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Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
Point of view who is speaking to us when we read
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Point of view who is speaking to us when we read

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  • 1. Who is speaking to us when we read a text? 1. The writer is a real-life person. 2. The writer invents a narrator / a speaker / a persona / a voice to tell his story so that the readers out there can read about it. 3. In Literature, we learn to APPRECIATE and CRITIQUE what we read. 4. To APPRECIATE and CRITIQUE is to form well- informed opinions on what we read.
  • 2. INTERCHANGEABLE TERMS NARRATOR SPEAKER PERSONA VOICE
  • 3. How many ways can the writer tells his story? 1. Nobody can say. Unlimited ways. 2. But so far, we can say that it is common to see stories written using a. The FIRST person – “I” b. The THIRD person – “He”, “She”, “It”, “They”, “The man” etc. c. Rarely, the SECOND person – “You”
  • 4. Why should we be interested to know how the writer tells his story? [1] When the writer uses “I” as the speaker, the speaker will be telling the story to us from his / her point of view.
  • 5. Why should we be interested to know how the writer tells his story? [2] When the writer uses “They” as the speaker, the speaker will be telling the story to us from THEIR point of view.
  • 6. Why should we be interested to know how the writer tells his story? [3] When the writer uses “The old woman” as the speaker, the speaker will be telling the story to us from “that old woman’s” point of view.
  • 7. So, what is POINT OF VIEW? A point of view helps the readers to place a focus on how to read, understand and interpret how and why events happen to a any character in the text.
  • 8. Why is Point of View important to us readers? Correct understanding of the writer’s use of POINT OF VIEW, will help us to understand who the speaker is, how he tells his story, why he tells his story in a certain way or tone or mental state of mind.
  • 9. So, every time when we read a text, what must we first do? FIND OUT CORRECTLY, WHETHER THE WRITER IS TELLING THE STORY USING A [1] FIRST PERSON NARRATOR [2] THIRD PERSON NARRATOR [3] SECOND PERSON NARRATOR.
  • 10. THE WRITER’S CHOICE WHY DOES HE USE THE FIRST PERSON NARRATOR/SPEAKER? 1. To bring the readers close to the speaker. “I” in the text is a powerful reference to “I” in the reader. In prolonged reading, the “I” in the reader and the “I” in the text may become one and the same. When this happens, the reader is very likely to be SYMPATHETIC (to feel for the speaker) towards the speaker for what he has done or what other characters may have done to him.
  • 11. THE WRITER’S CHOICE WHY DOES HE USE THE FIRST PERSON NARRATOR/SPEAKER? 2. The story becomes more personal. Because we are sympathetic, we tend to believe in what the speaker “I” is telling us. We become more engaged emotionally. We tend to side with “I”.
  • 12. What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”? 1. “I” – the first person point of view is a narrow one. The speaker here is mainly concerned with his own actions, thinking and feelings. He may or may not be considerate with other characters. He may or may not be reliable in telling us why he does something, how he feels or thinks in the story. We have to rely on him, but we need to stop and think from time to time, whether we should believe everything he says or not. This has nothing to do with the speaker’s intention because not every speaker is out to lie to us. But we have to decide whether to buy into his story or not.
  • 13. What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”? 2. The speaker “I” ’s understanding and interpretation of the events which happen to him may be limited by his own experience as a human person. In this sense, he may sometimes be carried away by his own emotions. It is perfectly all right for us to question his emotions – has he over- reacted? Has he done something wrong? Has he misunderstood other characters’ intentions?
  • 14. What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”? 3. The speaker “I”, either purposely or unintentionally, cuts the readers off, from looking at why and how other characters act, think or feel in a certain way in the text. We are limited to only what the speaker “I” is able to tell us, willing to tell us, or able to tell us. So, we can only see other characters through the speaker alone.
  • 15. What we readers have to be careful about the speaker “I”? 3. Our impressions which are formed based on the speaker “I” ‘s information alone, are therefore LIMITED – subjective views. We will have to make the best of it by justifying in our response that “According to the speaker, I can say that….”
  • 16. Two types of views SUBJECTIVE VIEW - Narrowly based, seeing things and forming opinions from a personal or restricted point of view. Emotions play a HUGE role in shaping such a view. OBJECTIVE VIEW - Widely based, seeing things and forming opinions from many angles or points of views. Reasoning is involved. Emotions are not necessarily excluded but we are more careful in dealing with personal feelings here.
