topic.
  • 42. Discursive or Argumentative? Explain and discuss the functions of your school uniform. Students should be allowed to wear their own clothes to school. Do you agree? Students establish a strong sense of identity when they put on their school uniforms. What is your opinion? Wearing school uniforms is an outdated practice in a modern day school. Do you agree or disagree with this comment?
  • 43. Discursive or Argumentative? Explain where in Singapore you would take your friends from overseas who has only a day to spend here. DISCURSIVE - Nothing to argue FOR or AGAINST. - Only need to give reasons for taking your overseas friend to at most THREE places which you think he or she must visit.
  • 44. Discursive or Argumentative? Why should students develop the habit of life-long learning? DISCURSIVE - Nothing to argue FOR or AGAINST. - Only need to give reasons for taking your overseas friend to at most THREE places which you think he or she must visit.
  • 45. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the importance of healthy living. Here there is no need to think about AGREEING or DISAGREEING with The IMPORTANCE of HEALTHY LIVING.
  • 46. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the importance of healthy living. Here there is no need to think about AGREEING or DISAGREEING with the IMPORTANCE of HEALTHY LIVING. We FOCUS on EXPLAINING AND DESCRIBING the topic and ITS IMPORTANCE.
  • 47. How to structure a Discursive essay? Discuss the importance of healthy living. Explain what you mean by “healthy living”. Give your own definition; does not need to be a definition which some “experts” say or share. Why is this an issue? State clearly its IMPORTANCE. How does it concern you? Three important things you plan to write about in this essay on the topic. Introduction Paragraph Main Body Paragraphs 1 - 4 Why is HL relevant to you as a student / teenager/ son or daughter? Using your own experience, suggest how to maintain a life style of H L? What do you plan to do? What difficulties and challenges do you foresee? Or expect to encounter? What advantages or benefits or desired outcomes do you expect to see? Conclusion Paragraph Once again, state the importance of healthy living. Mention that it is a desirable thing to do but understandably difficult to achieve and maintain over a period of time. Give encouragement and persuade your readers to try it out and not give up.
  • 48. Discursive or Argumentative? Youths in Singapore are soft. What do you think?
  • 49. Argumentative Youths in Singapore are soft. What do you think? This is a negative comment. It is also an allegation. For some, it may even be construed as an insult. Nevertheless, emotions aside, we deal with the issue squarely to see how this may be reasoned out. REMEMBER: When you deal with comments like this, do not get emotional. Your attitude should be one of interest but be detached enough so that your reasoning may be clear and well-thought-out. INTEREST, NOT EMOTIONS should rein
  • 50. Argumentative Youths in Singapore are soft. What do you think? Why is this an issue? To what extent is this a fair comment? To what extent is this not so fair? What is your opinion on this?  State clearly your THESIS STATEMENT What are the thoughts you would like to highlight in this essay? Introduction Paragraph Main Body Paragraphs 1 – 4 Point 1 Topic Sentence Point 2 Topic Sentence Point 3 Topic Sentence HOWEVER PARAGRAPH Conclusion Paragraph Reiterate the thesis statement here. Being positive about your stand. Being understanding about alternative viewpoints Express hope and best wishes.
  • 51. Discursive or Argumentative? How would you give advice to a classmate who is falling behind in his or her studies?
  • 52. Discursive How would you give advice to a classmate who is falling behind in his or her studies? What kind of things would you say to him or her? What kind of things would you do? What kind of efforts would you make? What methods would you use to help him or her? Be very clear: Your target is a classmate who is falling behind In hir or her studies. Advice can come in many forms. Time Management Where to start to revise How to consult when in doubt How to study independently When to study and when to rest And so on.
  • 53. Discursive or Argumentative? Write about the things which will affect the choice you make between continuing your education in Secondary Five and beginning a new learning path at the ITE?
  • 54. Discursive Write about the things which will affect the choice you make between continuing your education in Secondary Five and beginning a new learning path at the ITE?
  • 55. Discursive or Argumentative? What can young Singaporeans do to protect the environment?
  • 56. Discursive What can young Singaporeans do to protect the environment? REMEMBER: You are also a young Singaporean. We should make sure that we do not litter – keep Singapore clean and green. Do not waste water resources – always use water according to need. Do not waste energy resources If possible take part in the greening of our country – tree planting and so on Keep our beaches clean Report any acts of wrong-doing by people to the authorities Help to spread the message of environmental protection to others. Be an example or role models to other people through positive action.
  • 57. Discursive or Argumentative? What makes a vibrant classroom?
  • 58. Discursive Essay Writing What makes a vibrant classroom? Positive Attitude of the teachers Clear understanding that the classroom is a shared space between teachers and students. Positive Attitude of the students Availability and accessibility of teaching and learning facilities Planning and execution of curriculum which considers the learner in the 21st century Teaching and learning of life- skills, analytical skills, IT skills and so on Support from the school to provide a safe and conducive learning- teaching environment Support from parents / guardians of students
  • 59. Discursive or Argumentative? Studying smart is more effective than studying hard. Do you agree?
  • 60. Discursive or Argumentative? Visibility is more crucial than ability.
  • 61. Discursive or Argumentative? Despite the technological advances, man is not any closer to gaining a better understanding of himself in his relationship to others and his environment.
  • 62. Discursive or Argumentative? What are the things you and your parents do when you spend time together?
  • 63. Discursive AND descriptive What are the things you and your parents do when you spend time together? THIS TOPIC REQUIRES YOU TO ANSWER IN THE FIRST PERSON PRONOUN - I EATING A MEAL – Breakfast / Lunch / Dinner / Supper and so on. WATCHING A FAVOURITE MOTION PICTURE at the cinema GOING ON A FAMILY TOUR together to West Malaysia and so on HOUSEKEEPING and SPRING- CLEANING and so on
  • 64. Which type of Essay is this? Write about a time when a heated family argument which produced a positive outcome.
  • 65. Impressions / Characteristics / Qualities Descriptors that you need to take into account 13 July 2010
  • 66. Descriptive-Narrative Essay Writing When we talk about impressions, we must take into account the following salient factors: • Physical Qualities • Emotional Qualities • Social Qualities • Intellectual Qualities
  • 67. What are your impressions of your English Language teacher? Physical Appearance Dress Sense The way he walks / The way he speaks Emotional Qualities What does he seem to like or dislike? What is his general behaviour? How does he carry himself? What qualities make him stand out? Intellectual Qualities He seems to be… I consider him…. Sometimes he is….. He is usually…. Most of the time he is… Social Qualities His relationship with other people… His relationship with…. Introduction Conclusion
  • 68. Write about an occasion when you good intention and efforts to help a friend brought about an unexpected outcome. SYNOPSIS: What is a possible short account? [that involved you and your friend.] You offered help to a friend who needed extra practice in his studies – he was very weak in Mathematics – Geometry. You lent him your mathematical box containing your protractor and compasses / flexible rulers and so on. Instead of being thankful and grateful for your help, your friend kept the box for himself and claimed to you that he had lost it. So you had to buy another new set. During the mathematics exam, you happened to know that you were conned by our friend because he was actually using your mathematical tools. He had simply thrown away original box. He denied they were yours when you confronted him or even called him a liar. It was an unexpected outcome which destroyed a friendship. Setting Action Trouble Resolution
  • 69. Which type of Essay is this? What are the benefits and consequences of home schooling?
  • 70. Which type of Essay is this? Computer promotes thinking. Do you agree?
  • 71. Which type of Essay? What do you think are the pros and cons of taking up a sport as a CCA?
  • 72. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY What do you think are the pros and cons of taking up a sport as a CCA? ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
  • 73. What kind of essay is this? Write about a time when you had to juggle your studies with another task which you had to do for your family?
  • 74. NARRATIVE and DESCRIPTIVE Write about a time when you had to juggle your studies with another task which you had to do for your family? PAST TENSE - It is about the PAST PERSONAL RECOUNT
  • 75. What kind of essay is this? What are your worries and concerns for the next two years in your life?
  • 76. DISCURSIVE and DESCRIPTIVE What are your worries and concerns for the next two years in your life? matters of interest, things that you care for, subject matters which you think will become serious in the next two years. I will be interested in the following aspects of my life in the next two years, namely, …
  • 77. INTRODUCTION is more or less CONCLUSION EXPOSITORY ESSAY WRITING – DISCURSIVE / DESCRIPTIVE WRITING CLINIC
  • 78. CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION MAIN BODY P1 MAIN BODY P2 MAIN BODY P3 MAIN BODY P4
  • 79. How to introduce Base your introduction on the statement which informs the reader of the strong opinion you hold with regard to the essay question. Expository – Discursive / Descriptive Essay Writing
  • 80. What other teachers call the THESIS statement… Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. TO ATTEMPT THIS QUESTION, WE MUST BELIEVE THAT: 1. Singapore River IS indeed an interesting area to visit. 2. I am able to convince any tourist to visit it. 3. To do so, I must tell the tourists why.
  • 81. INTRODUCTION 1 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. The Singapore River is an important area in my country. Any tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit because of its historic value, the beautiful sceneries alongside the river and the economic activities of the people who make a living on the river banks. I will provide my explanations in greater details in the following paragraphs.
  • 82. INTRODUCTION 2 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. Any tourist would find the Singapore River an interesting area to visit because it is one of the most important historic places in Singapore. Apart from that reason, it is also the only river in our country which supports business activities on both sides of the river banks. We can also find modern skyscrapers and beautiful gardens and parks alongside the river. All these characteristics make the Singapore River an absolutely attractive tourist destination.
  • 83. INTRODUCTION 3 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. The Singapore River attracts tourists in many ways. The area is a historic site as well as an important banking and business hub in our country. Important government offices and expensive business buildings are found alongside the river. We can see beautiful sceneries and visit museums of historic importance found in the area. These features are attractive to any tourist who visits Singapore.
