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1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
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1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
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1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers
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1127.02.november.t1 w6.2010.common test.tigers

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For Reference and Revision

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  • 1. Even a SMALL fish knows when to keep its BIG mouth shut.
  • 2. Seems like you still need a lot of self-discipline!
  • 3. Are you ready to pounce?
  • 4. Last Warning to the LOW EQ Chatterbox and its Accomplice!
  • 5. T1W6.2010 Common Test Tigers – An Endangered Species of Man’s Making
  • 6. THINGS YOU HAVE TO DO DURING YOUR READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • When you get the question paper, READ the questions quickly and fully first.
  • 7. THINGS YOU HAVE TO DO DURING YOUR READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • Mark out the QUESTION SKELETON on the pages of your Examination Booklet. You must read the mark rubrics - [ 1 mark] or [2 marks] or even [3 marks]:
  • 8. THINGS YOU HAVE TO DO DURING YOUR READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 3. For 1 mark comprehension Qn:
    • Leave TWO lines for writing down your answer.
    • Leave THREE lines BLANK .
    • Then move on to the next question.
  • 9. THINGS YOU HAVE TO DO DURING YOUR READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 4. For 2 mark-comprehension Qn:
    • Leave FOUR lines for writing down your answer.
    • Leave THREE lines BLANK.
    • Then move on to the next question.
  • 10. THINGS YOU HAVE TO DO DURING YOUR READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 4. For Vocabulary Qn:
    • Leave ONE line for writing down your answer.
    • Leave TWO lines BLANK.
    • Then move on to the next question.
  • 11. THINGS YOU HAVE TO DO DURING YOUR READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • For the SUMMARY Qn:
    • READ the instructions carefully before you start.
    • Always jot down your points first. Secure 16 – 19 points.
    • Write your FIRST DRAFT and do all necessary CORRECTIONS on it.
    • Write your FINAL DRAFT – leave a line after every written line.
    • Write down the NUMBER OF WORDS specified.
  • 12. THINGS YOU DO DURING READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 6. The reading passages are called the INSERT .
    • Circle out the 5 VOCABULARY words in the INSERT .
    • Mark out the BEGINNING and ENDING lines of the SUMMARY question.
  • 13. THINGS YOU DO DURING READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 9. READ the passages of the INSERT making sure that you spend all your energies doing so.
  • 14. THINGS YOU DO DURING READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 10. Put the Question Paper side by side the INSERT and as you read look for possible answer to each one of the comprehension questions.
  • 15. THINGS YOU DO DURING READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 11. As you read for possible answer to each one of the comprehension questions, mark out in the INSERT, the relevant areas of the passage which contain the possible answer and number it according to the question asked.
  • 16. THINGS YOU DO DURING READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 12. Continue to do so until the last comprehension question is being attended to.
  • 17. THINGS YOU DO DURING READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 13. Use the question paper to write down the possible correct answers first.
    • 14. Transfer your answers into the proper Examination Pad quickly and accurately.
  • 18. THINGS YOU DO DURING READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 15. Make sure you use the QUESTION SKELETON you have prepared in your EXAMINATION PAD to fill in your answers neatly and quickly.
    • 16. NEVER LEAVE ANY QUESTION UNANSWERED.
  • 19. THINGS YOU HAVE TO DO DURING YOUR READING TIME FOR PAPER 2
    • 17. Always check your ANSWERS before you submit your work.
  • 20. YOU OWE IT TO YOURSELF
    • TO DO WELL IN 1189 and 1127 Paper 2
  • 21.  
  • 22. SARISKA TIGER RESERVE
  • 23.  
  • 24. Magnificent Impressive Stately Grandiose Majestic Elegant Gorgeous Spectacular Awe-inspiring
  • 25. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near-extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats. The forests in which they roam are being fragmented and lost due to growing villages and towns as well as other factors. With growing demands, the expansion of agricultural lands would need to continue. Mining would also need to increase to extract minerals. In addition, as towns and cities get more modern and interconnected, and communications increase, there would be more electricity lines and more roads. Another problem is that tigers are also being hunted down by people in retaliation for them killing cattle. Tigers are also being poached by organized gangs who earn handsome rewards for tiger skins and bones.