  • 17. Which is better? THERE IS NO SUCH A THING. It is important to form your own personal opinion and not be tied down by it and at the same time, seek other readers’ comments on the same text which you all have been reading. Also, you have to learn to read with an open mind. Do not judge the characters in the text. Understand why and how these characters are motivated to do the things they do in the text. Then use your feelings and the things actually mentioned in the text to help you form a mature response. BOTH SUBJECTIVE and OBJECTIVE views are equally important.
  • 18. QUESTIONS?
  • 19. We do our POST-MORTEM of the MIDYEAR EXAMINATION SECTION C THE TEXT IS TAKEN THE WRITER IS FROM Stradbroke Dreamtime by Oodgeroo of the tribe Noonuccal.
  • 20. I was left-handed. This was something that just did not seem to matter one way or the other…until I went to school. Then I soon realized that the teachers and schools in those days considered it wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand. There were many painful scenes when I refused to pick up a pencil with my right hand; many times the principal’s ruler came down in full force on the knuckles of my left hand. I had to give in and write as best as I could with my right hand. But for a long time I managed to hide from the sewing teacher the fact that I used my left hand for needlework
  • 21. I was left-handed. This was something that just did not seem to matter one way or the other…until I went to school. Then I soon realized that the teachers and schools in those days considered it wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand. There were many painful scenes when I refused to pick up a pencil with my right hand; many times the principal’s ruler came down in full force on the knuckles of my left hand. I had to give in and write as best as I could with my right hand. But for a long time I managed to hide from the sewing teacher the fact that I used my left hand for needlework.
  • 22. I was left-handed. This was something that just did not seem to matter one way or the other…until I went to school. Then I soon realized that the teachers and schools in those days considered it wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand. There were many painful scenes when I refused to pick up a pencil with my right hand; many times the principal’s ruler came down in full force on the knuckles of my left hand. I had to give in and write as best as I could with my right hand. But for a long time I managed to hide from the sewing teacher the fact that I used my left hand for needlework.
  • 23. I was left-handed. This was something that just did not seem to matter one way or the other…until I went to school. Then I soon realized that the teachers and schools in those days considered it wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand. EXPLANATION – Here the conflict arises because of the very limited experience of the speaker. She was left-handed. Everything about it was fine UNTIL she started attending school. Based on her understanding, she tells us that her teachers at her school then thought that it was “wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand”.
  • 24. I was left-handed. This was something that just did not seem to matter one way or the other…until I went to school. Then I soon realized that the teachers and schools in those days considered it wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand. OUR RESPONSE – We feel sorry for the speaker because “left-handness” is a natural development. We become attentive, wary and cautious about “the teachers and schools in those days” which “considered left-handedness wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand”. We expect to see tough times ahead for the speaker. We hope she would be strong.
  • 25. From The First Person Point of View • There were many painful scenes when I refused to pick up a pencil with my right hand; many times the principal’s ruler came down in full force on the knuckles of my left hand. “I” suffer pain. “I” suffer the injustice mete out by the school, when she refuses to use her right hand.
  • 26. From The First Person Point of View • There were many painful scenes when I refused to pick up a pencil with my right hand; many times the principal’s ruler came down in full force on the knuckles of my left hand. Do we feel sorry for her? Yes. According to the speaker, there are “many painful scenes. She has suffered from unjust treatment “many times”.
  • 27. From The First Person Point of View • There were many painful scenes when I refused to pick up a pencil with my right hand; many times the principal’s ruler came down in full force on the knuckles of my left hand. Do we feel sorry for her? Not really. According to the speaker, there are “many painful scenes, but this is because she refuses to co-operate by learning to use her right hand.
  • 28. How do you provide a simple but mature response? I feel sorry for her because she has clearly suffered when she recalls “many painful scenes” at school. She particularly remembers her principal using his ruler to hit her left hand knuckles in full force. However, I would like to add that if she had been less stubborn and had obeyed by at least trying to use her right hand, she may not have suffered that many punishments by her principal. She does not feel that the teachers and the principal may be trying to help her. The principal may not also have realised that hitting the little girl’s knuckles is not a kind thing to do and may cause her to resist even more.
  • 29. The basic structures of a “BALANCED RESPONSE”. I feel that she is right ….., but…… I feel sorry for her… On the other hand…. While I feel sorry………….., I also have to consider that…
  • 30. When we write, we have to take care of: 1. CONTENTS – what is it we are going to say? 2. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES- How are we going to say?