  • 84. How to conclude Base your conclusion on the statement which informs the reader of the strong opinion you hold with regard to the essay question. EXPOSITORY – DISCURSIVE / DESCRIPTIVE
  • 85. How to begin a conclusion 1 Based on what I have shared in the above paragraphs, I think any tourist should be convinced that the Singapore River is an interesting place to visit… …
  • 86. How to begin a conclusion 2 I have mentioned most of the interesting aspects of the Singapore River which any tourist would find attractive… …
  • 87. How to begin a conclusion 3 Singapore River is indeed an interesting river which a tourist must not miss when he or she is visiting Singapore… …
  • 88. How to begin a conclusion 4 Museums and parks, nightspots and clubbing, history and culture - you name it, the Singapore River has it. It is surely an interesting place which any discerning tourist will not want to miss…
  • 89. How to begin a conclusion 5 I have given some important reasons why Singapore River is an interesting area for a tourist to visit…
  • 90. CONCLUSION 1 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. Because of the interesting aspects of the Singapore river which I have mentioned above, I strongly believe that any tourist will find it an interesting area to visit. I am sure that unless and until he has made such a visit to the river, he would not be able to truly understand and appreciate the multi- cultural and racial elements of the Singaporean way of life.
  • 91. CONCLUSION 2 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. I have written about the historic importance, the beautiful sceneries, the hustle and bustle, and the shopping and entertainment spots found alongside the Singapore River. I am certain any tourist would find it an interesting area to visit when he is in Singapore. Unless and until he has made such a visit to the river, he would not be able to truly understand and appreciate what these abovementioned sights at the Singapore River have to offer him.
  • 92. CONCLUSION 3 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. I have given the above reasons why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. I am quite certain that any tourist who visits the area will be convinced of my explanations and suggestions. The Singapore River will be a satisfying and unforgettable experience for him.
  • 93. How to Introduce? –What makes Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia? I was born in Singapore in 1993. I am a citizen and I am currently a secondary school student. Singapore is a fine country to live in. It is one of the most livable countries in Asia because I like the people, the food, the weather and the style of living here. Let me explain and elaborate further in the following paragraphs of my essay.
  • 94. How to introduce? – What makes Singapore one of the most liveable countries in Asia? I was born and brought up in Singapore. I am currently studying in a secondary school. As a student and a teenager, I think that there are many things which make Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia. In my essay, I will discuss the education system, the housing, the weather and the lifestyle of the people in Singapore to explain why I think Singapore is what I think it is.
  • 95. How to conclude: What makes Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia? I have briefly explained in my essay, the interesting lifestyle of my countrymen, the freedom they enjoy when choosing a job, the challenging and demanding education system and the clearly-defined climatic conditions found in Singapore. All these factors contribute in making Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia and I must say that I am lucky to be living here.
  • 96. “Tuition is the key to success in examinations.” Discuss. T3W10. Argumentative Essay Writing By Yeo Yam Hwee
  • 97. TERM 3 WEEK 1 Discursive Essay Writing JUNE HOLIDAY COMPOSITION HOMEWORK Lessons prepared and conducted by Yeo Yam Hwee at St. Hilda’s Secondary School Singapore to 4B/4D/5B.2010
  • 98. Which quality, in your opinion, enables a student to achieve success in school – diligence, intelligence or talent? Discuss.
  • 99. A mind map can take any shape but it has to be TRULY USEFUL TO YOU. YOU ARE GOING TO USE THE POINTS AND THE STRUCTURES YOU PLAN IN THE MIND MAP TO WRITE YOUR ONE AND ONLY DRAFT DURING THE EXAMINATIONS. WRITE AS MANY RELATED AND RELEVANT POINTS AS YOU CAN AND THEN IDENTIFY THE PARAGRAPH BOUNDARIES.
  • 100. INTRODUCTION CONCLUSION MAIN BODY P1 MAIN BODY P2 MAIN BODY P3 MAIN BODY P4
  • 101. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH • Students cannot count on any one particular quality - diligence, intelligence or talent to do well at school. Nowadays, to achieve success at school, a student is expected to do well both in his academic pursuits and his co- curricular activities, either in uniform groups, clubs or sports. In order to excel in both, he cannot afford to rely only on one single quality. A combination of qualities is needed. SEE: YOU SHOULD BE FREE TO CHANGE YOUR MIND ABOUT PARAGRAPH BOUNDARIES TO SUIT YOUR WRITING NEEDS. BE FLEXIBLE.
  • 102. What happens to this part of the mind map which is originally meant for Paragraph 2? As I write my essay, I consider and reconsider the points and paragraph boundaries. I can always change my mind about these three points and decide not to include them in paragraph 2. Instead I will place one point each in Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 respectively instead.
  • 103. • Diligence is the quality of being consistently hardworking. A student who is hardworking will be self-motivated to spend time on his studies without being told to do so. He is also likely to put in a lot of efforts to try to do well in his co- curricular activity. However, hard work does not always guarantee success. Some students work very hard when preparing for their examinations but if they adopt the wrong study methods, they may not excel at the examinations. I worked extremely hard when preparing for the Primary School Leaving Examinations some years ago. However, I did not do well because I had not been effective in my revision of some of the tougher topics. PARAGRAPH 2 - MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1
  • 104. PARAGRAPH 2 – MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1 • Diligence is the quality of being consistently hardworking. A student who is hardworking will be self-motivated to spend time on his studies without being told to do so. He is also likely to put in a lot of efforts to try to do well in his co- curricular activity. However, hard work does not always guarantee success. Some students work very hard when preparing for their examinations but if they adopt the wrong study methods, they may not excel at the examinations. I worked extremely hard when preparing for the Primary School Leaving Examinations some years ago. However, I did not do well because I had not been effective in my revision of some of the tougher topics. My own definition – as simple as possible but must be complete and relevant. What benefits does being diligent bring to the student? What are the limitations of merely being diligent? Specific and personal experience being used as examples which happened in the past.
  • 105. Paragraph 3 – MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 2 • Intelligence deals with a student's ability to learn, understand and think about things. The benefits of being an intelligent students are quite obvious. When a student is able to learn and understand ideas and concepts quickly and accurately, he will be able to accumulate knowledge and master skills effectively. However, intelligence alone does not promise success in school. Intelligence chiefly improve s through one's diligence but normally, people who are smart tend to be lazy and complacent. They look down on the need to work hard to enhance their intelligence.
  • 106. Paragraph 4 – MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 3 Talent refers to the inborn or natural ability to do something well. A person's talent is a flimsy quality. Anybody who relies on talent will not become a all-round learner because he will not be motivated to develop other skills or master other concepts which require him to use his brain or to spend many hours to learn them.
  • 107. Paragraph 5 – CONCLUSION Because diligence, intelligence and talent have both benefits and limitations, they cannot be independent qualities to enable a student to achieve success in school. Therefore, there is no one single quality which a student may count on but a combination of each of the three said qualities. A student who is hardworking may become better in whatever he does in school, whether in the classroom or beyond. Once his confidence improves, he is likely to become more effective in his studies or co-curricular activity. With the accumulation of knowledge and skills comes development of his intelligence. With intelligence, the student may learn even better ways and means to do things and in days to come, become talented as a result. So we cannot count on one quality but the combined qualities of diligence, intelligence and talent to enable a student to do well in school.
  • 108. SUBMIT THE MIND- MAP TOGETHER WITH THE ESSAY IF YOU LIKE AT THE GCE N AND O LEVEL EXAMINATIONS
  • 109. • Which quality, in your opinion, enables a student to achieve success in school - diligence, intelligence or talent? Discuss. • Students cannot count on any one particular quality - diligence, intelligence or talent to do well at school. Nowadays, to achieve success at school, a student is expected to do well both in his academic pursuits and his co-curricular activities, either in uniform groups, clubs or sports. In order to excel in both, he cannot afford to rely only on one single quality. A combination of qualities is needed. • Diligence is the quality of being consistently hardworking. A student who is hardworking will be self- motivated to spend time on his studies without being told to do so. He is also likely to put in a lot of efforts to try to do well in his co-curricular activity. However, hard work does not always guarantee success. Some students work very hard when preparing for their examinations but if they adopt the wrong study methods, they may not excel at the examinations. I worked extremely hard when preparing for the Primary School Leaving Examinations some years ago. However, I did not do well because I had not been effective in my revision of some of the tougher topics. • Intelligence deals with a student's ability to learn, understand and think about things. The benefits of being an intelligent students are quite obvious. When a student is able to learn and understand ideas and concepts quickly and accurately, he will be able to accumulate knowledge and master skills effectively. However, intelligence alone does not promise success in school. Intelligence chiefly improves through one's diligence but normally, people who are smart tend to be lazy and complacent. They look down on the need to work hard to enhance their intelligence. • Talent refers to the inborn or natural ability to do something well. A person's talent is a flimsy quality. Anybody who relies on talent will not become a all-round learner because he will not be motivated to develop other skills or master other concepts which require him to use his brain or to spend many hours to learn them. • Because diligence, intelligence and talent have both benefits and limitations, they cannot be independent qualities to enable a student to achieve success in school. Therefore, there is no one single quality which a student may count on but a combination of each of the three said qualities. A student who is hardworking may become better in whatever he does in school, whether in the classroom or beyond. Once his confidence improves, he is likely to become more effective in his studies or co-curricular activity. With the accumulation of knowledge and skills comes development of his intelligence. With intelligence, the student may learn even better ways and means to do things and in days to come, become talented as a result. So we cannot count on one quality but the combined qualities of diligence, intelligence and talent to enable a student to do well in school.
