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St. Hilda’s Secondary School
   4Express/NA/NA[TT]/5NA
   Preparation Examinations
          T4W2-6.2010
Suggested Answer ...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
     ESSAY WRITING
Always bear in mind to use the FRAMEWORK:
T = Tense
S = Spelling
S = Sentence...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
     ESSAY WRITING
Do not write on things or ideas which strongly
suggest – sex, rape, gangs, dr...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
       ESSAY WRITING

For narrative writing, use the PAST tense [V²] because the events you reco...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
       ESSAY WRITING

Use of Proper Nouns in the English Language. I am very surprised that
many...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
         ESSAY WRITING
“Who” is used with or in connection with human beings only. “Which” is us...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
      ESSAY WRITING
e.g. [2] She kept her personal belongings
[Correct] in her handbag.
     Or
...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
       ESSAY WRITING
Use of plural and singular noun words. When you say,
“you are taking an exa...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
        ESSAY WRITING
The expression –
   “My friends and I” versus “Me and my friends”.
  “My f...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
       ESSAY WRITING
 e.g. [8]. My friends and I [CORRECT] visited
the patient.
   e.g. [9]. Me ...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
        ESSAY WRITING
A lot of people [a] because a [1word]
                               Lot [...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
        ESSAY WRITING
One of the boys [CORRECT] versus One of the boy [X]
One of the students [C...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
        ESSAY WRITING


In your Section One Essay, do not use these adverbs in Narrative Writing...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
        ESSAY WRITING
You have to get your MODAL + MAIN verb right:




  Will be               ...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
         ESSAY WRITING
Reminders again
  Preferred method of writing dates internationally – 1 A...
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN
        ESSAY WRITING
Use only ONE set of dialogue if you really have to.
Punctuation:
“Am I exc...
BY NOW YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT

1. You must choose an essay topic which you
   absolutely (TOTALLY) can do WELL.
2. Your CHOI...
Identifying Correctly The
       Essay Type
    N and O Level English
     Examinations 2010
Discursive-descriptive Essays

    How to produce your paragraphs?
    How to write your 400-500 words?
             How t...
6. Living environment is good. We
1. I feel proud about         7. Singapore has been         have planted many trees in o...
Quality of the living
  International long-haul connections                       environment, housing
  with a well-manag...
Other factors: easy                        Is it true that
      accessibility. Inexpensive. Near
      to good food centr...
In parent-child talk,
          Styles of parenting:              how skilfully does
          Is it adaptive to          ...
The physical
                                 Do students feel that        environment of
Students’ attitude
             ...
If I get to meet people whom I
                            would not meet during school days.
 If I get to use my
 time an...
An atmosphere or shopping experience unique
                                         to itself which others cannot copy or...
Listen to his or her
         requests                                   Go to iconic places of interest –
         if the...
Always be willing to ask
                                  when in doubt.
     Start with your wardrobe:    Look into the ...
Consult
                                     your
                                     parents
                           ...
Go to some of the nightspots –
 Clarke Quay, Boat Quay,                                       Take him to the
 Robertson Q...
Discursive or Argumentative?
 Discuss the
 advantages and
 disadvantages of
 allowing students to
 plan their own
 schooli...
Discursive or Argumentative?
Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of allowing
students to plan their own
schooling sch...
Argumentative – but how to structure your
                 essay?
Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of allowing stu...
Argumentative – but how to structure your
                 essay?
Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of allowing stu...
Argumentative – but how to structure your
                 essay?
Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of allowing stu...
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
allowing students to plan their own schooling
schedules.

Students should be a...
Even if “Do you agree that”
is missing from the essay topic,                 WHY?
we know that we can take sides
if we cho...
This is a SWEEPING STATEMENT. It is negative in tone and so
is rather controversial. This provides a fertile ground for ar...
This is a SWEEPING STATEMENT. Although positive in tone, this claim is also
rather controversial. This provides a fertile ...
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
allowing students to plan their own schooling
schedules.

Truancy and absentee...
Truancy and absenteeism will become a thing of the
    past if students are allowed to plan their own
    schooling schedu...
Discursive or Argumentative?

 Explain and discuss
 the functions of your
 school uniform.
 There is nothing to agree or d...
Discursive or Argumentative?
Explain and discuss the functions of your school
uniform.

Students should be allowed to wear...
Discursive or Argumentative?
  Explain where in
  Singapore you would take
  your friends from
  overseas who has only a
 ...
Discursive or Argumentative?
  Why should
  students develop the
  habit of life-long
  learning?
DISCURSIVE - Nothing to ...
Discursive or Argumentative?

Discuss the
importance of
healthy living.
Here there is no need to think about AGREEING or D...
Discursive or Argumentative?

  Discuss the
  importance of
  healthy living.

Here there is no need to think about AGREEI...
How to structure a Discursive essay?

   Discuss the importance of healthy living.
                Explain what you mean b...
Discursive or Argumentative?

 Youths in
 Singapore are soft.
 What do you
 think?
Argumentative
This is a negative comment. It is also an allegation. For some, it may even
be construed as an insult. Never...
Argumentative
Youths in Singapore are soft.
What do you think?
               Why is this an issue?
Introduction   To what...
Discursive or Argumentative?

 How would you give
 advice to a classmate
 who is falling behind in
 his or her studies?
Discursive
What kind of things would you say to him or her?
What kind of things would you do?
What kind of efforts would y...
Discursive or Argumentative?

Write about the things which
will affect the choice you
make between continuing
your educati...
Discursive

Write about the things which
will affect the choice you
make between continuing
your education in Secondary
Fi...
Discursive or Argumentative?

What can young
Singaporeans do to
protect the
environment?
Discursive

                          REMEMBER: You are also a young Singaporean.


     What can young Singaporeans do
  ...
Discursive or Argumentative?

What makes a
vibrant
classroom?
Discursive Essay Writing

Clear understanding
that the classroom       Positive           Positive        Availability and...
Discursive or Argumentative?

Studying smart is
more effective
than studying
hard. Do you
agree?
Discursive or Argumentative?

Visibility is more
crucial than
ability.
Discursive or Argumentative?
Despite the technological
advances, man is not any
closer to gaining a better
understanding o...
Discursive or Argumentative?

What are the things
you and your
parents do when you
spend time
together?
Discursive AND descriptive
                              THIS TOPIC REQUIRES YOU TO
                              ANSWER I...
Which type of Essay is this?

Write about a time
when a heated family
argument which
produced a positive
outcome.
Impressions / Characteristics /
          Qualities
    Descriptors that you need to
         take into account
          ...
Descriptive-Narrative Essay Writing

When we talk about impressions, we must
  take into account the following salient
  f...
Emotional Qualities
    Physical Appearance          What does he seem to like or
    Dress Sense                  dislike...
SYNOPSIS: What is a possible short account? [that involved you and
your friend.] You offered help to a friend who needed e...
Which type of Essay is this?

What are the
benefits and
consequences of
home schooling?
Which type of Essay is this?

Computer
promotes thinking.
Do you agree?
Which type of Essay?

What do you think are the
pros and cons of taking up a
sport as a CCA?
ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

What do you think are the
pros and cons of taking up
a sport as a CCA?

 ADVANTAGES   DISADVANTAGES
What kind of essay is this?

Write about a time when
you had to juggle your
studies with another task
which you had to do ...
NARRATIVE and DESCRIPTIVE
       PERSONAL RECOUNT

   Write about a time when you had to
   juggle your studies with anoth...
What kind of essay is this?

What are your
worries and
concerns for the
next two years in
your life?
DISCURSIVE and DESCRIPTIVE

         matters of interest, things that you care for,
         subject matters which you thi...
WRITING CLINIC

INTRODUCTION is more or
   less CONCLUSION
 EXPOSITORY ESSAY WRITING
 – DISCURSIVE / DESCRIPTIVE
INTRODUCTION

MAIN BODY P1

MAIN BODY P2

MAIN BODY P3

MAIN BODY P4

CONCLUSION
Expository – Discursive /
 Descriptive Essay Writing



How to introduce
   Base your introduction on the
statement which ...
What other teachers call the
      THESIS statement…
  Explain why a tourist would find Singapore
   River an interesting ...
INTRODUCTION 1 – Explain why a tourist would find
    Singapore River an interesting area to visit.

The Singapore River i...
INTRODUCTION 2 – Explain why a tourist would find
    Singapore River an interesting area to visit.

Any tourist would fin...
INTRODUCTION 3 – Explain why a tourist would find
    Singapore River an interesting area to visit.

The Singapore River a...
EXPOSITORY –
DISCURSIVE / DESCRIPTIVE


How to conclude
    Base your conclusion on the
statement which informs the reader...
How to begin a conclusion 1
Based on what I have shared in the
above paragraphs, I think any tourist
should be convinced t...
How to begin a conclusion 2
I have mentioned most of the
interesting aspects of the Singapore
River which any tourist woul...
How to begin a conclusion 3
Singapore River is indeed an interesting
river which a tourist must not miss
when he or she is...
How to begin a conclusion 4
Museums and parks, nightspots and
clubbing, history and culture - you
name it, the Singapore R...
How to begin a conclusion 5
I have given some important reasons
why Singapore River is an interesting
area for a tourist t...
CONCLUSION 1 – Explain why a tourist would find
   Singapore River an interesting area to visit.

Because of the interesti...
CONCLUSION 2 – Explain why a tourist would find
   Singapore River an interesting area to visit.

