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Bpghs modified by yeo yam hwee
 

Bpghs modified by yeo yam hwee

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BPGHS Set A Modified by Reader

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    Bpghs modified by yeo yam hwee Bpghs modified by yeo yam hwee Document Transcript

    • READING WITH UNDERSTANDING SET A2 Rewritten by Yeo Yam Hwee BPGHS – We have to read meaningfully. Original Paragraph 1 Paragraph 1 It is safe to predict that fifty years from now, We can be quite certain that in fifty years’ time, people will look back and wonder how Man people will wonder how human beings live and ever managed his affairs on his limited work on resource-scarce Earth without the planetary abode without the tools provided by inventions that have sprung from the space programme. Spacecraft is expected to the space programme. That there could ever become a basic necessity just like telephones have been a world without spacecraft will be and airlines are to us now. just as difficult for them to imagine as one without telephones and airlines is for us. Original Paragraph 2 Paragraph 2 In 2025 mankind will be faced with many In 2025 many of our problems can only be problems that can only be tackled managed successfully if countries co-operate successfully by a global approach. with one another. To resolve these problems, Successful solutions to these problems will we will need to perform nonstop surveillance of the Earth using an effective require continuous monitoring and surveying communications system capable of of the entire Earth supported by an effective processing the large quantities of collected communications system capable of data and images immediately to many different transmitting the large quantities of collected users worldwide. Automated Earth survey and data and pictorial information in real time to a communications satellites and orbiting multitude of users in almost a hundred manned observations will be the basis of this nations. Unmanned Earth survey and system. communications satellites and orbiting manned observations will form the backbone of this system. Original Paragraph 3 Paragraph 3 The dominating problems of humanity during Our main challenges for the next fifty years, in the next fifty years that will require such aid which we will become dependent on space, from space will arise from the collision will come from the tussle between our between Man’s unrestrained and unlimited mismanaged and uncontrollable population growth and our demands for goods and growth – both in numbers of people and their services, and the serious shortage of raw material expectations – and the grim materials and the limited capacity Earth has to limitations of resources the Earth can provide absorb our waste. and of wastes it can absorb. Original Paragraph 4 Paragraph 4 Some of these problems are already upon us We are already facing some of these problems today. The sudden shortage in fuel oil and today. The sudden shortage in fuel oil and gasoline made us shockingly aware of our gasoline have made us terribly conscious of our reliance on raw materials that we have dependence on resources that for too long always thought that they would never run out. we have taken for granted. We would be We would be tragically deceiving ourselves if tragically mistaken if we took our present we were to take our present energy crisis as energy crisis as an isolated incident, brought an exceptional case, brought about by greedy about by profit-hungry oil moghuls, or as a businessmen, or as a short-term problem problem of a temporary nature that will soon which could be easily resolved. It is better for be resolved. We should rather accept it as a us to accept it as a timely and deadly serious timely and deadly serious storm warning. warning sign. Not only is our mindless Not only is our automotive joy ride over (a consumption coming to an end (a habit made possible only by what we have thought of up ride made possible only by a hitherto to now that we had endless supply of cheap unlimited supply of cheap energy from oil), energy from oil), we will also have to learn to but also we will have to learn to utilize more make use the Earth’s limited deposits of metal intelligently for planet’s scarce resources in ores more wisely and be mindful of its metal ores and its limited ability to produce constraints to produce food for its exploding food for its exploding population. population. 1
    • READING WITH UNDERSTANDING SET A2 Rewritten by Yeo Yam Hwee Original Paragraph 5 Paragraph 5 During the 90s, a world-wide satellite search In the 90s, man began a world-wide satellite was initiated for additional deposits of metal search for additional deposits of metal ores, ores, coal, oil, shale and natural gas. Using coal, oil, shale and natural gas. Using multispectral scanners and other multispectral scanners and other sophisticated optical devices, the orbital sophisticated optical devices, the orbital prospectors took photographs that, by prospectors will collect picture material that, comparison with known ore for fossil-fuel by comparison with known ore for fossil-fuel deposits, could point out potential locations deposits, can point out promising sites for for closer inspection. closer scrutiny by ground crews. Original Paragraph 6 Paragraph 6 By the turn of the century, resource satellites At the beginning of the 21st century, resource will b collecting, as a matter of routine, satellites will be systematically collecting, precise global data on the local and world- precise global data on the local and world- wide harvest of such food crops as corn, wide yield of such food crops as corn, wheat, wheat, rye, barley, rice and soya-beans and of rye, barley, rice and soya-beans and of fibre fibre crops like cotton and sisal. As a fleet of crops like cotton and sisal. As a fleet of these satellites circle the Earth in their low, these satellites circle the Earth in their low, near-polar orbits, they will enable the data near-polar orbits, they will enable the data centres on the ground continually to update centres on the ground continually to update their crop predictions. For instance, whenever their crop predictions. For instance, the sensors of a satellite detect a region where wherever the sensors of a satellite detect a previously unspoiled fields have suffered from region where previously unspoiled fields had flood, drought, hailstorm or insect infestation, the “up-date” will enable the data centre to suffered from flood, drought, hailstorm or correct its previous estimate. insect infestation, the “up-date” will enable the data centre to correct its previous estimate. Original Paragraph 7 Paragraph 7 The same satellites will also produce a The same satellites will continually record the continuing record of the pattern of world-wide pattern of world-wide human habitation. human habitation. Built-up urban areas, Developed regions, characteristically lacking in green vegetation, will stand out clearly on characteristically lacking the chlorophyll- the satellite images. All this data are badly signature of vegetation, will stand out like needed for the creation of a world-wide food- sore thumbs on the satellite-produced Earth supply management system. pictures. All this quantitative information are required for a badly needed world-wide food- supply management system. Original Paragraph 