  • 110. UNPACKING THE QUESTION – please note that this is not a mind-map “Tuition is the key to success in examinations.” Discuss. A. Whether the given statement is couched in quotation marks or not, what is Important is to be able to recognise that it is a controversial statement, you will have to uncover the IRONY contained within it. B. Definitions 1. What is “tuition”? 2. What happens during tuition? 3. Why has it become an issue – a talking point? C. “Tuition is the key” implies that it is the answer – even to the extent that it might be considered as the only way or answer. D. So where lies the Irony? We are fulltime students who spend long hours In school. Many of us attend tuition lessons only after school and we do not spend more time at tuition centres than at school. So why does the statement asserts that “tuition holds the key for examination success”? If this is true, what good is there for us to attend school and spend so much time there? If this is true, then why not only attend tuition? Why do both? Why waste time? E. What is your firm stance on this? What do you really think with regard to this position? Nothing is in black and white. So you can take a stance but at the same time, allow other people to Have a different opinion with regard to the topic.
  • 111. When Do I Even Begin To Think If I Can Argue Effectively? “Tuition is the key to success in examinations.” Discuss. Only if I can I spot the IRONY without having to guess if I have gotten it right. Tuition is supposed to be an optional thing. It is not supposed to be a MUST. It is not supposed to be something that is needed if one is a reasonably capable student. School is supposed to be the MAIN thing. It is not supposed to be thought of as UNIMPORTANT. It is supposed to be something that is a MUST. So school is being sidelined here. Totally left out of the picture. So what is my stance? Is TUITION really the key to success in examinations? If so, what is going to happen to SCHOOLING ?
  • 112. What is there to talk about when I am presenting my arguments and other people’s arguments? • Do I BELIEVE or NOT BELIEVE? • Is this comment TRUE or FALSE? • Do I AGREE or DISAGREE? Is this about ADVANTAGES or DISADVANTAGES? • Is it about PROS and CONS? • Is it about I AM RIGHT and SOMEBODY ELSE IS WRONG?
  • 113. “Tuition is the key to success in examinations.” Discuss. What I must be clear of these terms: Tuition – paid extra lessons to help students in their weaker subjects Key – the answer / the way Success in examinations – achieve a pass or to excel in something What I DO NOT believe that Tuition is the key: Reason 1: I think if I know what I must deliver as a student I should be able to make it without tuition. What I DO NOT believe that Tuition is the key: Reason 2: I think if I have self-discipline, I ought to be able to get my studies and my other school- related activities in the right balance. Why does “Tuition” become a talking point? Lessons at school becoming more difficult? Teachers at school cannot give personal attention? Do not teach better? Examinations are now more difficult? Tuition lessons help students to really ficu What happens during “tuition”? Students pay money so they are motivated to listen better. Students are able to avoid distraction and keep their focus – personal attention/ Examination-related / study what the students must know to do well in examinatuons What I DO NOT believe that Tuition is the key: Reason 3: I think if I manage time effectively, I ought to be able to get my studies and my other school-related activities in the right balance. What other students think about “tuition”? Conclusion: I may not need tuition and certainly do not believe it is the key to examination success. However, If other students find the need to seek academic help through tuition and they are getting the results they want by attending tuition classes, then tuition is good for them.
  • 114. ATTENTION PLEASE: 1. Mind-mapping alone is not good enough. 2. We need to structure the points we want to put into our essay into paragraphs. 3. So DO NOT forget to BOX the paragraph boundaries so that we know what to write first and then next and then how to come to a suitable ending for our short essay.
  • 115. “Tuition is the key to success in examinations.” Discuss. What I must be clear of these terms: Tuition – paid extra lessons to help students in their weaker subjects Key – the answer / the way Success in examinations – achieve a pass or to excel in something What I DO NOT believe that Tuition is the key: Reason 1: I think if I know what I must deliver as a student I should be able to make it without tuition. What I DO NOT believe that Tuition is the key: Reason 2: I think if I have self-discipline, I ought to be able to get my studies and my other school- related activities in the right balance. Why does “Tuition” become a talking point? Lessons at school becoming more difficult? Teachers at school cannot give personal attention? Do not teach better? Examinations are now more difficult? Tuition lessons help students to really ficu What happens during “tuition”? Students pay money so they are motivated to listen better. Students are able to avoid distraction and keep their focus – personal attention/ Examination-related / study what the students must know to do well in examinatuons What I DO NOT believe that Tuition is the key: Reason 3: I think if I manage time effectively, I ought to be able to get my studies and my other school-related activities in the right balance. What other students think about “tuition”? Conclusion: I may not need tuition and certainly do not believe it is the key to examination success. However, If other students find the need to seek academic help through tuition and they are getting the results they want by attending tuition classes, then tuition is good for them.
  • 116. NOTE: 1.There are many ways to begin an argumentative essay. 2. I am only proposing the use of the no- nonsense / frills-free way so that you can write clearly in a way which you can understand and your examiner do too.
  • 117. TIME IS NOT ON MY SIDE. Please think on your feet. Use your brains, eyes, ears and think quickly. Do not waste time. Pick out the key words KEY WORDS – Tuition / Key / Success / Examinations. Read the FULL answer and UNDERSTAND it FULLY.
  • 118. TIME IS NOT ON MY SIDE. When you mind-map, you should not worry too much about what should be put down and what shouldn’t. You just jot down quickly the points. When you have the points, you will have to do your PARAGRAPH BOUNDARIES – which of your points should go into which paragraph and so on.
  • 119. INTRODUCTION MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1 MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 2 MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 3 MAIN BODY PARAGARPH 4 CONCLUSION What I think this topic is concerned With? Why is it a talking point? What is my understanding here? What do I believe in? Why one group of people believe like what I do and the other group believe in another way? What I am going to write about in this essay – my views and also the other group of people’s views.
  • 120. Paragraph One- Introduction Set my main idea clearly so that I can inform the reader my view and the other people’s view. Paragraph Six- Conclusion Re-inform the reader of my view and my respect for other people’s views. Repeat your THESIS statement here. Paragraph Two Paragraph Three Paragraph Four Paragraph Five My strongest point on what I believe in. My second strongest point on what I believe in. My third strongest point on what I believe in. The “However” paragraph where I state the views of other people and explain why they believe in what they believe in.
  • 121. What to include in Paragraph One? [1] Why is this a talking point (an issue)? [2] What is “tuition”? [3] What happens during tuition? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) [THIS IS MY THESIS STATEMENT – my main point / idea – in the whole essay.] [5] What I am accepting about the views of other people and why they believe in what I do not? [6] So what I am going to write about in the rest of my essay?
  • 122. Student A’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Having tuition does not mean you will score well in examinations. Tuition lessons are basically extra classes you attend after school by an external vendor. Tuition lessons are supposed to help you improve the grades for that particular subject or revision. However attending tuition sessions does not mean you do not go to school or study. (Brian Ong)
  • 123. Student B’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Many students nowadays have tuition, not only for the subjects that they weak in but for most or all of the subjects that they are taking. Why? Either because they are forced to by their over- demanding parents, or they themselves want to go as they require it. Even in doing so students may still not score well in their examinations or achieve their expected grade or even have a breakdown as they cannot cope with all the stress the tuition and schoolwork give them. (JOEL YEO)
  • 124. Student C’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Tution has its advantage and disadvantage. Tution has also its pros and cons. Not everytime tution will solve the problem. Tution provides an environment for students to study and have a system to push them to study. Tution also helps weak students to identify their weak points and improve on them. The reason why students have tution is because school teachers do not know how to teach the child properly and the child do not understand. Many times, students would ask the school teachers to give them supplementries or remedial to help them but it do not work out. Thus tution has to come in to settle the problem. (Arella Choo)
  • 125. Student D’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Tuition is actually classes that helps students in their weaker subjects by brushing up on topics that they are not sure. Tuition can help and benefit us, depending on the student. My parents resisted unnecessary tuition as long as they could. (Stanley Ng)
  • 126. What to include in Paragraph One? [1] Why is this a talking point (an issue)? Tuition is a common thing to do for many students in Singapore for one reason or other. Whenever we think we need help in our studies, we attend tuition lessons.
  • 127. What to include in Paragraph One? [2] What is “tuition”? When we attend a tuition lesson, we expect our tutor to teach us things which we do not quite learn from our teachers at school.
  • 128. What to include in Paragraph One? [3] What happens during tuition? We receive personal attention. We ask questions and expect to get the correct answers from our tutors. We want to make sure that we learn as much as possible. We want our tutors to help us pass or do well in our examinations. In extreme cases, we believe lock, stock and barrel what our tuition teachers tell us, more than what our school teachers tell us, to do really well in examinations.
  • 129. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) I do not believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations.
  • 130. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) *Many students like to write in this manner: I believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations only to a certain extent.
  • 131. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) *Many students like to write in this manner: I believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations only to a certain extent. There is nothing wrong in writing in this way because it is a reasonable thing to say. What is wrong is that, many of us do not qualify what we mean by: ONLY TO A CERTAIN EXTENT.
  • 132. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) I believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations only to a certain extent. Tuition does help students if they genuinely need the extra attention they are getting from the private tutors. If they manage to catch up in their studies, especially when dealing with difficult topics, then tuition classes are useful. I do not think they should count on tuition classes alone to do well in examinations.
  • 133. What to include in Paragraph One? [5] What I am accepting about the views of other people and why they believe in what I do not? However, I think other students must have their own reasons why they attend tuition lessons. I may not agree that tuition is the key but others may not think the same.
  • 134. What to include in Paragraph One? [6] So what I am going to write about here in the rest of my essay? So in this essay, I am going to present my views on why I do not agree that tuition is the key for examination success and why others may not hold the same view.