I have written about the...
CONCLUSION 3 – Explain why a tourist would find
   Singapore River an interesting area to visit.

I have given the above r...
How to Introduce? –What makes
Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia?

I was born in Singapore in 1993. I am ...
How to introduce? – What makes Singapore
one of the most liveable countries in Asia?

 I was born and brought up in Singap...
How to conclude: What makes Singapore one
   of the most livable countries in Asia?

I have briefly explained in my essay,...
TERM 3 WEEK 1
Discursive Essay Writing
    JUNE HOLIDAY COMPOSITION
             HOMEWORK
 Lessons prepared and conducted ...
Which quality, in your
opinion, enables a
student to achieve
success in school –
diligence, intelligence
or talent? Discus...
A mind map can
 take any shape
 but it has to be
 TRULY USEFUL
 TO YOU.
 WRITE AS MANY
 RELATED AND
 RELEVANT
 POINTS AS Y...
INTRODUCTION

MAIN BODY P1

MAIN BODY P2

MAIN BODY P3

MAIN BODY P4

CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH
•   Students cannot count on
    any one particular quality -
    diligence, intelligence or
    ta...
What happens to this
part of the mind map
which is originally
meant for Paragraph 2?

As I write my essay, I
consider and ...
PARAGRAPH 2 - MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1

•   Diligence is the quality of being
    consistently hardworking. A
    student who...
PARAGRAPH 2 –
       MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1
•   Diligence is the quality of being           My own definition –
    consist...
Paragraph 3 – MAIN BODY
             PARAGRAPH 2
•   Intelligence deals with a student's
    ability to learn, understand ...
Paragraph 4 – MAIN BODY
        PARAGRAPH 3
Talent refers to the inborn
or natural ability to do
something well. A person'...
Paragraph 5 – CONCLUSION
 Because diligence, intelligence and talent have
both benefits and limitations, they cannot be
in...
SUBMIT THE MIND-
  MAP TOGETHER
WITH THE ESSAY IF
  YOU LIKE AT THE
GCE N AND O LEVEL
   EXAMINATIONS
•   Which quality, in your opinion, enables a student to achieve success in school - diligence, intelligence
    or talent...
“Tuition is the key to
     success in
  examinations.”
      Discuss.
 T3W10. Argumentative Essay
           Writing
    ...
UNPACKING THE QUESTION –
                  please note that this is not a mind-map
                                       ...
When Do I Even Begin To Think If I
    Can Argue Effectively?
            Only if I can I spot the IRONY without
         ...
What is there to talk about when I am
presenting my arguments and other people’s
arguments?
• Do I BELIEVE or NOT BELIEVE?...
What I must be clear of these
terms:                                                    Why I DO NOT                      ...
ATTENTION PLEASE:
1. Mind-mapping alone is not good enough.

2. We need to structure the points we want to
   put into our...
What I must be clear of these
terms:                                                    What I DO NOT                     ...
NOTE:
1.There are many ways to begin an
  argumentative essay.

2. I am only proposing the use of the no-
  nonsense / fri...
TIME IS NOT ON MY SIDE.
Please think on your feet. Use your
brains, eyes, ears and think quickly.

Do not waste time. Pick...
TIME IS NOT ON MY SIDE.
When you mind-map, you should not worry
too much about what should be put down
and what shouldn’t....
INTRODUCTION


MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1

                        What I think this topic is concerned
                       ...
Set my main idea clearly so
Paragraph One-      that I can inform the reader
                    my view and the other
 In...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[1]  Why is this a talking point (an issue)?
[2]  What is “tuition”?
[3]  What happens d...
Student A’s Introduction
       Paragraph – 4D
         Having tuition does not mean you
will score well in examinations. ...
Student B’s Introduction
         Paragraph – 4D
Many students nowadays have tuition, not only for
the subjects that they ...
Student C’s Introduction
         Paragraph – 4D
Tution has its advantage and disadvantage. Tution
has also its pros and c...
Student D’s Introduction
       Paragraph – 4D
Tuition is actually classes that
helps students in their weaker
subjects by...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[1] Why is this a talking point (an issue)?

 Tuition is a common thing to do for
 many ...
What to include in Paragraph One?


[2] What is “tuition”?

 When we attend a tuition lesson, we
 expect our tutor to teac...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[3] What happens during tuition?

  We receive personal attention. We ask questions
  an...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[4] What is my stance? (What do I believe
  in?)

 I do not believe that tuition is the ...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[4] What is my stance? (What do I believe
  in?)

*Many students like to write in this m...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[4] What is my stance? (What do I believe
  in?)
*Many students like to write in this ma...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?)
  I believe that tuition is the key for o...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[5] What I am accepting about the views of
  other people and why they believe in what
 ...
What to include in Paragraph One?
[6] So what I am going to write about here
  in the rest of my essay?

 So in this essay...
So how does my Paragraph One look like
     in any argumentative essay?
             Tuition is a common thing to do for m...
So how does my Paragraph One look like
     in any argumentative essay?
        Tuition is a common thing to
do for many s...
Set my main idea clearly so
Paragraph One-      that I can inform the reader
                    my view and the other
 In...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH TWO -
     My strongest point on what I believe in.

I think as a full-time student, knowing what I mu...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH TWO -
        My strongest point on what I believe in.

I think as a full-time student,
knowing what I...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH THREE
 - My SECOND strongest point on what I believe in.
    I also believe that my self-discipline ho...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH THREE
 - My SECOND strongest point on what I believe in.
  I also believe that my self-         My nex...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FOUR
 - My THIRD strongest point on what I believe in.
   Tuition is not the key to examination succes...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FOUR
 - My THIRD strongest point on what I believe in.
   Tuition is not the key to           The topi...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FIVE –
What others believe about tuition
  However, tuition may help other
 students cope with difficu...
MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FIVE –
What others believe about tuition
 However, tuition may help
 other students cope with
 difficu...
CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH
Once again, I must reiterate here that I do not
believe that tuition is the key to examination
succes...
CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH
Once again, I must reiterate
 here that I do not believe        REPEAT YOUR THESIS
 that tuition is t...
Single Word Topics
    Chance
  Opportunity
Disappointment   Setting            Action
   Damaged                         ...
Single Word Topics
    Chance
  Opportunity
Disappointment   Narrative-Personal Recount-Descriptive
   Damaged
   Trapped ...
Single Word Topics
    Chance
  Opportunity
Disappointment
   Damaged
   Trapped       AVOID WRITING
     Flight
     Frig...
Single Word Topics
    Chance
  Opportunity    Make sure you do not stray
Disappointment   from the topic. Bear in mind
  ...
“Torn” [EL ‘O’ Level Prelim. 2005)

     By Md Effendi bin Md Sani
            (Sec. 4/5)
Points to consider:
• Use of tense
• Storyline
• How the theme ‘TORN’ was covered
• Link between paragraphs/sequence of
  ...
“Torn”
    It was the last night we were spending
together. In a few hours’ time, she would
be leaving. I prayed many nigh...
“Torn”
    I held her in my arms with tears rolling
down my cheeks. She was too weak to
speak. She just closed her eyes an...
“Torn”
   The car accident left her weak, weak in
her heart. The accident permanently
paralysed her. Her heart was beating...
“Torn”
   It seemed that I was undergoing a
painful cycle. My heart was tearing
repeatedly inside. I could not let her go....
“Torn”
   It was really time I guessed. She
seemed to have difficulty moving but I just
held her and gave my best support ...
“Torn”
    I wanted to take this as a man and not
to cry but it was to no avail. I cried and
cried for my beloved furry fr...
“Torn”
    I cradled it in my arms and said my last
goodbye. I kissed her head and
remembered her scent before laying her ...
“Torn”
    The box had droplets of my tears on it. I
put her on the front basket of my bicycle
and cycled to Pasir Ris Bea...
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
Preparatory examinations   final complete revision package for paper 1.2010
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Preparatory examinations final complete revision package for paper 1.2010

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Transcript of "Preparatory examinations final complete revision package for paper 1.2010"