8 Paragraph 8 The Earth-looking satellites have also The satellites which are gathering information provided Man with a deeper understanding of on our activities on Earth have deepened our many of the long-term implications of his understanding of many of the long-term results of industrialisation. For example, they industrial civilization. For instance, they can can provide solid evidence finally on whether settle the old controversy as to whether the the Earth as a planet is gradually getting Earth as a planet is gradually getting warmer warmer because of the “green-house” effect because of the “green-house” effect created created by the great amounts of carbon by the great amounts of carbon dioxide dioxide released into the air through our released into the atmosphere through Man’s excessive burning of fossil fuels or that it is massive burning of fossil fuels or whether the actually getting colder because those same opposite is true, that it is actually getting undesirable smokestacks and exhaust pipes colder because those same offensive increase the average cloudiness, blocking off the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s smokestacks and exhaust pipes increase the surface. average cloudiness and thus reduce the percentage of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. 2
    • READING WITH UNDERSTANDING SET A2 Rewritten by Yeo Yam Hwee Original Paragraph 9 Paragraph 9 The concern is well-founded. In the former We have genuine reasons to be anxious. Even case even a few degree’s rise in the Earth’s a few degree’s rise in the Earth’s average average temperature would suffice to melt, temperature would be enough to melt, within a few hundred years, the ice caps and glaciers in with a few hundred years, the ice caps and the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The ocean glaciers in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. level would rise about 1.5 metres, drowning As a result, the ocean level would rise about out all of the world’s coastal cities. Our 1.5 metres, inundating all of the world’s industrial activities might cause another Ice coastal cities. In the latter case, our Age, with equally terrible outcomes. industrial activities might trigger another Ice Age, with equally disastrous consequences. Original Paragraph 10 Paragraph 10 Even open oceans can be held under We can even carry out careful and thorough continuous scrutiny. Whenever a tanker examination of the oceans at all times. captain in 2025 thinks that he can get away Whenever a tanker captain in 2025 thinks that he can get away with cleaning his bilges or with cleaning his bilges or bunker spaces on bunker spaces on the high seas at night, the the high seas under protection of night, the satellites, detecting both the tell-tale oil slick satellites, detecting both the tell-tale oil slick and the ship steaming away from the scene, and the ship steaming away from the scene, would quickly report the misdeed to the UN would quickly report the misdeed to the UN pollution-control branch, and the shipping pollution-control branch, and the shipping company could expect to be fined for violation company could expect to be fined for of world-wide environmental protection violation of world-wide treaties on agreement. environmental protection. Original Paragraph 11 Paragraph 11 Atmospheric pollution could also be a subject Air pollution could also be monitored by of continuous monitoring by the ever-watchful satellites. The relevant international agencies eyes in the sky. The world-wide machinery would be promptly informed if pollution levels reach dangerous levels threatening our health. of environmental protection would be promptly notified whenever pollution levels dangerous to human health were approached. Original Paragraph 12. Paragraph 12 In the communications field, satellites will For communications, satellites will bring about bring about another revolution. The intelsat changes to existing arrangement. The intelsat communications satellites have established a communications satellites have built a global telephone network worldwide. Satellites will global telephone network interconnecting take over a big share of domestic nearly a hundred nations. Satellites will take communication too. They enable us to have over a major share of domestic telephone conversations, watch television communication as well. In addition to programmes and use facsimile service. They telephone conversations, they can carry also provide direct ties between computers in television programmes and facsimile service different locations to promote services like and provide direct ties between computers in banking or ticket reservations. different locations in support of such operations as banking or ticket reservations. Original Paragraph 13 Paragraph 13 It is also safe to predict that some degree of We can be certain too that weather control will weather control will be achieved. Think of be achieved to some extent. Think of the the implications of having rainfall occur only effects of having rainfall occur only at night or, more important in terms of meeting the world’s at night or, more important in terms of need for food, of being able to bring rainfall as meeting the world’s need for food, of being and when we wish to areas now scorched by able to bring rainfall at will to areas now drought. parched and wrecked by drought. 3
    • READING WITH UNDERSTANDING SET A2 Rewritten by Yeo Yam Hwee Original Paragraph 14 Paragraph 14 Many of the space operations in 2025 will Space operations in 2025 will become familiar become familiar events through the advent of events through the launching of the reusable the reusable space shuttle, which saw its first space shuttle, which saw its first use in 1979. The shuttle has not only drastically reduced use in 1979. The shuttle has not only the cost of space transportation but also drastically reduced the cost of space opened up space for the non-astronaut. transportation but also opened up space for Surely, there will still be astronauts on the the non-astronaut. Surely, there will still be flight deck of the advanced space shuttle of astronauts on the flight deck of the advanced 2025, but their role can be compared with that space shuttle of 2025, but their role can be of the flight crew in an airliner. The compared with that of the flight crew in an passengers will be astronomers, airliner. The passengers will be meteorologists, environmentalists, astronomers, meteorologists, climatologists, geologists, oil prospectors, and other Earth-resources experts. For them environmentalists, climatologists, geologists, space flight will become the old airline routine oil prospectors, and other Earth-resources of “coffee, tea or milk”. experts. For them space flight will become the old airline routine of “coffee, tea or milk”. Original Paragraph 15 Paragraph 15 15. By 2025, Man will also have sat foot on By 2025, we will also have landed on Mars. the planet Mars. Will he find life? Here Will we find life? Here again we are less again my crystal ball gets clouded. (There certain. (There would be no fun in science and would be no fun in science and exploration if exploration if everything could be predicted. We can only speculate that we might find at everything could be predicted. We can only least some lower forms of life there.) speculate that we might find at least some lower forms of life there.) 4