  • 135. So how does my Paragraph One look like in any argumentative essay? Tuition is a common thing to do for many students in Singapore for one reason or other. Whenever we think we need help in our studies, we attend tuition lessons. We expect our tutor to teach us things which we do not quite learn from our teachers at school. We receive personal attention. We rely on our tutors to help us pass or do well in our examinations. In extreme cases, we believe lock, stock and barrel what our tuition teachers tell us, more than what our school teachers tell us, to do really well in examinations. I do not believe that tuition is the key to our success in examinations. However, I think other students must have their own reasons why they attend tuition lessons. I am going to present my views on why I do not agree that tuition is the key to examination success and why others may not hold the same views as me.
  • 136. So how does my Paragraph One look like in any argumentative essay? Tuition is a common thing to do for many students in Singapore for one reason or other. Whenever we think we need help in our studies, we attend tuition lessons. We expect our tutor to teach us things which we do not quite learn from our teachers at school. We receive personal attention. We rely on our tutors to help us pass or do well in our examinations. In extreme cases, we believe lock, stock and barrel what our tuition teachers tell us, more than what our school teachers tell us, to do really well in examinations. I do not believe that tuition is the key to our success in examinations. However, I think other students must have their own reasons why they attend tuition lessons. I am going to present my views on why I do not agree that tuition is the key to examination success and why others may not hold the same views as me. Why is “tuition” an issue / a talking point? What happens during a tuition session? My main idea for the whole essay – my thesis statement. However, I am open to other people’s views. What I am going to do in this essay.
  • 137. Paragraph One- Introduction Set my main idea clearly so that I can inform the reader my view and the other people’s view. Paragraph Six- Conclusion Re-inform the reader of my view and my respect for other people’s views. Repeat your THESIS statement here. Paragraph Two Paragraph Three Paragraph Four Paragraph Five My strongest point on what I believe in. My second strongest point on what I believe in. My third strongest point on what I believe in. The “However” paragraph where I state the views of other people and explain why they believe in what they believe in.
  • 138. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH TWO - My strongest point on what I believe in. I think as a full-time student, knowing what I must do as a learner in school is what keeps me going, doing my studying the best I can. We are already spending a lot of time in school. I take six subjects and sit major examinations so that I can move on to the next level of studies. My awareness of what I am doing at school keeps me focused on what I am doing. When the teacher speaks, I pay attention closely. When I have a question, I ask for help without hesitation. I know I need to read up on my Science and practise my Mathematics regularly without being told repeatedly what to do by my teachers at school. That is my responsibility as a full-time learner.
  • 139. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH TWO - My strongest point on what I believe in. I think as a full-time student, knowing what I must do as a learner in school is what keeps me going, doing my studying the best I can. We are already spending a lot of time in school. I take six subjects and sit major examinations so that I can move on to the next level of studies. My awareness of what I am doing at school keeps me focused on what I am doing. When the teacher speaks, I pay attention closely. When I have a question, I ask for help without hesitation. I know I need to read up on my Science and practise my Mathematics regularly without being told repeatedly what to do by my teachers at school. That is my responsibility as a full-time learner. The topic sentence to support my thesis statement  my main idea of this essay. ELABORATION of what my topic sentence EXAMPLES to support the ELABORATION WRAP-UP of the topic sentence
  • 140. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH THREE - My SECOND strongest point on what I believe in. I also believe that my self-discipline holds the key to my success in examinations. Some people may say that school is not all about examinations but examinations are the closest thing for me to be reassured that I am doing fine in my studies. Self-discipline makes me pay attention to my studies. I read up the chapter before my teacher teaches it in class and revise the chapter he has taught in class the previous week. I also juggle my studies with my co-curricular activity so that I can do equally well in both.
  • 141. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH THREE - My SECOND strongest point on what I believe in. I also believe that my self- discipline holds the key to my success in examinations. Some people may say that school is not all about examinations but examinations are the closest thing for me to be reassured that I am doing fine in my studies. Self-discipline makes me pay attention to my studies. I read up the chapter before my teacher teaches it in class and revise the chapter he has taught in class the previous week. I also juggle my studies with my co-curricular activity so that I can do equally well in both. This is self-discipline which is realistic and practical. My next topic sentence in support of the THESIS statement. Wrap-up of the topic sentence Elaboration of what the topic sentence means. Examples to support the elaboration.
  • 142. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FOUR - My THIRD strongest point on what I believe in. Tuition is not the key to examination success at all because if a student does not know how to use his time well, nothing beyond school is going to help him. Effective time management allows me to pay good attention to all my school subjects. I learn how to pay more attention to my weaker subjects without compromising my time to be spent on my other subjects. I do not procrastinate and work hard to make sure that time is well utilised.
  • 143. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FOUR - My THIRD strongest point on what I believe in. Tuition is not the key to examination success at all because if a student does not know how to use his time well, nothing beyond school is going to help him. Effective time management allows me to pay good attention to all my school subjects. I learn how to pay more attention to my weaker subjects without compromising my time to be spent on my other subjects. I do not procrastinate and work hard to make sure that time is well utilised. In this way, I manage the way I use my time effectively. The topic sentence which supports the THESIS STATEMENT of the whole Essay. The topic sentence DOES NOT have to be the FIRST sentence in a new paragraph all the time. ELABORATION and EXAMPLES Wrap-up of the topic sentence
  • 144. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FIVE – What others believe about tuition However, tuition may help other students cope with difficulties they face in school. Not everybody knows what they want out of school. Neither do they know how to manage time well or have the self-discipline to study independently on their own. These students will need all the extra help they think they can get from attending tuition lessons after school.
  • 145. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FIVE – What others believe about tuition However, tuition may help other students cope with difficulties they face in school. Not everybody knows what they want out of school. Neither do they know how to manage time well or have the self- discipline to study independently on their own. These students will need all the extra help they think they can get from attending tuition lessons after school. The “HOWEVER” paragraph. Even as we take on a particular stance, it does not mean that we cannot allow for alternative viewpoints.
  • 146. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH Once again, I must reiterate here that I do not believe that tuition is the key to examination success. Every student wants to be successful in their studies. I want the same too. Some of us need tuition for reasons which I have already made clear above while others like me, think we can make it on our own. If a student finds tuition lessons useful, then it is good for him. If a student does not need it, then he does not need to have anything to do with it.
  • 147. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH Once again, I must reiterate here that I do not believe that tuition is the key to examination success. Every student wants to be successful in their studies. I want the same too. Some of us need tuition for reasons which I have already made clear above while others like me, think we can make it on our own. If a student finds tuition lessons useful, then it is good for him. If a student does not need it, then he does not need to have anything to do with it. REPEAT YOUR THESIS STATEMENT because the CONCLUSION must be CONSISTENT with the INTRODUCTION. CLOSING ELABORATION AND WRAP-UP DO NOT INTRODUCE NEW IDEAS OR TWEAK THE ORIGINAL TALKING POINT HERE.
  • 148. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Disappointment Damaged Trapped Flight Fright Fight Happiness Torn Regret Atonement Green Setting Action Trouble Resolution Narrative-Personal Recount-Descriptive
  • 149. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Disappointment Damaged Trapped Flight Fright Fight Happiness Torn Regret Atonement Green Narrative-Personal Recount-Descriptive You should write a short account of something Interesting and relevant to the topic. Relate the short account to your experience as a young person. Do not pretend to be somebody else larger than yourself. Be familiar which allows you to be DESCRIPTIVE in a natural style rather than be OVER-THE-TOP Imaginative and come up with something which is over-stretched and shallow. Remember: A simple story – with “I” as the central character is more believable than introducing characters like Mary, John, Susan or Pluck-pluck-kee.
  • 150. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Disappointment Damaged Trapped Flight Fright Fight Happiness Torn Regret Atonement Green AVOID WRITING DISCURSIVE or ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS.
  • 151. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Disappointment Damaged Trapped Flight Fright Fight Happiness Torn Regret Atonement Green Make sure you do not stray from the topic. Bear in mind that the topic cannot be left to the last paragraph so that you may make a HASTY closure to any short account you are sharing with your readers. It is undesirable.
  • 152. ““TornTorn”” [EL ‘O’ Level Prelim. 2005) By Md Effendi bin Md Sani (Sec. 4/5)
  • 153. Points to consider: • Use of tense • Storyline • How the theme ‘TORN’ was covered • Link between paragraphs/sequence of events • How would a marker feel while he is reading this essay
  • 154. It was the last night we were spending together. In a few hours’ time, she would be leaving. I prayed many nights before, for this day not to come but time quickly passed by. I guessed it was time. Time for us to part. ““TornTorn””
  • 155. I held her in my arms with tears rolling down my cheeks. She was too weak to speak. She just closed her eyes and felt the warmth of my body. I believed that she knew it was her time to leave. I cried even more as the minutes passed by. I was so helpless. In tears, I told her that I loved her. I knew perhaps she could not understand. I felt a part of me inside tearing. I felt that my heart was tearing into pieces. ““TornTorn””
  • 156. The car accident left her weak, weak in her heart. The accident permanently paralysed her. Her heart was beating slower and softer as the months passed by. The doctor told me that this was her last day. I sang to her as she rested on her chest with my arms around it. ““TornTorn””
  • 157. It seemed that I was undergoing a painful cycle. My heart was tearing repeatedly inside. I could not let her go. Our emotional bond was too great. Even though we were both different, we somehow understood each other in an unexplainable way. ““TornTorn””
  • 158. It was really time I guessed. She seemed to have difficulty moving but I just held her and gave my best support in her last few minutes. I held her tighter as time closed in on us. It was all too sudden, she stopped breathing. At that moment, I felt a huge rip inside me. It seemed almost like a huge tear. Tears flowed uncontrollably down my cheeks. ““TornTorn””
  • 159. I wanted to take this as a man and not to cry but it was to no avail. I cried and cried for my beloved furry friend. I guessed her nine lives were used up. A part of me was torn. The cat was definitely a part of me. ““TornTorn””
  • 160. I cradled it in my arms and said my last goodbye. I kissed her head and remembered her scent before laying her in her shoe box where I first found her. I put in her towel, her toys and covered her up in a cloth. I closed the box tightly and I was ready to leave. ““TornTorn””
  • 161. The box had droplets of my tears on it. I put her on the front basket of my bicycle and cycled to Pasir Ris Beach. It was a cold night. I cycled and felt the breeze passed through me. I wanted the wind to rid me off my sadness but I was torn too deeply. I hoped it was not permanent and that I would be happy again but I could not even think about the word happy at that moment. ““TornTorn””
  • 162. I finally reached the beach and stepped onto the cool moist sand. It was a full moon. I took out a spade and dug the whole night for the perfect burial. It took me about forty-five minutes before I reached a suitable depth to place my dear cat. I lowered the box down and placed it firmly into the sand. I said a prayer before covering her up. The torn was too intense. ““TornTorn””
  • 163. I took the spade and covered her with sand. I said a prayer once more before placing bundles of flowers on her peaceful grave. The wind blew the flowers into the sea. I looked into the sea as the breeze blew my hair, I thought to myself and said, “How am I going to live on with my heart torn into pieces like this?” I sat down on the sand and cried once more. ““TornTorn””
  • 164. Section One [30 marks] You are advised to write between 350 and 500 words on one of the following topics. At the head of your composition, write the number of the topic you have chosen. 1 “Knowledge of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter is an advantage in the 21st century.” Do you agree with this statement? 2 “My parents don’t understand me!” is often the complaint of teenagers today. What could be done about this? 3 Write about an occasion when your attempt to show off led to unexpected consequences. 4 Struggle. 5 Write about some of your hopes and aspirations for your country.