  1. 1. St. Hilda’s Secondary School 4Express/NA/NA[TT]/5NA Preparation Examinations T4W2-6.2010 Suggested Answer Prepared by Yeo Yam Hwee for T4W6.19-21 October 2010 for Secondary 4B/4D/5B.2010 COMPLETE REVISION EDITION Paper 1 1127 / 01 REVISED and Published here for students’ revision by Yeo Yam Hwee 24 October 2010
  2. 2. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Always bear in mind to use the FRAMEWORK: T = Tense S = Spelling S = Sentence M = Meaning to help you in your planning of your essay. Be very clear even BEFORE you step into the examination hall, which type of essay is going to give you the biggest personal advantage in terms of self-confidence and proficiency in writing. IS IT An essay on SCHOOL LIFE? A discursive essay on a general topic? An argumentative essay? A single-word essay topic? A narrative-descriptive essay?
  3. 3. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Do not write on things or ideas which strongly suggest – sex, rape, gangs, drug or substance abuse, brazen behaviour, secret societies, membership of bizarre clubs or societies, religions, science fiction, incidents of unnatural deaths, suicides, horrors and ghostly experience. The list can go on, but I am quite sure you know what I mean. You plan to fail if you try to SHOCK your examiner with an essay filled with strange content. Being “original” does not mean being “shocking”, “bizarre” or “strange”.
  4. 4. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING For narrative writing, use the PAST tense [V²] because the events you recount happened in the past. For information-giving, discussion, or argument, use the PRESENT tense [V1] because the points are always relevant or of concern to you. Plan before writing – always submit only the neatest or the best draft for grading. Under examination or timed condition, do not go beyond Draft 2. Submit Draft 2 should do. Check your work before you submit. Make sure you begin the topic SPOT ON with the first paragraph. Do not drag your feet and pad your essay. Remember an essay is not a novel or a short story. You have a word limit - 350 to 500 words to consider. Always use a new pen. Stick to only one colour. Use either dark blue or black.
  5. 5. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Use of Proper Nouns in the English Language. I am very surprised that many 43 students did not know that the first letters of a proper noun phrase have to be capitalized – e.g. St. Hilda’s Secondary School. Your friend’s name should be Pelvin Pan Teng Yok . When you identify the ethnic group of a person, he is either a Chinese, an Indian, a Malay or a Eurasian. He is a Secondary Three school boy. But if there is no specific names being mentioned, then you are right to write: e.g. He studied in a secondary school. [CORRECT] e.g. He studied at Pasir Ris Crest Secondary School. [CORRECT]
  6. 6. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING “Who” is used with or in connection with human beings only. “Which” is used for all others – living and non-living things, including animals. “That” has been misused by many students. Do not use Non-standard or CLIPPED expressions: Instead of “exam” or “exams”, use the word, “examinations”. Instead of “stuff” or “stuffs”, use the correct word for each specific situation. e.g. [1] She kept her stuff [X] in her handbag. Guy Gal Kid Of course Well Nice Great Stuff Cool No sweat Lame [These are all No-no’s] N.B. THESE MAY BE GOOD ENOUGH FOR CONVERSATION BUT CERTAINLY NOT GOOD ENOUGH FOR WRITTEN WORK, ESPECIALLY FOR INCLUSION IN A FORMAL ESSAY.
  7. 7. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING e.g. [2] She kept her personal belongings [Correct] in her handbag. Or e.g. [3] She kept her personal items [Correct] in her handbag. e.g. [4] He was studying in Sec 1. [X] e.g. [5]. He was studying in Secondary One. [Correct]
  8. 8. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Use of plural and singular noun words. When you say, “you are taking an examination”, you are only sitting ONE paper. Are you only sitting ONE paper at the GCE N Level Examinations? Of course NOT. So, please always write: e.g. [6]. He failed to do well in his GCE N Level Examinations. [CORRECT] However, of course, if you are only sitting ONE paper, then it is perfectly all right to state: e.g. [7]. It was an important examination [CORRECT] and yet he did not do well in it.
  9. 9. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING The expression – “My friends and I” versus “Me and my friends”. “My family and I” is an expression you should NOT even think about writing. Use this technique instead: My family enjoyed regular visits across the causeway from Singapore into Peninsular Malaysia. There was once, however, we were forced to leave my two younger sisters behind. I alone accompanied my father and my mother to Johore Bahru on a weekend shopping trip. My mother had to leave my twin sisters at home with my grandparents so that they could rest and hopefully recover completely after suffering from a mild case of stomache upset. We had had no idea that it was going to be a long while before we ever got to see them again.
  10. 10. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING e.g. [8]. My friends and I [CORRECT] visited the patient. e.g. [9]. Me and my friends [X] visited the patient. [THAT STUPID GIRL WHO AIRS HER OPINION ON HOW HER HP COMPUTER HAS BECOME PERSONAL AGAIN IS SO DARN WRONG ABOUT HER GRAMMAR! BUT THEN, SHE’S AMERICAN!]
  11. 11. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING A lot of people [a] because a [1word] Lot [another word] Of [third word] = 3 separate words The expression is “A lot of”. Never begin a sentence in your essay with “AND”. Absolutely no SINGLISH, even in dialogue. If you must showcase dialogue, make sure you keep to a pair of exchanges only. Do not use the following in your essay: “Rrrrrinnnngggg….!!!” went the telephone. [X] “Arrggh…” he struggled. [X]
  12. 12. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING One of the boys [CORRECT] versus One of the boy [X] One of the students [CORRECT] versus One of the student [X] USE PUNCTUATION MARKS ACCURATELY. This is especially true for full-stops and commas. PENMANSHIP and PRESENATION SKILLS. Students with poor handwriting and presentation skills usually lose out to those who understand the need to write clearly so that the readers can read better. For writing numerals, 1 – 20. Please use words. This is an English Language Examination after all. e.g. He studied in that school for 20 years.  He studied in that school for twenty years. For indicating years, simply write – 1997 or 2006
  13. 13. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING In your Section One Essay, do not use these adverbs in Narrative Writing: Now Today Yesterday Tomorrow Currently Presently If you are retelling an episode in the past – Narrative / Personal Recount / Descriptive.
  14. 14. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING You have to get your MODAL + MAIN verb right: Will be Would be Will eat Would eat Can be Could be Can swim Could swim May be Might be May sleep Might sleep Must be Had to be Must climb Had to climb Shall be Should be Shall sing Should sing
  15. 15. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Reminders again Preferred method of writing dates internationally – 1 April 1999 N.B. 10 Apr 06 [a] 10 April 2006 [a] When the day of the week is added, a comma is used: e.g. She planned to leave on Monday, 1 April 2006. When only the month and year are used, the month is usually followed by a comma: e.g. She planned to leave in April[,] 2006. Years and centuries should be written as follows: 59 BC AD 432 the 1990s the nineties between 1997 and 2006 from 1998 to 2006 twentieth century verse the sixteenth century
  16. 16. THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN ESSAY WRITING Use only ONE set of dialogue if you really have to. Punctuation: “Am I excused from the examinations?” Mary asked. “Am I excused from the examinations?” asked Mary. Mary asked, “Am I excused from the examinations?” She asked, “Am I excused from the examinations?” ABSOLUTELY NO SINGLISH END OF POST-MORTEM
  17. 17. BY NOW YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT 1. You must choose an essay topic which you absolutely (TOTALLY) can do WELL. 2. Your CHOICE topic contains all the words, phrases or expressions which you understand accurately. 3. If you must decide between TWO choices, always pick the one which you are more confident to do well. 4. Do not waste time by changing topic midway.
  18. 18. Identifying Correctly The Essay Type N and O Level English Examinations 2010
  19. 19. Discursive-descriptive Essays How to produce your paragraphs? How to write your 400-500 words? How to ace it? Written by Yeo Yam Hwee Pasir Ris Crest Secondary School 2001-2008
  20. 20. 6. Living environment is good. We 1. I feel proud about 7. Singapore has been have planted many trees in our cites Singapore because my recently ranked seventeenth and housing estates. Rubbish family and I live here. We out of twenty most liveable collection is efficient and the sewage feel safe and secure. We cities in the world. Good system is world class. We have a low feel that we can build our health care. Good crime rate and well-developed future here together. transportation system. Good neighbourhood watch system. urban planning. 2. Although Singapore has limited resources, it 5. Close to ninety percent of had grown from a Singaporeans live in our own houses. third world country We have free to choose the type of into a developed housing according to how much we can nation within a span afford. Anybody who wants to work is of fifty years. Write about some of able to get a job of his or her choice. the things which Education standards are high. Cost of living is reasonable but standard of make you feel living is amongst the highest in Asia 3. Although an proud of your and comparable to other developed countries in the world. immigrant society, we country. have people from all over the world who are able to live peacefully 4. We have four official and harmoniously with languages –English, one another. Mandarin, Malay and Tamil. Singaporeans accept and use English as the language of communication and business amongst ourselves.
  21. 21. Quality of the living International long-haul connections environment, housing with a well-managed, thoughtfully choices, access to nature designed airport and key environmental initiatives in urban planning. Cost and quality Low crime rates in relation to of public murders and domestic transport burglaries What makes Quality of education and health Singapore a care great city Personal safety when state? walking on the streets at night. Hours of sunshine and average temperature Level of social harmony, Availability of communications and acceptance and tolerance, which connectivity includes a positive climate for ethnic diversity, the employment of women etc.
  22. 22. Other factors: easy Is it true that accessibility. Inexpensive. Near to good food centres. if you didn’t Near to business districts, visit the Chinatown, Bugis Junction and so on. river, you had never been to What is Singapore? its Explain why a historical tourist would value? find Singapore What is it a River an must-visit interesting destination? area to visit. What is its current importance? What can In what one gain ways is it from the an visit? interesting place?
  23. 23. In parent-child talk, Styles of parenting: how skilfully does Is it adaptive to the parent listen to child’s needs or the child? does it remain static? Awareness of child’s stages Is communication channel always What makes a of physical open between and mental parent and child? good parent? development What does a parent do for Values and his/her Amount of contact beliefs shared child/ren? with child/ren or interaction time spent with child/ren.