  • 31. CONTENTS I feel sorry for her because she has clearly suffered when she recalls “many painful scenes” at school. She particularly remembers her principal using his ruler to hit her left hand knuckles in full force. However, I would like to add that if she had been less stubborn and had obeyed by at least trying to use her right hand, she may not have suffered that many punishments by her principal. She does not feel that the teachers and the principal may be trying to help her. The principal may not also have realised that hitting the little girl’s knuckles is not a kind thing to do and may cause her to resist even more.
  • 32. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES I feel sorry for her because she has clearly suffered when she recalls “many painful scenes” at school. She particularly remembers her principal using his ruler to hit her left hand knuckles in full force. However, I would like to add that if she had been less stubborn and had obeyed by at least trying to use her right hand, she may not have suffered that many punishments by her principal. She does not feel that the teachers and the principal may be trying to help her. The principal may not also have realised that hitting the little girl’s knuckles is not a kind thing to do and may cause her to resist even more.
  • 33. QUESTIONS?
  • 34. Examination Question 1: What impressions do you form of the speaker based on what you learn about her character in this extract?
  • 35. My impressions of the speaker’s character Evidence taken from Paragraph One Evidence taken from Paragraph Two Evidence taken from Paragraph Three Evidence taken from Paragraph Four Evidence taken from Paragraph Five Evidence taken from Paragraph Six Evidence taken from Paragraph Seven Evidence taken from Paragraph Eight Evidence taken from Paragraph Nine
  • 36. Paragraph 1 I was left-handed. This was something that just did not seem to matter one way or the other…until I went to school. Then I soon realized that the teachers and schools in those days considered it wrong for a child to write or sew with the left hand. There were many painful scenes when I refused to pick up a pencil with my right hand; many times the principal’s ruler came down in full force on the knuckles of my left hand. I had to give in and write as best as I could with my right hand. But for a long time I managed to hide from the sewing teacher the fact that I used my left hand for needlework.
  • 37. Paragraph 2 When the sewing teacher picked up my piece of needlework to start off the sewing, she would begin with the needle and thread held in her right hand, sewing from right to left. Then she would hand the sample to me to continue the work, believing that I would sew in the same way. It did not take me long to discover that by simply turning the work around, I could sew from left to right with my left hand.
  • 38. Paragraph 3 I was always very careful to make sure no one saw what I was doing. I used to keep my head down and hold the piece of work below the desk while I sewed. I was good at needlework, and the teacher knew I could always be relied upon to turn in a good sample. She used to praise my work.
  • 39. Paragraph 4 All went well until one morning when I sat as usual in the needlework class with my head bent over my sample. I longed to be outside in the hot sunshine. I heard the April flies buzzing against the window-panes, trapped like me inside the classroom. They would fly in on the wind, and were never able to get out again. My mind recalled the time when I once went to the window and tried to open it to free the files, but the teacher ordered me back to my seat and demanded to know why I had got up without permission. I could not explain. None of the teachers would have understood. I just stared back at her, and she told me I was sullen and stubborn.
  • 40. Paragraph 5 As my hands guided the needle from left to right, I dreamed about the world outside. I could hear the screeching of the blue mountain parrots calling and calling, trying to entice me out there…I thought of my little dinghy and my fishing-line, and the places where I could dig the fat sand worms that the large whiting could not resist as they came swimming on the incoming tide. I thought, another twenty minutes and I should be free to run the mile home. By then, the tide will be just right for catching the big whiting.
  • 41. Paragraph 6 I did not notice that the sewing teacher had left her table and was standing by me. Suddenly, two huge hands were placed firmly on my desk. My mind was wrenched from dreams of fishing. I fixed my startled gaze on the small watch on the teacher’s wrist.
  • 42. Paragraph 7 “Look at me,” the teacher demanded. I raised my eyes, then quickly dropped my gaze. “You know you are forbidden to sew with your left hand!” the teacher thundered. “How long have you been cheating me like this? You are a very stubborn, naughty girl!”
  • 43. Paragraph 8 I could feel the eyes of all the other children turned full upon me. The teacher went on scolding me; she made me feel ashamed, then embarrassed – and at last very angry. I set my jaw, dropped my needlework sample on the floor, and brought my balled fists onto the desk.
  • 44. Paragraph 9 “Don’t you dare clench your fists like that,” the teacher said. But I no longer cared what she said. I looked at my left hand, tightly clenched. It was always getting me into trouble. Suddenly I raised my left fist and smashed it down on the shiny face of the teacher’s watch. I felt the wetness of blood. There was blood on the teacher’s hand. “Is it my blood?” I wondered.

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