  • 165. Section One [30 marks] 1 “Knowledge of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter is an advantage in the 21st century.” Do you agree with this statement? Argumentative Or Discursive 2 “My parents don’t understand me!” is often the complaint of teenagers today. What could be done about this? Discursive 3 Write about an occasion when your attempt to show off led to unexpected consequences. Narrative- descriptive 4 Struggle. Narrative- descriptive 5 Write about some of your hopes and aspirations for your country. Discursive
  • 166. “Knowledge of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter is an advantage in the 21st century.” Do you agree with this statement? ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY? What do I mean by having knowledge? Knowing these social media sites exist. Knowing how to use them properly relevantly and effectively to suit my purposes. Appreciating that I am part of the digital community of users. DISCURSIVE ESSAY? How does knowledge turn into an advantage? for children – elearning into the 21st century for youth – well acquianted with conditions of working in the information technological realm / knowledge intensive industries for adults – lives revolve around cyberspace and digital interactions with other people to stay connected with other people – borderless world YES, It is an advantage BUT On the Other hand CONNECTIVITY and CONNECTEDNESS Do not solely depend on being digital world savvy CONNECTIVITY and CONNECTEDNESS become Increasingly solely depend on being digital world savvy Yes, absolutely and completely. without any shred of doubt. SPECIAL NOTE: There is only so much you can write in a short essay. Do not overindulge in giving examples. Make your claim clearly and justify without getting carried away with anecdotes. Expository Essay Writing
  • 167. “My parents don’t understand me!” is often the complaint of teenagers today.” What could be done about this? DISCURSIVE ESSAY -No arguments involved. -Methods sought to tackle this common but difficult situation between teenagers and their parents. The question: what could be done about this? strongly tells you that this essay is discursive in essence. IT IMMEDIATELY ASSUMES THAT THIS IS A FAIR COMMENT.The essay requirement is already tilted towards the discussion on METHODS and not about whether this teenagers’ Complaint Is valid or otherwise. Who is to do what for whom? What is the issue here? Who is the party making the complaint? So what do you think are the causal factors for this CURRENT familial situation. Not enough contact time between parents and their children? Generation Gap? Misunderstanding of roles? Language Barrier? Outside influence? Schools can help students understand their parents through talks, parent-children meetings and Counseling sessions A a son or daughter, what would you try out to improve your relationship With your parents? As a concerned teenager, what do you think the society at large can do? As a concerned teenager, what do you think parents can do on their part to improve their relationship with their children? Desirable Values: Tolerance, Acceptance, Patience, Understanding, Care and concern Love
  • 168. Write about an occasion when your attempt to showwhen your attempt to show offoff led to unexpected consequences. Two parter Narrative- descriptive Essay writing 1st part 2nd part Setting Action Trouble Resolution
  • 169. Struggle Narrative- descriptive essay writing SETTING ACTION TROUBLE RESOLUTION
  • 170. Expository Essay Writing: Discursive Write about some of your hopes and aspirations for your country. ECONOMIC SUCCESS POLITICAL STABILITY SOCIAL COHESION CULTURAL VIBRANCY ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM RACIAL UNDERSTANDING and HARMONY GOOD RELATIONSHIPS WITH NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES AND BEYOND
  • 171. TERM 4 Week 1 – 4 WRITING INTENSIFIES
  • 172. BPGHS [Set A] CHOICES 1 What aspects of secondary education do you think will be useful to you in the future? 2 Write about an occasion when you were betrayed by someone close to you. 3 How does the promotion of sports benefit Singaporean students? 4 “Leaders are made, not born.” What are your views? 5 Defeat.
  • 173. BPGHS [Set A] CHOICES 1 Discursive What aspects of secondary education do you think will be useful to you in the future? 2 Narrative- Descriptive Write about an occasion when you were betrayed by someone close to you. 3 Discursive How does the promotion of sports benefit Singaporean students? 4 Argumentative “Leaders are made, not born.” What are your views? 5 Narrative- Descriptive Defeat.
  • 174. QTSS [Set B] CHOICES 1 Write about some of the things or people that motivate or inspire you. 2 Describe an occasion when you were involved in a misunderstanding with someone but managed to salvage the situation with the help of another person. 3 “With too much knowledge gained from the internet, teenagers’ hearts are not ready for their swelling heads.” Do you agree? 4 Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of having more foreign workers in Singapore. 5 Colours.
  • 175. QTSS [Set B] CHOICES 1 Write about some of the things or people that motivate or inspire you. Discursive 2 Describe an occasion when you were involved in a misunderstanding with someone but managed to salvage the situation with the help of another person. Narrative-descriptive 3 “With too much knowledge gained from the internet, teenagers’ hearts are not ready for their swelling heads.” Do you agree? Argumentative 4 Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of having more foreign workers in Singapore. Argumentative 5 Colours. Narrative-descriptive
  • 176. TMS Sec [Set C] CHOICES 1 “Music is the universal language of mankind.” Why is music considered as an important part of life? 2 Debt. 3 Write about an occasion when you were forced to overcome a phobia. 4 What factors would make a person from your age group popular? 5 Describe the most impactful event in your life and explain how this event has affected you.
  • 177. TMS Sec [Set C] CHOICES 1 “Music is the universal language of mankind.” Why is music considered as an important part of life? Discursive 2 Debt. Narrative-descriptive 3 Write about an occasion when you were forced to overcome a phobia. Narrative-descriptive 4 What factors would make a person from your age group popular? Discursive 5 Describe the most impactful event in your life and explain how this event has affected you. Narrative-descriptive
  • 178. Pei Chai [Set D] CHOICES 1 Beauty. Narrative-descriptive 2 Write about a time of courage in an unexpected situation. Narrative-descriptive 3 Viewing is better than reading. Do you agree? Argumentative 4 “Spare the rod and spoil the child.” What is your view? Argumentative 5 Write about some of the things that you value. Discursive
  • 179. Pei Chai [Set D] CHOICES 1 Beauty. 2 Write about a time of courage in an unexpected situation. 3 Viewing is better than reading. Do you agree? 4 “Spare the rod and spoil the child.” What is your view? 5 Write about some of the things that you value.
  • 180. SQSS [Set E] CHOICES 1 How important is it for popular celebrities to be role models? 2 “Teenagers receive much but contribute little to society.” How far do you agree with this statement? 3 Write about an occasion when an unexpected visit turned out to be a blessing in disguise. 4 Travel. 5 Write about some changes you would like to see in the foreseeable future.
  • 181. SQSS [Set E] CHOICES 1 How important is it for popular celebrities to be role models? Argumentative 2 “Teenagers receive much but contribute little to society.” How far do you agree with this statement? Argumentative 3 Write about an occasion when an unexpected visit turned out to be a blessing in disguise. Narrative-descriptive 4 Travel. Narrative-descriptive 5 Write about some changes you would like to see in the foreseeable future. Discursive
  • 182. ZHSS [Set F] CHOICES 1 Write about an occasion when you did something and had made someone important to you proud of your actions. 2 Describe a day you had spent in an unfamiliar environment. 3 Is population control necessary? 4 Sportsmanship is essential in every competition. What are your views? 5 Time.
  • 183. ZHSS [Set F] CHOICES 1 Write about an occasion when you did something and had made someone important to you proud of your actions. Narrative-descriptive 2 Describe a day you had spent in an unfamiliar environment. Narrative-descriptive 3 Is population control necessary? Argumentative 4 Sportsmanship is essential in every competition. What are your views? Argumentative 5 Time. Narrative-descriptive
  • 184. EVSS [Set G] CHOICES 1 Describe the sights and sounds at the airport when a celebrity arrived for an important event. 2 Write about an occasion when you overspent and had to face the consequences of your actions. 3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of Singaporeans checking into a local hotel for a holiday, instead of going abroad on a holiday? 4 Rewards. 5 “Teens should be given the freedom to spend more time with their friends after school.” Do you agree?