  24. 24. The physical Do students feel that environment of Students’ attitude they own their the classroom. Towards one classroom? Space and another in class layout effectiveness. Students’ relationship Cleanliness. with teachers Sunshine. What makes Adaptability. Do students and teachers a vibrant Multiple-usage. understand their respective responsibilities? Are they motivated to carry them out? classroom? Do they understand their goals and objectives? Teachers’ input – What do I mean Students’ input – efforts and by a “vibrant” efforts and contributions to classroom? contributions to make students What do I make classroom study and learn expect to find in activities during lessons one? meaningful.
  25. 25. If I get to meet people whom I would not meet during school days. If I get to use my time and money interestingly and If I get to do meaningfully. What would things which I you consider to do not do during school days. be a vacation well-spent? If I get to spend my If I am free If I visit a place vacation my from any which I really family/ friends/ stress or like visiting – special ones. pressure and an overseas can truly destination spend time doing nothing.
  26. 26. An atmosphere or shopping experience unique to itself which others cannot copy or duplicate. It should organize seasonal or timely social activities for visitors to Competitive return to it repeatedly. pricing and reliable What are some shopkeepers Always upgrading its of the facilities and events characteristics of a successful shopping centre Good mix of in your country? shops, Understand shoppers’ psychology facilities and and make it top priority to attract them to visit. space for families and other It should be easily Good shops selling shoppers accessible by public transport. Wide-ranging, fashionable, latest merchandise and services.
  27. 27. Listen to his or her requests Go to iconic places of interest – if there is any. Then act on Unique ones only. One or two will do. it so that there is no e.g. Chinatown, Bugis Street or Little India misunderstanding or disappointment. Have short meals Identify your pen pal: Suggest how your outside: savour Age pen pal may local food from the Nationality spend a different races. Gender meaningful one day stopover visit to Singapore. Take the public Invite him to transport have a meal - Buses and MRT. with me and Let him mingle my family. Take him to the HDB with the local heartlands – my town: crowds. visit the wet markets, hawker centres, community facilities
  28. 28. Always be willing to ask when in doubt. Start with your wardrobe: Look into the mirror and be What do you actually honest with yourself. wear versus what you would like to wear. Window shopping during your free time to explore options Learn about colours – When you combine colours, you get How does Discuss with surprising tones one cultivate other a taste for interested teens on fashion Keen observation of fashion? how other teens dress on different occasions. See and Keep yourself determine who physically dresses right and ask yourself why so. Read up magazines for and mentally fit fashion tips suitable to your by regular age group to be informed. exercises.
  29. 29. Consult your parents In each subject, do you list up the Or teachers topics which need more time to Revision requires whether in prepare and which do not? What a quiet / conducive doubt methods are more effective than environment- How do you others to tackle such topics. set about creating one? Are you What makes an effective motivated? study plan in your Self-motivation preparations for the and examinations? continual monitoring Time of progress. frame for revision? Plan realistically. Range of Individual Start early. Subjects or Be prepared to prioritize. to cover Group? Stay healthy. Be focused.
  30. 30. Go to some of the nightspots – Clarke Quay, Boat Quay, Take him to the Robertson Quay. See how National Museum – Singaporeans celebrate History of Singapore at night. How would you plan an itinerary for a Take him to iconic backpacker friend places of interest – who is stopping over Take him to the in Singapore on its Istana National Day Parade National Day? Invite your friends to meet him Take him to the city so that he/she has the opportunities area / business district to talk to our young people. to soak in the atmosphere
  31. 31. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules.
  32. 32. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Introduction Advantage 1 Disadvantage 1 Advantage 2 Disadvantage 2 Advantage 3 Disadvantage 3 Conclusion
  33. 33. Argumentative – but how to structure your essay? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. 50% 50% IMPORTANT NOTE: When you choose to write Introduction on this topic, you cannot afford to lean towards Advantage 1 Disadvantage 1 one side. You need to take a balanced view because Advantage 2 Disadvantage 2 “advantages” and “disadvantages” must be given more or less equal coverage. Advantage 3 Disadvantage 3 Also, there is nothing to agree or Conclusion disagree about.
  34. 34. Argumentative – but how to structure your essay? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. 50% 50% IMPORTANT NOTE: Introduction You should always be clear in writing down your each Advantage 1 Disadvantage 1 claim in the following way: State your claim Advantage 2 Disadvantage 2 Support claim with elaboration Support elaboration with examples Advantage 3 Disadvantage 3 Wrap up this claim before moving on to the next claim. Conclusion
  35. 35. Argumentative – but how to structure your essay? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. 50% 50% By planning their own schooling schedules, IMPORTANT NOTE: students will be able to better manage the other things they want to do. Effective You should always be clear students do not get unnecessarily stressed in writing down each of your out because they know what are the things claim in the following way: they have to do first, before moving on to the next. Students who do well in State your claim examinations are probably the ones who Support claim with elaboration understand clearly when to study hard and Support elaboration with an example when to play hard. If young people have the Wrap up this claim before moving opportunity to plan their time, they will on to the next claim. become better managers of time when they grow up.
  36. 36. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Students should be allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Discuss. Total chaos will reign if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. What do you think? Academic performance will improve if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Do you agree? Truancy and absenteeism will become a thing of the past if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules.
  37. 37. Even if “Do you agree that” is missing from the essay topic, WHY? we know that we can take sides if we choose to attempt this question. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Students should be allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Discuss. “Discuss” does not mean you write a DISCURSIVE essay. It means you have to stake a CLAIM and support that claim with elaboration and examples. There must also be a HOWEVER paragraph to inform the readers that you are aware of the alternative CLAIM.
  38. 38. This is a SWEEPING STATEMENT. It is negative in tone and so is rather controversial. This provides a fertile ground for argumentation. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Total chaos will reign if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. What do you think? You have very strong reasons either to agree or to disagree with this CONTROVERSIAL statement.
  39. 39. This is a SWEEPING STATEMENT. Although positive in tone, this claim is also rather controversial. This provides a fertile ground for argumentation. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Academic performance will improve if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. Do you agree? You have very strong reasons either to agree or to disagree with this CONTROVERSIAL statement.
  40. 40. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of allowing students to plan their own schooling schedules. Truancy and absenteeism will become a thing of the past if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. [X] There is no “Do you agree?” or “What do you think?” It does not mean that you should merely take what is stated here and follow the DRIFT blindly. You think it through and then take your position and present your arguments.
  41. 41. Truancy and absenteeism will become a thing of the past if students are allowed to plan their own schooling schedules. INTRODUCTION Why is truancy an issue – why is it a talking point? Why is absenteeism an issue – talking point? How do truancy and absenteeism affect the effectiveness of learning and teaching in the classroom? - Do they affect the teachers / students? What do I believe in  THESIS STATEMENT  Skeleton of your whole essay. What am I going to talk about in this essay.
  42. 42. Discursive or Argumentative? Explain and discuss the functions of your school uniform. There is nothing to agree or disagree with. So this is mainly a DISCURSIVE essay topic.
  43. 43. Discursive or Argumentative? Explain and discuss the functions of your school uniform. Students should be allowed to wear their own clothes to school. Do you agree? Students establish a strong sense of identity when they put on their school uniforms. What is your opinion? Wearing school uniforms is an outdated practice in a modern day school. Do you agree or disagree with this comment?
  44. 44. Discursive or Argumentative? Explain where in Singapore you would take your friends from overseas who has only a day to spend here. DISCURSIVE - Nothing to argue FOR or AGAINST. - Only need to give reasons for taking your overseas friend to at most THREE places which you think he or she must visit.
  45. 45. Discursive or Argumentative? Why should students develop the habit of life-long learning? DISCURSIVE - Nothing to argue FOR or AGAINST. - Only need to give reasons for taking your overseas friend to at most THREE places which you think he or she must visit.
  46. 46. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the importance of healthy living. Here there is no need to think about AGREEING or DISAGREEING with The IMPORTANCE of HEALTHY LIVING.
  47. 47. Discursive or Argumentative? Discuss the importance of healthy living. Here there is no need to think about AGREEING or DISAGREEING with the IMPORTANCE of HEALTHY LIVING. We FOCUS on EXPLAINING AND DESCRIBING the topic and ITS IMPORTANCE.
  48. 48. How to structure a Discursive essay? Discuss the importance of healthy living. Explain what you mean by “healthy living”. Give your own definition; does not need to be a definition which some Introduction “experts” say or share. Why is this an issue? Paragraph State clearly its IMPORTANCE. How does it concern you? Three important things you plan to write about in this essay on the topic. Why is HL Using your own What What Main Body experience, advantages or difficulties relevant to suggest how to Paragraphs benefits or and you as a maintain a life desired challenges student / style of H L? 1-4 teenager/ son outcomes do do you What do you you expect to foresee? Or or daughter? plan to do? see? expect to encounter? Once again, state the importance of healthy living. Conclusion Mention that it is a desirable thing to do but understandably difficult to achieve and maintain over a period of time. Paragraph Give encouragement and persuade your readers to try it out and not give up.
  49. 49. Discursive or Argumentative? Youths in Singapore are soft. What do you think?
  50. 50. Argumentative This is a negative comment. It is also an allegation. For some, it may even be construed as an insult. Nevertheless, emotions aside, we deal with the issue squarely to see how this may be reasoned out. Youths in Singapore are soft. What do you think? INTEREST, NOT EMOTIONS should rein REMEMBER: When you deal with comments like this, do not get emotional. Your attitude should be one of interest but be detached enough so that your reasoning may be clear and well-thought-out.
  51. 51. Argumentative Youths in Singapore are soft. What do you think? Why is this an issue? Introduction To what extent is this a fair comment? To what extent is this not so fair? Paragraph What is your opinion on this?  State clearly your THESIS STATEMENT What are the thoughts you would like to highlight in this essay? Main Body Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 HOWEVER PARAGRAPH Paragraphs Topic Topic Topic 1–4 Sentence Sentence Sentence Reiterate the thesis statement here. Conclusion Being positive about your stand. Being understanding about alternative viewpoints Paragraph Express hope and best wishes.
  52. 52. Discursive or Argumentative? How would you give advice to a classmate who is falling behind in his or her studies?
  53. 53. Discursive What kind of things would you say to him or her? What kind of things would you do? What kind of efforts would you make? What methods would you use to help him or her? How would you give advice to a classmate who is falling behind in his or her studies? Be very clear: Your Advice can come in many forms. target is a classmate Time Management who is falling behind Where to start to revise In hir or her studies. How to consult when in doubt How to study independently When to study and when to rest And so on.
  54. 54. Discursive or Argumentative? Write about the things which will affect the choice you make between continuing your education in Secondary Five and beginning a new learning path at the ITE?
  55. 55. Discursive Write about the things which will affect the choice you make between continuing your education in Secondary Five and beginning a new learning path at the ITE?
  56. 56. Discursive or Argumentative? What can young Singaporeans do to protect the environment?
  57. 57. Discursive REMEMBER: You are also a young Singaporean. What can young Singaporeans do to protect the environment? We should make sure that we do not litter – keep Singapore clean and green. Do not waste water resources – always use water according to need. Do not waste energy resources If possible take part in the greening of our country – tree planting and so on Keep our beaches clean Report any acts of wrong-doing by people to the authorities Help to spread the message of environmental protection to others. Be an example or role models to other people through positive action.
  58. 58. Discursive or Argumentative? What makes a vibrant classroom?
  59. 59. Discursive Essay Writing Clear understanding that the classroom Positive Positive Availability and is a shared space Attitude of Attitude of accessibility of between the the teaching and teachers and students. teachers students learning facilities What makes a vibrant classroom? Planning and Teaching and Support from Support from execution of learning of life- the school to parents / curriculum skills, analytical provide a safe guardians of which considers skills, IT skills and conducive students the learner in and so on learning- the 21st century teaching environment
  60. 60. Discursive or Argumentative? Studying smart is more effective than studying hard. Do you agree?
  61. 61. Discursive or Argumentative? Visibility is more crucial than ability.
  62. 62. Discursive or Argumentative? Despite the technological advances, man is not any closer to gaining a better understanding of himself in his relationship to others and his environment.
  63. 63. Discursive or Argumentative? What are the things you and your parents do when you spend time together?
  64. 64. Discursive AND descriptive THIS TOPIC REQUIRES YOU TO ANSWER IN THE FIRST PERSON PRONOUN - I What are the things you and your parents do when you spend time together? EATING A WATCHING A GOING ON A HOUSEKEEPING MEAL – FAVOURITE FAMILY TOUR and SPRING- Breakfast / MOTION together to CLEANING and Lunch / Dinner PICTURE at West Malaysia so on / Supper and the cinema and so on so on.
  65. 65. Which type of Essay is this? Write about a time when a heated family argument which produced a positive outcome.
  66. 66. Impressions / Characteristics / Qualities Descriptors that you need to take into account 13 July 2010
  67. 67. Descriptive-Narrative Essay Writing When we talk about impressions, we must take into account the following salient factors: • Physical Qualities • Emotional Qualities • Social Qualities • Intellectual Qualities
  68. 68. Emotional Qualities Physical Appearance What does he seem to like or Dress Sense dislike? The way he walks / What is his general behaviour? The way he speaks How does he carry himself? What qualities make him stand out? What are your Introduction impressions of your Conclusion English Language teacher? Intellectual Qualities Social Qualities He seems to be… His relationship with other I consider him…. people… Sometimes he is….. His relationship with…. He is usually…. Most of the time he is…
  69. 69. SYNOPSIS: What is a possible short account? [that involved you and your friend.] You offered help to a friend who needed extra practice in his studies – he was very weak in Mathematics – Geometry. You lent him your mathematical box containing your protractor and compasses / flexible rulers and so on. Instead of being thankful and grateful for your help, your friend kept the box for himself and claimed to you that he had lost it. So you had to buy another new set. During the mathematics exam, you happened to know that you were conned by our friend because he was actually using your mathematical tools. He had simply thrown away original box. He denied they were yours when you confronted him or even called him a liar. It was an unexpected outcome which destroyed a friendship. Write about an occasion when you good intention and efforts to help a friend brought about an unexpected outcome. Setting Action Trouble Resolution
  70. 70. Which type of Essay is this? What are the benefits and consequences of home schooling?
  71. 71. Which type of Essay is this? Computer promotes thinking. Do you agree?
  72. 72. Which type of Essay? What do you think are the pros and cons of taking up a sport as a CCA?
  73. 73. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY What do you think are the pros and cons of taking up a sport as a CCA? ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
  74. 74. What kind of essay is this? Write about a time when you had to juggle your studies with another task which you had to do for your family.
  75. 75. NARRATIVE and DESCRIPTIVE PERSONAL RECOUNT Write about a time when you had to juggle your studies with another task which you had to do for your family. PAST TENSE - It is about the PAST
  76. 76. What kind of essay is this? What are your worries and concerns for the next two years in your life?
  77. 77. DISCURSIVE and DESCRIPTIVE matters of interest, things that you care for, subject matters which you think will become serious in the next two years. What are your worries and concerns for the next two years in your life? I will be interested in the following aspects of my life in the next two years, namely, …
  78. 78. WRITING CLINIC INTRODUCTION is more or less CONCLUSION EXPOSITORY ESSAY WRITING – DISCURSIVE / DESCRIPTIVE
  79. 79. INTRODUCTION MAIN BODY P1 MAIN BODY P2 MAIN BODY P3 MAIN BODY P4 CONCLUSION
  80. 80. Expository – Discursive / Descriptive Essay Writing How to introduce Base your introduction on the statement which informs the reader of the strong opinion you hold with regard to the essay question.
  81. 81. What other teachers call the THESIS statement… Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. TO ATTEMPT THIS QUESTION, WE MUST BELIEVE THAT: 1. Singapore River IS indeed an interesting area to visit. 2. I am able to convince any tourist to visit it. 3. To do so, I must tell the tourists why.
  82. 82. INTRODUCTION 1 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. The Singapore River is an important area in my country. Any tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit because of its historic value, the beautiful sceneries alongside the river and the economic activities of the people who make a living on the river banks. I will provide my explanations in greater details in the following paragraphs.
  83. 83. INTRODUCTION 2 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. Any tourist would find the Singapore River an interesting area to visit because it is one of the most important historic places in Singapore. Apart from that reason, it is also the only river in our country which supports business activities on both sides of the river banks. We can also find modern skyscrapers and beautiful gardens and parks alongside the river. All these characteristics make the Singapore River an absolutely attractive tourist destination.
  84. 84. INTRODUCTION 3 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. The Singapore River attracts tourists in many ways. The area is a historic site as well as an important banking and business hub in our country. Important government offices and expensive business buildings are found alongside the river. We can see beautiful sceneries and visit museums of historic importance found in the area. These features are attractive to any tourist who visits Singapore.
  85. 85. EXPOSITORY – DISCURSIVE / DESCRIPTIVE How to conclude Base your conclusion on the statement which informs the reader of the strong opinion you hold with regard to the essay question.
  86. 86. How to begin a conclusion 1 Based on what I have shared in the above paragraphs, I think any tourist should be convinced that the Singapore River is an interesting place to visit… …
  87. 87. How to begin a conclusion 2 I have mentioned most of the interesting aspects of the Singapore River which any tourist would find attractive… …
  88. 88. How to begin a conclusion 3 Singapore River is indeed an interesting river which a tourist must not miss when he or she is visiting Singapore… …
  89. 89. How to begin a conclusion 4 Museums and parks, nightspots and clubbing, history and culture - you name it, the Singapore River has it. It is surely an interesting place which any discerning tourist will not want to miss…
  90. 90. How to begin a conclusion 5 I have given some important reasons why Singapore River is an interesting area for a tourist to visit…
  91. 91. CONCLUSION 1 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. Because of the interesting aspects of the Singapore river which I have mentioned above, I strongly believe that any tourist will find it an interesting area to visit. I am sure that unless and until he has made such a visit to the river, he would not be able to truly understand and appreciate the multi- cultural and racial elements of the Singaporean way of life.
  92. 92. CONCLUSION 2 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. I have written about the historic importance, the beautiful sceneries, the hustle and bustle, and the shopping and entertainment spots found alongside the Singapore River. I am certain any tourist would find it an interesting area to visit when he is in Singapore. Unless and until he has made such a visit to the river, he would not be able to truly understand and appreciate what these abovementioned sights at the Singapore River have to offer him.
  93. 93. CONCLUSION 3 – Explain why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. I have given the above reasons why a tourist would find Singapore River an interesting area to visit. I am quite certain that any tourist who visits the area will be convinced of my explanations and suggestions. The Singapore River will be a satisfying and unforgettable experience for him.
  94. 94. How to Introduce? –What makes Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia? I was born in Singapore in 1993. I am a citizen and I am currently a secondary school student. Singapore is a fine country to live in. It is one of the most livable countries in Asia because I like the people, the food, the weather and the style of living here. Let me explain and elaborate further in the following paragraphs of my essay.