  • 185. EVSS [Set G] CHOICES 1 Describe the sights and sounds at the airport when a celebrity arrived for an important event. Narrative-descriptive 2 Write about an occasion when you overspent and had to face the consequences of your actions. Narrative-descriptive 3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of Singaporeans checking into a local hotel for a holiday, instead of going abroad on a holiday? Argumentative 4 Rewards. Narrative-descriptive 5 “Teens should be given the freedom to spend more time with their friends after school.” Do you agree? Argumentative
  • 186. SPS Sec [Set H] CHOICES 1 Describe ways in which your school develops the character of its pupils. 2 Write about a trip which you dreaded but had a great impact on you. 3 Teenagers today are too outspoken. What are your views? 4 Describe one incident which affected the entire nation. Why did it attract so much attention? 5 Music.
  • 187. SPS Sec [Set H] CHOICES 1 Describe ways in which your school develops the character of its pupils. Discursive 2 Write about a trip which you dreaded but had a great impact on you. Narrative-descriptive 3 Teenagers today are too outspoken. What are your views? Argumentative 4 Describe one incident which affected the entire nation. Why did it attract so much attention? Narrative-descriptive 5 Music. Narrative-descriptive
  • 188. TWSS Sec [Set I] CHOICES 1 The number of teens considered beyond parental control has risen. What do you think are the reasons for this rise and what do you think can be done to help these teens get back on the right track? 2 Write about an occasion when you lost your calm because of an encounter with an unreasonable person. 3 What are some of the factors that will influence your choice of the type of post-secondary education? 4 Write about some of the things which make you proud to be a student in your school. 5 Lies.
  • 189. TWSS Sec [Set I] CHOICES 1 The number of teens considered beyond parental control has risen. What do you think are the reasons for this rise and what do you think can be done to help these teens get back on the right track? Discursive 2 Write about an occasion when you lost your calm because of an encounter with an unreasonable person. Narrative-descriptive 3 What are some of the factors that will influence your choice of the type of post- secondary education? Discursive 4 Write about some of the things which make you proud to be a student in your school. Discursive 5 Lies. Narrative-descriptive
  • 190. AES Sec [Set J] CHOICES 1 Write about an occasion when you were punished severely and unfairly. 2 “Knowledge is better gained from experience than through books.” Do you agree? 3 How important is it to co-operate and work in a team? 4 “The world is in danger of being destroyed by mankind.” Discuss. 5 Competition.
  • 191. AES Sec [Set J] CHOICES 1 Write about an occasion when you were punished severely and unfairly. Narrative-descriptive 2 “Knowledge is better gained from experience than through books.” Do you agree? Argumentative 3 How important is it to co-operate and work in a team? Discursive 4 “The world is in danger of being destroyed by mankind.” Discuss. Argumentative 5 Competition. Narrative-descriptive
  • 192. REMEMBER R.A.P.F. What is your ROLE? Who is the AUDIENCE of your writing task? What is the PURPOSE of your writing task? In what FORM is it going to be in?
  • 193. FRAMEWORK for writing task in Section B: Situational Writing – R.A.P.F. = TONE ROLE PURPOSE AUDIENCE FORM WHAT TO WRITE HOW TO WRITE TONE
  • 194. Section Two [30 marks] Begin your answer on a fresh page. You are advised to write between 250 and 350 words for this section. You should read the information carefully and plan your answer before beginning to write. The distinguished and respected President of Singapore is visiting your school in September as the Guest of Honour for the President’s Challenge 2010. The school principal has suggested several ideas to you as to how this special occasion should be celebrated and commemorated in order to give the President a good impression of the school and its pupils.
  • 195. The distinguished and respected President of Singapore is visiting your school in September as the Guest of Honour for the President’s Challenge 2010. The school principal has suggested several ideas to you as to how this special occasion should be celebrated and commemorated in order to give the President a good impression of the school and its pupils. IT IS DETAILS LIKE THIS THAT YOU MUST READ CAREFULLY.
  • 196. The distinguished and respected President of Singapore is visiting your school in September as the Guest of Honour for the President’s Challenge 2010. The school principal has suggested several ideas to you as to how this special occasion should be celebrated and commemorated in order to give the President a good impression of the school and its pupils. Who is coming to visit us? What is the main purpose? HINTS FOR YOU TO FORM THE REFERENCE LINE PRESIDENTIAL VISIT IN SEPTEMBER SEPTEMBER PRESIDENTIAL VISIT PRESIDENT’S CHALLENGE THE PRESIDENT’S CHALLENGE THE PRESIDENT’S CHALLENGE IN SEPTEMBER THE SEPTEMBER PRESIDENT’S CHALLENGE
  • 197. Section Two [30 marks] “We should hold a welcome party for the President and also invite past and present pupils to join us on this special occasion. This would give the students an opportunity to meet and mingle with the President. We could hire a caterer renowned for providing excellent service and food to set up the party at the school hall.”
  • 198. Section Two [30 marks] “We should hold a welcome party for the President and also invite past and present pupils to join us on this special occasion. This would give the students an opportunity to meet and mingle with the President. We could hire a caterer renowned for providing excellent service and food to set up the party at the school hall.” THE PRESIDENT FIRST SUGGESTS THAT:
  • 199. Section Two [30 marks] “We should set up booths at the school canteen to showcase the fund raising projects we have undertaken for the President’s Challenge. This will impress the President as well as allow him to gain a better understanding of our fund raising projects. We can even enlist the help of some of our past pupils to come up with their own fund raising projects and also showcase them.”
  • 200. Section Two [30 marks] “We should set up booths at the school canteen to showcase the fund raising projects we have undertaken for the President’s Challenge. This will impress the President as well as allow him to gain a better understanding of our fund raising projects. We can even enlist the help of some of our past pupils to come up with their own fund raising projects and also showcase them.” THE PRESIDENT SECONDLY SUGGESTS THAT:
  • 201. Section Two [30 marks] “The present pupils should come up with a performance about the challenges and rewards of taking part in the President’s Challenge to entertain the President and other guests in the school auditorium. We may even be able to get some past students to participate in the performance.”
  • 202. Section Two [30 marks] “The present pupils should come up with a performance about the challenges and rewards of taking part in the President’s Challenge to entertain the President and other guests in the school auditorium. We may even be able to get some past students to participate in the performance.” LASTLY THE PRESIDENT SUGGESTS THAT:
  • 203. Section Two [30 marks] As the Head Prefect of the school, you have been asked by your Principal to decide which would be the most appropriate of these ideas. When you have made your choice, you should write a report to the Principal: • Explaining why you think your choice would be the most appropriate. • Giving details of where and when the event would be held. • Telling the Principal what are the resources required for the event.
  • 204. Section Two [30 marks] Your report should be in clear, correct English with a polite and persuasive tone that will convince the Principal that your choice will enable the President to have a good impression of the school and its pupils.
  • 205. APPLICATION OF R.A.P.F. ROLE I am playing the role of HEAD PREFECT of my school’s Prefectorial Board who is tasked to make a decision and write a report. PURPOSE To inform my principal of my decision, explain it fully so as to convince him that it is the most appropriate programme which will enable the President to have a good impression of the school and its pupils. I have to provide details of where and when the event would be held, and to inform the Principal what the resources required for the event are. AUDIENCE My school Principal FORM A FORMAL REPORT to the Principal of my school
  • 206. R.A.P.F. = TONE ROLE I am playing the role of HEAD PREFECT of my school’s Prefectorial Board who is tasked to make a decision and write a report. PURPOSE To inform my principal of my decision, explain it fully so as to convince him that it is the most appropriate programme which will enable the President to have a good impression of the school and its pupils. I have to provide details of where and when the event would be held, and to inform the Principal what the resources required for the event are. AUDIENCE My school Principal FORM A FORMAL REPORT to the Principal of my school TONE PERSUASIVE AND POLITE ATTITUDE Because although you decide, it is the principal who must agree with what you have decided. REMEMBER
  • 207. To: Mr. Ong Kim Soon Principal St. Hilda’s Secondary School From: Siew Ka Eng Chairperson Secondary 4D Date: 21 October 2010 NOUN PHRASE AS A REFERENCE LINE Paragraph 1 – Introduction – Get to the point Paragraph 2 – Development of idea Paragraph 3 – Follow up Paragraph 4 – Follow through Paragraph 5 – Show your awareness of other choices – be positive because these other choices are also good, but unfortunately NOT as timely or appropriate for the intended purpose [THIS TIME] as yours. Probably some other time then. Paragraph 6 – Conclusion – Do forget to repeat your decision here. Written by: Siew Ka Eng Format of any Report
  • 208. To: Mr. Ong Kim Soon Principal St. Hilda’s Secondary School From: Siew Ka Eng Chairperson Secondary 4D Date: 21 October 2010 NOUN PHRASE AS A REFERENCE LINE Paragraph 1 – Introduction – Get to the point Paragraph 2 – Development of idea Paragraph 3 – Follow up Paragraph 4 – Follow through Paragraph 5 – Show your awareness of other choices – be positive because these other choices are also good, but unfortunately NOT as timely or appropriate for the intended purpose [THIS TIME] as yours. Probably some other time then. Paragraph 6 – Conclusion – Do forget to repeat your decision here. Written by: Siew Ka Eng President’s Challenge 2010 GET TO THE POINT President’s Challenge President’s Visit President’s Visit To Our School
  • 209. MODEL ANSWER by Kuronekosan To: Mr. Ong Kim Soon Principal St. Hilda’s Secondary School From: Bryan Loh Head Prefect SHSS Prefectorial Board Date: 25 June 2010 President’s Challenge 2010 NOTICE that the date of your date of the report has to be some months before September 2010. THE MAIN BODY OF YOUR REPORT – 250 to 350 words Written by: Bryan Loh
  • 210. MODEL ANSWER by Kuronekosan To: Mr. Ong Kim Soon Principal St. Hilda’s Secondary School From: Bryan Loh Head Prefect SHSS Prefectorial Board Date: 25 June 2010 President’s Challenge 2010 NOTICE that the date of your date of the report has to be some months before September 2010. THE MAIN BODY OF YOUR REPORT – 250 to 350 words Written by: Bryan Loh
  • 211. THE MAIN BODY OF YOUR REPORT – 250 to 350 words On behalf of the Prefectorial Board, I would like to thank you for your suggestions with regards to the President, Mr. S.R. Nathan’s visit to our school for the President’s Challenge in September this year. After discussions with members of my board, I am glad to announce my decision to you. I think setting up booths at the school canteen to showcase the fund raising projects such as the SHSS Carnival, the Pocket Money Project, the Bright Sunshine Bakery Shop and the Used Newspaper Collection, we have undertaken for the President’s Challenge will impress the President . We can also use this opportunity to allow him to gain a better understanding of our fund raising projects. I agree with you that we can even enlist the help of some of our past pupils to come up with their own fund raising projects and also showcase them.