  95. 95. How to introduce? – What makes Singapore one of the most liveable countries in Asia? I was born and brought up in Singapore. I am currently studying in a secondary school. As a student and a teenager, I think that there are many things which make Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia. In my essay, I will discuss the education system, the housing, the weather and the lifestyle of the people in Singapore to explain why I think Singapore is what I think it is.
  96. 96. How to conclude: What makes Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia? I have briefly explained in my essay, the interesting lifestyle of my countrymen, the freedom they enjoy when choosing a job, the challenging and demanding education system and the clearly-defined climatic conditions found in Singapore. All these factors contribute in making Singapore one of the most livable countries in Asia and I must say that I am lucky to be living here.
  97. 97. TERM 3 WEEK 1 Discursive Essay Writing JUNE HOLIDAY COMPOSITION HOMEWORK Lessons prepared and conducted by Yeo Yam Hwee at St. Hilda’s Secondary School Singapore to 4B/4D/5B.2010
  98. 98. Which quality, in your opinion, enables a student to achieve success in school – diligence, intelligence or talent? Discuss.
  99. 99. A mind map can take any shape but it has to be TRULY USEFUL TO YOU. WRITE AS MANY RELATED AND RELEVANT POINTS AS YOU CAN AND THEN IDENTIFY THE PARAGRAPH BOUNDARIES. YOU ARE GOING TO USE THE POINTS AND THE STRUCTURES YOU PLAN IN THE MIND MAP TO WRITE YOUR ONE AND ONLY DRAFT DURING THE EXAMINATIONS.
  100. 100. INTRODUCTION MAIN BODY P1 MAIN BODY P2 MAIN BODY P3 MAIN BODY P4 CONCLUSION
  101. 101. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH • Students cannot count on any one particular quality - diligence, intelligence or talent to do well at school. Nowadays, to achieve success at school, a student is expected to do well both in his academic pursuits and his co- curricular activities, either in uniform groups, clubs or sports. In order to excel in both, he cannot afford to rely only on one single quality. A combination of qualities is needed. SEE: YOU SHOULD BE FREE TO CHANGE YOUR MIND ABOUT PARAGRAPH BOUNDARIES TO SUIT YOUR WRITING NEEDS. BE FLEXIBLE.
  102. 102. What happens to this part of the mind map which is originally meant for Paragraph 2? As I write my essay, I consider and reconsider the points and paragraph boundaries. I can always change my mind about these three points and decide not to include them in paragraph 2. Instead I will place one point each in Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 respectively instead.
  103. 103. PARAGRAPH 2 - MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1 • Diligence is the quality of being consistently hardworking. A student who is hardworking will be self-motivated to spend time on his studies without being told to do so. He is also likely to put in a lot of efforts to try to do well in his co- curricular activity. However, hard work does not always guarantee success. Some students work very hard when preparing for their examinations but if they adopt the wrong study methods, they may not excel at the examinations. I worked extremely hard when preparing for the Primary School Leaving Examinations some years ago. However, I did not do well because I had not been effective in my revision of some of the tougher topics.
  104. 104. PARAGRAPH 2 – MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1 • Diligence is the quality of being My own definition – consistently hardworking. A as simple student who is hardworking will be as possible but must self-motivated to spend time on his studies without being told to do be complete so. He is also likely to put in a lot and relevant. of efforts to try to do well in his co- curricular activity. However, hard work does not always guarantee What benefits does being success. Some students work very diligent bring to the hard when preparing for their student? examinations but if they adopt the wrong study methods, they may not excel at the examinations. I What are the limitations of worked extremely hard when preparing for the Primary School merely being diligent? Leaving Examinations some years ago. However, I did not do well because I had not been effective in Specific and personal my revision of some of the tougher experience being used as topics. examples which happened in the past.
  105. 105. Paragraph 3 – MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 2 • Intelligence deals with a student's ability to learn, understand and think about things. The benefits of being an intelligent students are quite obvious. When a student is able to learn and understand ideas and concepts quickly and accurately, he will be able to accumulate knowledge and master skills effectively. However, intelligence alone does not promise success in school. Intelligence chiefly improve s through one's diligence but normally, people who are smart tend to be lazy and complacent. They look down on the need to work hard to enhance their intelligence.
  106. 106. Paragraph 4 – MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 3 Talent refers to the inborn or natural ability to do something well. A person's talent is a flimsy quality. Anybody who relies on talent will not become a all-round learner because he will not be motivated to develop other skills or master other concepts which require him to use his brain or to spend many hours to learn them.
  107. 107. Paragraph 5 – CONCLUSION Because diligence, intelligence and talent have both benefits and limitations, they cannot be independent qualities to enable a student to achieve success in school. Therefore, there is no one single quality which a student may count on but a combination of each of the three said qualities. A student who is hardworking may become better in whatever he does in school, whether in the classroom or beyond. Once his confidence improves, he is likely to become more effective in his studies or co-curricular activity. With the accumulation of knowledge and skills comes development of his intelligence. With intelligence, the student may learn even better ways and means to do things and in days to come, become talented as a result. So we cannot count on one quality but the combined qualities of diligence, intelligence and talent to enable a student to do well in school.
  108. 108. SUBMIT THE MIND- MAP TOGETHER WITH THE ESSAY IF YOU LIKE AT THE GCE N AND O LEVEL EXAMINATIONS
  109. 109. • Which quality, in your opinion, enables a student to achieve success in school - diligence, intelligence or talent? Discuss. • Students cannot count on any one particular quality - diligence, intelligence or talent to do well at school. Nowadays, to achieve success at school, a student is expected to do well both in his academic pursuits and his co-curricular activities, either in uniform groups, clubs or sports. In order to excel in both, he cannot afford to rely only on one single quality. A combination of qualities is needed. • Diligence is the quality of being consistently hardworking. A student who is hardworking will be self- motivated to spend time on his studies without being told to do so. He is also likely to put in a lot of efforts to try to do well in his co-curricular activity. However, hard work does not always guarantee success. Some students work very hard when preparing for their examinations but if they adopt the wrong study methods, they may not excel at the examinations. I worked extremely hard when preparing for the Primary School Leaving Examinations some years ago. However, I did not do well because I had not been effective in my revision of some of the tougher topics. • Intelligence deals with a student's ability to learn, understand and think about things. The benefits of being an intelligent students are quite obvious. When a student is able to learn and understand ideas and concepts quickly and accurately, he will be able to accumulate knowledge and master skills effectively. However, intelligence alone does not promise success in school. Intelligence chiefly improves through one's diligence but normally, people who are smart tend to be lazy and complacent. They look down on the need to work hard to enhance their intelligence. • Talent refers to the inborn or natural ability to do something well. A person's talent is a flimsy quality. Anybody who relies on talent will not become a all-round learner because he will not be motivated to develop other skills or master other concepts which require him to use his brain or to spend many hours to learn them. • Because diligence, intelligence and talent have both benefits and limitations, they cannot be independent qualities to enable a student to achieve success in school. Therefore, there is no one single quality which a student may count on but a combination of each of the three said qualities. A student who is hardworking may become better in whatever he does in school, whether in the classroom or beyond. Once his confidence improves, he is likely to become more effective in his studies or co-curricular activity. With the accumulation of knowledge and skills comes development of his intelligence. With intelligence, the student may learn even better ways and means to do things and in days to come, become talented as a result. So we cannot count on one quality but the combined qualities of diligence, intelligence and talent to enable a student to do well in school.
  110. 110. “Tuition is the key to success in examinations.” Discuss. T3W10. Argumentative Essay Writing By Yeo Yam Hwee
  111. 111. UNPACKING THE QUESTION – please note that this is not a mind-map C. “Tuition is the key” A. Whether B. Definitions implies the given 1. What is “tuition”? that it is the answer – 2. What happens during even statement is tuition? to the extent that it couched in might be 3. Why has it become quotation an issue – a talking considered as the only marks or not, way or answer. point? what is Important is to “Tuition is the key D. So where lies the be able to recognise that to success in Irony? We are fulltime students it is a examinations.” who spend long hours In school. controversial Discuss. Many of us attend tuition statement, E. What is your firm stance on lessons only after school you will this? What do you really think and we do not spend more time at tuition centres than at school. have to with regard to this position? Nothing is in black and white. So why does the statement asserts that uncover the So you can take a stance but “tuition holds the key for examination IRONY at the same time, allow other people to success”? If this is true, what good is Have a different opinion with regard to there for us to attend school and spend so contained much time there? If this is true, then why the topic. within it. not only attend tuition? Why do both? Why waste time?
  112. 112. When Do I Even Begin To Think If I Can Argue Effectively? Only if I can I spot the IRONY without having to guess if I have gotten it right. School is Tuition is supposed supposed “Tuition is the key to be the MAIN to be an optional to success in thing. It is not thing. It is not examinations.” supposed to be supposed to be a Discuss. thought of as MUST. It is not UNIMPORTANT. supposed to be It is something that So what is my stance? supposed to be is needed if one Is TUITION really the key to something that is a reasonably success in examinations? is a MUST. So capable student. school is being If so, what is going to happen sidelined here. to SCHOOLING ? Totally left out of the picture.
  113. 113. What is there to talk about when I am presenting my arguments and other people’s arguments? • Do I BELIEVE or NOT BELIEVE? • Is this comment TRUE or FALSE? • Do I AGREE or DISAGREE? Is this about ADVANTAGES or DISADVANTAGES? • Is it about PROS and CONS? • Is it about I AM RIGHT and SOMEBODY ELSE IS WRONG?
  114. 114. What I must be clear of these terms: Why I DO NOT Why I DO NOT believe that believe that Tuition – paid extra lessons to Tuition is the key: Tuition is the key: help students in their weaker Reason 1: I think if I Reason 2: I think if I subjects know have self-discipline, what I must deliver as I ought to be able to Key – the answer / the way a student get my studies and I should be able to my other school- Success in examinations – make it without related activities in achieve a pass tuition. the right balance. or to excel in something Why I DO NOT believe that Why does “Tuition” Tuition is the key: become a talking point? “Tuition is the key to Reason 3: I think if I manage time success in examinations.” effectively, I ought to Lessons at school be able to get my becoming more Discuss. studies and my other difficult? school-related activities in the right Teachers at school What happens during balance. cannot give personal “tuition”? attention? Do not Conclusion: Students pay money I may not need teach better? so they are motivated tuition and certainly What other do not believe it is the key to Examinations are now to listen better. examination success. However, students more difficult? If other students find the need Students are able to avoid distraction to seek academic help through think about Tuition lessons help and keep their focus – personal tuition and they are getting the results “tuition”? students to really attention/ Examination-related / study what they want by attending tuition focus on what is the students must know to do well classes, essential. in examinatuons then tuition is good for them.
  115. 115. ATTENTION PLEASE: 1. Mind-mapping alone is not good enough. 2. We need to structure the points we want to put into our essay into paragraphs. 3. So DO NOT forget to BOX the paragraph boundaries so that we know what to write first and then next and then how to come to a suitable ending for our short essay.
  116. 116. What I must be clear of these terms: What I DO NOT What I DO NOT believe that believe that Tuition – paid extra lessons to Tuition is the key: Tuition is the key: help students in their weaker Reason 1: I think if I Reason 2: I think if I subjects know have self-discipline, what I must deliver as I ought to be able to Key – the answer / the way a student get my studies and I should be able to my other school- Success in examinations – make it without related activities in achieve a pass tuition. the right balance. or to excel in something What I DO NOT believe that Tuition is the key: Why does “Tuition” become a talking “Tuition is the key to Reason 3: I think if I manage time point? success in examinations.” effectively, I ought to be able to get my Lessons at school Discuss. studies and my other becoming more school-related difficult? activities in the right What happens during balance. Teachers at school “tuition”? cannot give personal Conclusion: Students pay money I may not need attention? Do not teach better? so they are motivated tuition and certainly What other do not believe it is the key to to listen better. examination success. However, students Examinations are now If other students find the need more difficult? Students are able to avoid distraction to seek academic help through think about and keep their focus – personal tuition and they are getting the results “tuition”? Tuition lessons help attention/ Examination-related / study what they want by attending tuition students to really ficu the students must know to do well classes, in examinatuons then tuition is good for them.
  117. 117. NOTE: 1.There are many ways to begin an argumentative essay. 2. I am only proposing the use of the no- nonsense / frills-free way so that you can write clearly in a way which you can understand and your examiner do too.
  118. 118. TIME IS NOT ON MY SIDE. Please think on your feet. Use your brains, eyes, ears and think quickly. Do not waste time. Pick out the key words KEY WORDS – Tuition / Key / Success / Examinations. Read the FULL answer and UNDERSTAND it FULLY.
  119. 119. TIME IS NOT ON MY SIDE. When you mind-map, you should not worry too much about what should be put down and what shouldn’t. You just jot down quickly the points. When you have the points, you will have to do your PARAGRAPH BOUNDARIES – which of your points should go into which paragraph and so on.
  120. 120. INTRODUCTION MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 1 What I think this topic is concerned With? MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 2 Why is it a talking point? What is my understanding here? What do I believe in? Why one group of people believe MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH 3 like what I do and the other group believe in another way? What I am going to write about in this essay – my views and also MAIN BODY PARAGARPH 4 the other group of people’s views. CONCLUSION
  121. 121. Set my main idea clearly so Paragraph One- that I can inform the reader my view and the other Introduction people’s view. My strongest point on what I Paragraph Two believe in. My second strongest point on what I Paragraph Three believe in. My third strongest point on what Paragraph Four I believe in. The “However” paragraph where I state Paragraph Five the views of other people and explain why they believe in what they believe in. Re-inform the reader of my Paragraph Six- view and my respect for other people’s views. Conclusion Repeat your THESIS statement here.
  122. 122. What to include in Paragraph One? [1] Why is this a talking point (an issue)? [2] What is “tuition”? [3] What happens during tuition? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) [THIS IS MY THESIS STATEMENT – my main point / idea – in the whole essay.] [5] What I am accepting about the views of other people and why they believe in what I do not? [6] So what I am going to write about in the rest of my essay?
  123. 123. Student A’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Having tuition does not mean you will score well in examinations. Tuition lessons are basically extra classes you attend after school by an external vendor. Tuition lessons are supposed to help you improve the grades for that particular subject or revision. However attending tuition sessions does not mean you do not go to school or study. (Brian Ong)
  124. 124. Student B’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Many students nowadays have tuition, not only for the subjects that they weak in but for most or all of the subjects that they are taking. Why? Either because they are forced to by their over- demanding parents, or they themselves want to go as they require it. Even in doing so students may still not score well in their examinations or achieve their expected grade or even have a breakdown as they cannot cope with all the stress the tuition and schoolwork give them. (JOEL YEO)
  125. 125. Student C’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Tution has its advantage and disadvantage. Tution has also its pros and cons. Not everytime tution will solve the problem. Tution provides an environment for students to study and have a system to push them to study. Tution also helps weak students to identify their weak points and improve on them. The reason why students have tution is because school teachers do not know how to teach the child properly and the child do not understand. Many times, students would ask the school teachers to give them supplementries or remedial to help them but it do not work out. Thus tution has to come in to settle the problem. (Arella Choo)
  126. 126. Student D’s Introduction Paragraph – 4D Tuition is actually classes that helps students in their weaker subjects by brushing up on topics that they are not sure. Tuition can help and benefit us, depending on the student. My parents resisted unnecessary tuition as long as they could. (Stanley Ng)
  127. 127. What to include in Paragraph One? [1] Why is this a talking point (an issue)? Tuition is a common thing to do for many students in Singapore for one reason or other. Whenever we think we need help in our studies, we attend tuition lessons.
  128. 128. What to include in Paragraph One? [2] What is “tuition”? When we attend a tuition lesson, we expect our tutor to teach us things which we do not quite learn from our teachers at school.
  129. 129. What to include in Paragraph One? [3] What happens during tuition? We receive personal attention. We ask questions and expect to get the correct answers from our tutors. We want to make sure that we learn as much as possible. We want our tutors to help us pass or do well in our examinations. In extreme cases, we believe lock, stock and barrel what our tuition teachers tell us, more than what our school teachers tell us, to do really well in examinations.
  130. 130. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) I do not believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations.
  131. 131. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) *Many students like to write in this manner: I believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations only to a certain extent.
  132. 132. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) *Many students like to write in this manner: I believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations only to a certain extent. There is nothing wrong in writing in this way because it is a reasonable thing to say. What is wrong is that, many of us do not qualify what we mean by: ONLY TO A CERTAIN EXTENT.
  133. 133. What to include in Paragraph One? [4] What is my stance? (What do I believe in?) I believe that tuition is the key for our success in examinations only to a certain extent. Tuition does help students if they genuinely need the extra attention they are getting from the private tutors. If they manage to catch up in their studies, especially when dealing with difficult topics, then tuition classes are useful. I do not think they should count on tuition classes alone to do well in examinations.
  134. 134. What to include in Paragraph One? [5] What I am accepting about the views of other people and why they believe in what I do not? However, I think other students must have their own reasons why they attend tuition lessons. I may not agree that tuition is the key but others may not think the same.
  135. 135. What to include in Paragraph One? [6] So what I am going to write about here in the rest of my essay? So in this essay, I am going to present my views on why I do not agree that tuition is the key for examination success and why others may not hold the same view.
  136. 136. So how does my Paragraph One look like in any argumentative essay? Tuition is a common thing to do for many students in Singapore for one reason or other. Whenever we think we need help in our studies, we attend tuition lessons. We expect our tutor to teach us things which we do not quite learn from our teachers at school. We receive personal attention. We rely on our tutors to help us pass or do well in our examinations. In extreme cases, we believe lock, stock and barrel what our tuition teachers tell us, more than what our school teachers tell us, to do really well in examinations. I do not believe that tuition is the key to our success in examinations. However, I think other students must have their own reasons why they attend tuition lessons. I am going to present my views on why I do not agree that tuition is the key to examination success and why others may not hold the same views as me.
  137. 137. So how does my Paragraph One look like in any argumentative essay? Tuition is a common thing to do for many students in Singapore Why is “tuition” an issue / a for one reason or other. Whenever talking point? we think we need help in our studies, we attend tuition lessons. We expect our tutor to teach us things which we What happens during a do not quite learn from our teachers tuition session? at school. We receive personal attention. We rely on our tutors to help us pass or do well in our examinations. In extreme cases, we believe lock, stock and barrel what My main idea for the our tuition teachers tell us, more than what our school teachers tell us, whole essay – to do really well in examinations. I my thesis statement. do not believe that tuition is the key to our success in examinations. However, I think other students must However, I am open to other have their own reasons why they people’s views. attend tuition lessons. I am going to present my views on why I do not agree that tuition is the key to examination success and why others What I am going to do in may not hold the same views as me. this essay.