  • 212. The best time to hold the event should be in the second week of September which is the week right after our one-week holiday break. Preparations for the exhibition will have to take place as soon as we receive your approval but we can mobilise the help of our students from the relevant uniformed groups, sports and club co-curricular activities during the break to work on the final touches to the making and the display of the booths. The respective organisers of the various fund raising projects will also be tasked to train presenters to introduce their work and showcase their activities to the President. Here is where we can rope our past students in to help out in various stages of our preparations because the scope is quite varied and wide. As far as resources are concerned, I believe in working on our exhibits based on the principles of “reduce, reuse and recycle”. I think this will heighten the level of consciousness amongst Hildans of the need to be environmental friendly as well as to be creative at the same time. I also want to impress upon them that when we raise funds, we should be very careful where the money we collect goes to. I think this is a very good opportunity for Hildans to pool our creativity and work towards a truly environmental friendly event to welcome the President.
  • 213. With regards to your other two suggestions, I must inform you that they are also quite well received. However, I think that the welcome party and creative performances for the President by past and present Hildans can be incorporated when showcasing our fund raising projects. Displays can include creative performances which can be entertaining while being informative. Instead of professional food caterers, it might be better for us to apply what we have learnt in Home Economics to cook up a perfect meal for the President. Thus, of your three suggestions, this one on the display of fund raising projects is likely to be the one which is going to leave the most positive impact on Mr. S. R. Nathan. I have presented to you my decision above and I hope you will give your blessings to the choice I have made. I shall be awaiting your favourable reply. Be rest assured that I will do my utmost to help make the President’s Challenge 2010 a memorable and successful event for everybody, in particularly, the President. Kindly get back to me at my contact number – 98765432 or email address – bryanloh@gmail.com. Thank you for your trust, support and attention. Written by: Bryan Loh
  • 214. REVISION ONLY FORMAT OF A FORMAL (BUSINESS) LETTER
  • 215. Names of Relevant Parts of a Formal Letter LETTERHEAD REFERENCE DATE SALUTATION RECIPIENT’S NAME & ADDRESS BLOCK COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE SIGNATURE FULL NAME OFFICIAL POSITION BODY OF THE LETTER
  • 216. 30 June 2010 St. Hilda’s Secondary School 2 Tampines Street 82 Singapore 528986 Mr. Siew Ka Eng Block 449 Bedok East Street 11 #09-192 Singapore 460449 SENDER’S ADDRESS BLOCK DATE OF LETTER RECIPIENT’S NAME AND ADDRESS BLOCK
  • 217. When to use “Yours faithfully” Dear Sir or Madam Yours faithfully
  • 218. When to use “Yours sincerely” Dear Mr. Siew Yours sincerely
  • 219. Topic / Reference - Applicable to Formal Letters Only Generous Donation By Anonymous Donor Request For Help To Find Generous Unknown Donor. Red Cross Children’s Charity Walk And A Huge Donation. Help Needed To Find Generous Unknown Donor. Charity Walk – Anonymous Donor Sought
  • 220. FORMAT OF A REPORT (ANY REPORT) USE THE MOST BASIC FORM
  • 221. To: Mr. Ong Kim Soon Principal St. Hilda’s Secondary School From: Siew Ka Eng Chairperson Secondary 4D Date: 6 July 2010 NOUN PHRASE AS A REFERENCE LINE Written by: Siew Ka Eng
  • 222. 1189/1127 Revision Class N/O LEVEL 2009 Situational Writing Post-mortem SHSS Preliminary 2009
  • 223. HOW WILL YOU BE GRADED in terms of Task Fulfilment?
  • 224. FRAMEWORK for writing task in Section B: Situational Writing – R.A.P.F. = TONE ROLE PURPOSE AUDIENCE FORM WHAT TO WRITE HOW TO WRITE TONE
  • 225. TONE = ATTITUDE FOR YOUR WRITING TASK TO PRODUCE ANY RESULT AT ALL, THE TARGETTED AUDIENCE MUST LIKE YOU AND WANT TO TAKE ACTION FOR OR WITH YOU. THEREFORE: In terms of Language - Clear English Formal language Polite addressing In terms of Diction - No slang words No clipped expressions No Singlish
  • 226. LETTER Begin your answer on a fresh page. You are advised to write between 250 and 350 words for this section. You should read the information carefully and plan your answer before beginning to write.
  • 227. PROVIDED INFORMATION The Singapore International Youth (SIF) has invited schools to participate in their Overseas Community Involvement Programme. Selected schools will have to send a team of student leaders to assigned South-east Asian countries and they will spend two weeks in the November/December vacation helping out at orphanages and public schools. Your school is keen to have the Student Council take part in the programme.
  • 228. FURTHER TO THAT… You are the PRESIDENT of the Student Council and you are asked to write a FORMAL LETTER to the Singapore International Youth to convince the SIF committee that your school should be one of the selected schools.
  • 229. IMPORTANT POINTS In your letter you should include the following: • Details of how your school could contribute to the orphanages or public schools • Why your school should be chosen • How would your school benefit from this experience Highlight the following strengths of your school: • Councillors possess the essential qualities of the Hildan Distinctive – Confident, Caring, Disciplined • Councillors have the experience of running camps for neighbouring primary schools which is an annual affair • The school and the councillors alike are enthusiastic about the programme
  • 230. STANDARD REMINDER WRITE YOUR LETTER IN CLEAR, ACCURATE ENGLISH, WITH RELEVANT REASONS AND DETAILS TO INTEREST AND PERSUADE THE SINGAPORE INTERNATIONAL YOUTH COMMITTEE TO SELECT YOUR SCHOOL.
  • 231. FEATURES OF A FORMAL LETTER [1] Sender’s Address Block [2] Date of Letter [3] Recipient’s Address Block [4] Salutation (e.g.Dear Sir or Madam) [5] Subject of Letter [6] BODY of letter  MOST IMPORTANT [7] Complimentary close (e.g. Yours faithfully, sincerely, truly) [8] Sender’s signature  MOST IMPORTANT [9] Sender’s full name  MOST IMPORTANT [10] Sender’s position  MOST IMPORTANT
  • 232. How to write a home address, if home is an HDB apartment Block 499  BLOCK Ang Mo Kio Street 17 ROAD #20-1234 UNIT Singapore 765432 POSTAL #20-1234 Block 499  UNIT and BLOCK Ang Mo Kio Street 17 ROAD Singapore 765432 POSTAL
  • 233. How to write the address of an organisation St. Hilda’s Secondary School  Name 2 Tampines Street 82  Bldg and Road Singapore 528986  Postal Code Richardson Electronics Pte Ltd  Name 89 Short Road  Bldg No and Road #08-09  Unit Singapore 789456  Postal Code
  • 234. Do I know the name of the recipient of my letter? Remember this: 1. Why do you write? To ask other people to get certain things done because you cannot do it on your own and you need THEIR help. 2. Does it help you to persuade people to help you better if you take the trouble to IDENTIFY the person[s] you are writing to? THINK.
  • 235. So, even if there is no mention of any particular person[s] you may write to… USE YOUR CONFIDENCE AND INITIATIVE TO CREATE SUCH A LETTER RECIPIENT. AN IMAGINED RECIPIENT BECOMES A REAL AUDIENCE TO YOU. YOUR TASK TO COMMUNICATE BECOMES REAL TOO.