  138. 138. Set my main idea clearly so Paragraph One- that I can inform the reader my view and the other Introduction people’s view. My strongest point on what I Paragraph Two believe in. My second strongest point on what I Paragraph Three believe in. My third strongest point on what Paragraph Four I believe in. The “However” paragraph where I state Paragraph Five the views of other people and explain why they believe in what they believe in. Re-inform the reader of my Paragraph Six- view and my respect for other people’s views. Conclusion Repeat your THESIS statement here.
  139. 139. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH TWO - My strongest point on what I believe in. I think as a full-time student, knowing what I must do as a learner in school is what keeps me going, doing my studying the best I can. We are already spending a lot of time in school. I take six subjects and sit major examinations so that I can move on to the next level of studies. My awareness of what I am doing at school keeps me focused on what I am doing. When the teacher speaks, I pay attention closely. When I have a question, I ask for help without hesitation. I know I need to read up on my Science and practise my Mathematics regularly without being told repeatedly what to do by my teachers at school. That is my responsibility as a full-time learner.
  140. 140. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH TWO - My strongest point on what I believe in. I think as a full-time student, knowing what I must do as a The topic sentence to support my learner in school is what keeps me thesis statement  my main idea going, doing my studying the best I can. We are already spending a of this essay. lot of time in school. I take six subjects and sit major examinations so that I can move on to the next level of studies. My ELABORATION of what my topic awareness of what I am doing at sentence school keeps me focused on what I am doing. When the teacher speaks, I pay attention closely. When I have a question, I ask for help without hesitation. I know I EXAMPLES to support the need to read up on my Science ELABORATION and practise my Mathematics regularly without being told repeatedly what to do by my teachers at school. That is my WRAP-UP of the topic sentence responsibility as a full-time learner.
  141. 141. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH THREE - My SECOND strongest point on what I believe in. I also believe that my self-discipline holds the key to my success in examinations. Some people may say that school is not all about examinations but examinations are the closest thing for me to be reassured that I am doing fine in my studies. Self-discipline makes me pay attention to my studies. I read up the chapter before my teacher teaches it in class and revise the chapter he has taught in class the previous week. I also juggle my studies with my co-curricular activity so that I can do equally well in both.
  142. 142. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH THREE - My SECOND strongest point on what I believe in. I also believe that my self- My next topic sentence in support discipline holds the key to my success in examinations. of the THESIS statement. Some people may say that school is not all about examinations but examinations are the closest thing for me to be Elaboration of what the topic reassured that I am doing fine in sentence means. my studies. Self-discipline makes me pay attention to my studies. I read up the chapter before my teacher teaches it in Examples to support the class and revise the chapter he elaboration. has taught in class the previous week. I also juggle my studies with my co-curricular activity so that I can do equally well in both. This is self-discipline which is realistic and practical. Wrap-up of the topic sentence
  143. 143. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FOUR - My THIRD strongest point on what I believe in. Tuition is not the key to examination success at all because if a student does not know how to use his time well, nothing beyond school is going to help him. Effective time management allows me to pay good attention to all my school subjects. I learn how to pay more attention to my weaker subjects without compromising my time to be spent on my other subjects. I do not procrastinate and work hard to make sure that time is well utilised.
  144. 144. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FOUR - My THIRD strongest point on what I believe in. Tuition is not the key to The topic sentence DOES NOT have examination success at all because if a student does not to be the FIRST sentence in know how to use his time well, a new paragraph all the time. nothing beyond school is going to help him. Effective time The topic sentence which supports management allows me to pay the THESIS STATEMENT of the whole good attention to all my school subjects. I learn how to Essay. pay more attention to my weaker subjects without compromising my time to be spent on my other ELABORATION and EXAMPLES subjects. I do not procrastinate and work hard to make sure that time is well utilised. In this way, I manage the way I use my Wrap-up of the topic sentence time effectively.
  145. 145. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FIVE – What others believe about tuition However, tuition may help other students cope with difficulties they face in school. Not everybody knows what they want out of school. Neither do they know how to manage time well or have the self-discipline to study independently on their own. These students will need all the extra help they think they can get from attending tuition lessons after school.
  146. 146. MAIN BODY PARAGRAPH FIVE – What others believe about tuition However, tuition may help other students cope with difficulties they face in school. Not everybody knows what they want out of The “HOWEVER” paragraph. school. Neither do they know how to manage time Even as we take on a particular well or have the self- stance, it does not mean that discipline to study we cannot allow for alternative independently on their own. viewpoints. These students will need all the extra help they think they can get from attending tuition lessons after school.
  147. 147. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH Once again, I must reiterate here that I do not believe that tuition is the key to examination success. Every student wants to be successful in their studies. I want the same too. Some of us need tuition for reasons which I have already made clear above while others like me, think we can make it on our own. If a student finds tuition lessons useful, then it is good for him. If a student does not need it, then he does not need to have anything to do with it.
  148. 148. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH Once again, I must reiterate here that I do not believe REPEAT YOUR THESIS that tuition is the key to STATEMENT examination success. Every because the CONCLUSION must student wants to be successful in their studies. I be want the same too. Some of CONSISTENT with the us need tuition for reasons INTRODUCTION. which I have already made clear above while others like me, think we can make it on CLOSING ELABORATION AND our own. If a student finds WRAP-UP tuition lessons useful, then it is good for him. If a student DO NOT INTRODUCE NEW does not need it, then he IDEAS OR TWEAK THE ORIGINAL does not need to have TALKING POINT HERE. anything to do with it.
  149. 149. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Disappointment Setting Action Damaged e iv Trapped ri pt c Flight D es - Fright unt e co Fight Trouble R al Resolution n Happiness so Per Torn e- iv Regret r at N ar Atonement Green
  150. 150. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Disappointment Narrative-Personal Recount-Descriptive Damaged Trapped You should write a short account of something Interesting and relevant to the topic. Flight Relate the short account to your experience Fright as a young person. Do not pretend to be Fight somebody else larger than yourself. Be familiar which allows you to be DESCRIPTIVE in a Happiness natural style rather than be OVER-THE-TOP Imaginative and come up with something Torn which is over-stretched and shallow. Regret Remember: Atonement A simple story – with “I” as the central character is more believable than introducing characters like Green Mary, John, Susan or Pluck-pluck-kee.
  151. 151. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Disappointment Damaged Trapped AVOID WRITING Flight Fright DISCURSIVE or Fight ARGUMENTATIVE Happiness Torn ESSAYS. Regret Atonement Green
  152. 152. Single Word Topics Chance Opportunity Make sure you do not stray Disappointment from the topic. Bear in mind Damaged that the topic cannot be left Trapped Flight to the last paragraph so that Fright you may make a HASTY Fight closure to any short account Happiness you are sharing with your Torn Regret readers. Atonement It is undesirable. Green
  153. 153. “Torn” [EL ‘O’ Level Prelim. 2005) By Md Effendi bin Md Sani (Sec. 4/5)
  154. 154. Points to consider: • Use of tense • Storyline • How the theme ‘TORN’ was covered • Link between paragraphs/sequence of events • How would a marker feel while he is reading this essay
  155. 155. “Torn” It was the last night we were spending together. In a few hours’ time, she would be leaving. I prayed many nights before, for this day not to come but time quickly passed by. I guessed it was time. Time for us to part.
  156. 156. “Torn” I held her in my arms with tears rolling down my cheeks. She was too weak to speak. She just closed her eyes and felt the warmth of my body. I believed that she knew it was her time to leave. I cried even more as the minutes passed by. I was so helpless. In tears, I told her that I loved her. I knew perhaps she could not understand. I felt a part of me inside tearing. I felt that my heart was tearing into pieces.
  157. 157. “Torn” The car accident left her weak, weak in her heart. The accident permanently paralysed her. Her heart was beating slower and softer as the months passed by. The doctor told me that this was her last day. I sang to her as she rested on her chest with my arms around it.
  158. 158. “Torn” It seemed that I was undergoing a painful cycle. My heart was tearing repeatedly inside. I could not let her go. Our emotional bond was too great. Even though we were both different, we somehow understood each other in an unexplainable way.
  159. 159. “Torn” It was really time I guessed. She seemed to have difficulty moving but I just held her and gave my best support in her last few minutes. I held her tighter as time closed in on us. It was all too sudden, she stopped breathing. At that moment, I felt a huge rip inside me. It seemed almost like a huge tear. Tears flowed uncontrollably down my cheeks.
  160. 160. “Torn” I wanted to take this as a man and not to cry but it was to no avail. I cried and cried for my beloved furry friend. I guessed her nine lives were used up. A part of me was torn. The cat was definitely a part of me.
  161. 161. “Torn” I cradled it in my arms and said my last goodbye. I kissed her head and remembered her scent before laying her in her shoe box where I first found her. I put in her towel, her toys and covered her up in a cloth. I closed the box tightly and I was ready to leave.
  162. 162. “Torn” The box had droplets of my tears on it. I put her on the front basket of my bicycle and cycled to Pasir Ris Beach. It was a cold night. I cycled and felt the breeze passed through me. I wanted the wind to rid me off my sadness but I was torn too deeply. I hoped it was not permanent and that I would be happy again but I could not even think about the word happy at that moment.

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