  • 236. GCE N LEVEL 2005 FORMAL LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF THE STRAITS TIMES TO THANK ANONYMOUS DONOR FOR HIS GENEROSITY
  • 237. • St. Hilda’s Secondary School • 3 Tampines Street 12 • Singapore 123456 • 9 July 2010 • The Editor • The Straits Times • 6 Republic Road • Singapore 678910 • Dear Sir or Madam • Anonymous Generous Donor – Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity Walk • I am Ummairah, a student from St. Hilda’s Secondary School, which was the organizer for Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity Walk, held on last Sunday, 4 July at Bedok Reservoir. We were raising funds to provide needy primary school students with daily pocket money to encourage them to attend school regularly. I volunteered to record the names of donors and collect funds at the reception booth that day. • I have been authorized by my school principal, Mr. Ong Kim Soon to write to you because I had received a single donation of USD10,000 that morning from an anonymous donor. I was very surprised as this was the largest donation from an individual. I did not get any opportunity to thank this donor personally because he had quickly mentioned his intention to contribute and swiftly handed in his cheque. He turned around and left the booth before I could even register his name to acknowledge his contribution. By the time I had alerted my principal and the other helpers, he was nowhere to be found at our event site. We are deeply touched by his generosity and the charity event organizers would like to thank him personally if possible. • We hope you can help us publish this letter or report the generosity of this slim and tall middle-aged Chinese man, probably in his forties, He has fair complexion and was wearing a bright yellow Hawaiian casual shirt and a pair of green-coloured Bermuda shorts. He also speaks English with an American accent. • We would like you to know that because of his donation, we are able to reach out to help more students than we have originally planned – two hundred more to be exact. In addition, all students will be receiving an additional twenty cents daily for a period of six months. We are indeed greatly encouraged by his kind and selfless gesture. He made us believe that there are people out there who truly want to help students who go hungry without money to buy food or lack resources to attend to their studies properly. • Please assist us in this matter. If you need any further information, kindly let me know. I can be contacted at 91121234 or you can write to me at ummairah@gmail.com.sg. Your kind understanding and consideration will be deeply appreciated by all at our charity. • Yours faithfully • Ummairah • Ummairah bte Ahmad • Student Volunteer • Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity • St. Hilda’s Secondary School
  • 238. • St. Hilda’s Secondary School • 3 Tampines Street 12 • Singapore 123456 • 9 July 2010 • The Editor • The Straits Times • 6 Republic Road • Singapore 678910 • Dear Sir or Madam • Anonymous Generous Donor – Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity Walk • I am Ummairah, a student from St. Hilda’s Secondary School, which was the organizer for Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity Walk, held on last Sunday, 4 July at Bedok Reservoir. We were raising funds to provide needy primary school students with daily pocket money to encourage them to attend school regularly. I volunteered to record the names of donors and collect funds at the reception booth that day. • I have been authorized by my school principal, Mr. Ong Kim Soon to write to you because I had received a single donation of USD10,000 that morning from an anonymous donor. I was very surprised as this was the largest donation from an individual. I did not get any opportunity to thank this donor personally because he had quickly mentioned his intention to contribute and swiftly handed in his cheque. He turned around and left the booth before I could even register his name to acknowledge his contribution. By the time I had alerted my principal and the other helpers, he was nowhere to be found at our event site. We are deeply touched by his generosity and the charity event organizers would like to thank him personally if possible. • We hope you can help us publish this letter or report the generosity of this slim and tall middle-aged Chinese man, probably in his forties, He has fair complexion and was wearing a bright yellow Hawaiian casual shirt and a pair of green-coloured Bermuda shorts. He also speaks English with an American accent. • We would like you to know that because of his donation, we are able to reach out to help more students than we have originally planned – two hundred more to be exact. In addition, all students will be receiving an additional twenty cents daily for a period of six months. We are indeed greatly encouraged by his kind and selfless gesture. He made us believe that there are people out there who truly want to help students who go hungry without money to buy food or lack resources to attend to their studies properly. •
  • 239. Please assist us in this matter. If you need any further information, kindly let me know. I can be contacted at 91121234 or you can write to me at ummairah@gmail.com.sg. Your kind understanding and consideration will be deeply appreciated by all at our charity. • Yours faithfully • Ummairah • Ummairah bte Ahmad • Student Volunteer • Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity • St. Hilda’s Secondary School
  • 240. FORMAL LETTER FORMAT St. Hilda’s Secondary School 3 Tampines Street 12 Singapore 123456 9 July 2010 The Editor The Straits Times 6 Republic Road Singapore 678910 SENDER’S ADDRESS BLOCK RECIPIENT’S ADDRESS BLOCK DATE RECIPIENT
  • 241. FORMAL LETTER FORMAT TOPIC / REFERENCE SALUTATION – IMPERSONAL Dear Sir or Madam Anonymous Generous Donor – Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity Walk
  • 242. FORMAL LETTER CONTENT I am Ummairah, a student from St. Hilda’s Secondary School, which was the organizer for Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity Walk, held on last Sunday, 4 July at Bedok Reservoir. We were raising funds to provide needy primary school students with daily pocket money to encourage them to attend school regularly. I volunteered to record the names of donors and collect funds at the reception booth that day. Any other information which you think would be helpful. In this case, about myself and my connection
  • 243. FORMAL LETTER CONTENT I have been authorized by my school principal, Mr. Ong Kim Soon to write to you because I had received a single donation of USD10,000 that morning from an anonymous donor. I was very surprised as this was the largest donation from an individual. I did not get any opportunity to thank this donor personally because he had quickly mentioned his intention to contribute and swiftly handed in his cheque. He turned around and left the booth before I could even register his name to acknowledge his contribution. By the time I had alerted my principal and the other helpers, he was nowhere to be found at our event site. We are deeply touched by his generosity and the charity event organizers would like to thank him personally if possible. SOME DETAILS OF WHAT HAPPENED BULLET POINT 1 How you felt when you realized how much money you had been given BULLET POINT 3
  • 244. FORMAL LETTER CONTENT We hope you can help us publish this letter or report the generosity of this slim and tall middle-aged Chinese man, probably in his forties, He has fair complexion and was wearing a bright yellow Hawaiian casual shirt and a pair of green-coloured Bermuda shorts. He also speaks English with an American accent. What the stranger looked like BULLET POINT 2
  • 245. FORMAL LETTER CONTENT We would like you to know that because of his donation, we are able to reach out to help more students than we have originally planned – two hundred more to be exact. In addition, all students will be receiving an additional twenty cents daily for a period of six months. We are indeed greatly encouraged by his kind and selfless gesture. He made us believe that there are people who truly want to help students who go hungry without money to buy food or lack resources to attend to their studies properly. Thanks to the stranger for his generosity BULLET POINT 4 How this charity will use the money to help children. BULLET POINT 5
  • 246. FORMAL LETTER CONTENT Please assist us in this matter. If you need any further information, kindly let me know. I can be contacted at 91121234 or you can write to me at ummairah@gmail.com.sg. Your kind understanding and consideration will be deeply appreciated by all at our charity. • Yours faithfully • Ummairah • Ummairah bte Ahmad • Student Volunteer • Ronald McDonald’s Children’s Charity • c/o St. Hilda’s Secondary School Any other information which you think would be helpful. COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE SIGNATURE FULL NAME OF WRITER POSITION ORGANISATION YOU BELONG TO
  • 247. SPEECH: NIGHT STUDY AT SHSS POST-MORTEM 1189 Sec 4NA Preliminary P1 2009
  • 248. Standard Reminder You are advised to write between 180 and 250 words for this section. You should read the information carefully and plan your answer before writing.
  • 249. IMPORTANT INFORMATION You are giving a speech in the next hall assembly to persuade and convince your principal and teachers to implement a night study programme which will include allowing students to make use of the classrooms and related school facilities at night in preparation for major school or national examinations.
  • 250. REMEMBER What is your ROLE? Who is the AUDIENCE of your writing task? What is the PURPOSE of your writing task? In what FORM is it going to be in?
  • 251. FRAMEWORK for writing task in Section B: Situational Writing – R.A.P.F. = TONE ROLE PURPOSE AUDIENCE FORM WHAT TO WRITE HOW TO WRITE TONE
  • 252. THE DETAILS which YOU MUST write about… You should include the following in your speech on the topic: • Why do you make the request for such a programme to be implemented? • In what ways could the school support the programme’s implementation? • What are some of the measures which the school can come up with to prevent misuse or abuse of such a programme? • Who are the students who will benefit from participation in the programme? • How will they benefit? • Which part of the year and for how long do you think such a programme should be conducted in order for it to be effective? Prepare your speech which must cover these points in detail.
  • 253. STANDARD REMINDER You may also include any other relevant ideas. Write in an appropriate tone using clear and accurate English, bearing in mind that your principal, teachers and schoolmates will be present to listen to you.
  • 254. What Your Speech Should Look Like… Good morning, Mr. Ong, teachers and fellow Hildans. I am Daniel Tan Bo Yu from Secondary 3D. I am honoured to be given this opportunity to address you because I have something important which I would like you to think and hopefully act together with me. I am standing on the stage in the school hall today because I strongly believe in the need for our school to begin some form of a night study programme for students like you and me to make use of the classrooms and related school facilities at night so that we can more effectively prepare ourselves for any major school or national examinations such as the N and the O level examinations. The majority of our student population lives in housing estates. We do not have a conducive environment at night to revise our school work. If we could just be allowed to use some areas of the school at night, it would be a great help to us.
  • 255. Continuing on with… How would my request affect the school? I think in some ways but I would like to appeal to our teachers that studying at night here would be really effective. I know our teachers are really holding revision classes in small groups. If we have night study, I think you would all agree that time is likely to be even more effectively spent since we can concentrate better. So I am appealing to our teachers to consider conducting their revision classes at night instead of the current practice.
  • 256. Continuing on and on… I wish to say that when students return to study in school at night, we would only be making use of the canteen and the classrooms on the ground floor of the new block. I am proposing that students who sign up for the programme stay on from 7p.m. to 10p.m, nightly, excluding the weekends.
  • 257. Further along the same train of thought… I am also aware of the need for rules and regulations to be in place if the school management agrees to implement the night study programme. For a start, I would like to call upon all Hildans or better yet, our student leaders to help us come up with a feasible set of rules. This programme is meant for all of us so we should not allow any student to misuse or abuse it once it is implemented.
  • 258. Furthermore… I feel strongly that the graduating students who are going to sit the forthcoming N and O level examinations should be given the priority to come back to school for night study. As such, I would strongly urge the school authority to allow us to study in school during the night time a month or two before major national examinations begin. This will greatly benefit our graduating classes. I also believe that the teachers will also be able to meet their students to help them revise for the examinations more effectively. So Hildans, I truly need you to support this night study programme. Not everybody needs to come back but for those who do, our school is the best place for it, don’t you think?
  • 259. How to conclude your speech? I want to thank Mr. Ong, teachers and all fellow Hildans for listening to my request. I think I am speaking up for many, many of us here and I wish the school management would help us make this night study programme a reality. It is for the good of all the students and what is good for us will also be good for our school as a whole. I hope it would be soon that we hear a positive response from Mr. Ong and our teachers to let us go ahead with the programme. With that, I thank you all.
  • 260. THE LAST SLIDE IN 2010 GOOD LUCK TO YOU IN YOUR O LEVEL EXAMINATIONS

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