  • 26. Tiger Poachers in Action
  • 27. The Dead Victim
  • 28. Beheaded Tigers
  • 29. Too little too late?
  • 30. Poachers celebrating their catch
  • 31. The Tiger Skin Trade
  • 32. Training provided to Informer Network members
  • 33. From Paragraph 1
    • Write down one word which tells us that the big cats are impressive. [1 mark]
    • The word is “magnificent”.
  • 34. From Paragraph 1
    • Explain IN YOUR OWN WORDS what has happened to the forest habitats of tigers. [2 marks]
    • The forests have broken up into smaller areas and have disappeared / gone missing because of expanding villages and towns. (Words in bold are to replace “fragmented”, “lost” and “increasing”.)
  • 35. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • “Magnificent” means “…………………………....................................”.
    • “Quarters” means “……………………………………………………….”.
    • “Conservation” means “………………………………………………….”.
    • “Extinction” means “………………………………………………………”.
  • 36. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • “Magnificent” means “…………………………....................................”.
    • “Quarters” means “……………………………………………………….”.
    • “Conservation” means “………………………………………………….”.
    • “Extinction” means “………………………………………………………”.
  • 37. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • “Magnificent” means “…………………………....................................”.
    • “Quarters” means “……………………………………………………….”.
    • “Conservation” means “………………………………………………….”.
    • “Extinction” means “………………………………………………………”.
  • 38. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • “Magnificent” means “…………………………....................................”.
    • “Quarters” means “……………………………………………………….”.
    • “Conservation” means “………………………………………………….”.
    • “Extinction” means “………………………………………………………”.
  • 39. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • Which phrase of four consecutive words does the word “magnificent” describe?
    • Which verb tells you that the phrase “some quarters” refers to people?
    • Explain using your own words how “conservation” is related to “extinction” of endangered animals.
    • 4. What kind of threats are tigers in India facing? Write out the adjective.
  • 40. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • Which phrase of four consecutive words does the word “magnificent” describe?
    • What is the meaning of “consecutive”?
    • It means “one after another”.
    • So “four consecutive words” means “four words together, one after another”.
  • 41. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • Which phrase of four consecutive words does the word “magnificent” describe?
    • What is the meaning of “consecutive”?
    • It means “one after another”.
    • So “four consecutive words” means “four words together, one
    • after another”.
  • 42. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near-extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    An ADJECTIVE describes A NOUN or a NOUN PHRASE. So what does “MAGNIFICENT” describe? It describes “ creatures in the world ”. [four consecutive words]
  • 43. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near-extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • Which verb tells you that the phrase “some quarters” refers to people?
    • What is the meaning of “some quarters”?
    • It means “ some groups of people ”.
    • It means “ some parties ”.
  • 44. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near-extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • Which verb tells you that the phrase “some quarters” refers to people?
    • What is a VERB?  A VERB is an ACTION word.
    • So which action word is closely related to the phrase “some quarters” telling me that it refers to people?
    • The word is “ calling ”.
  • 45. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • Explain using your own words how “conservation” is related to “extinction” of endangered animals.
    • In the context of animals, “conservation” means “protection”. So “animal conservation” means “animal protection”. It means “saving animals from dying off and preventing them from disappearing from our world”.
    • In the same context, “extinction” refers to “the total disappearance of a particular animal from our world”.
    • Thus, “conservation” and “extinction” are related because if endangered animals are not protected from dying off, our “conservation” efforts would have failed and the animals may face the danger of “extinction”.
  • 46. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near-extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • What kind of threats are tigers in India facing? Write out the adjective .
    • The adjective is “SERIOUS”.
  • 47. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near-extinction of the big cats”. Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats .
    • What kind of threats are tigers in India facing? Write out the adjective .
    • FACT: Adjective words and descriptive phrases follow the NOUN word very closely. Simple one word Adjective is almost always the word BEFORE the noun word.
  • 48. An adjective is a descriptive word.
    • Samuel is a mature student .
    • [NOUN] [NOUN]
    • What kind of student is Samuel?
    • SEE: The adjective “mature” follows the noun “student” immediately BEFORE it.
  • 49. Two positions where you can find ADJECTIVE words
    • The boy is happy .
    He is a happy boy. “ Happy” is the adjective in both sentences. In this case, “happy is after the noun phase, “the boy”. In this case, “happy” is before the noun, “boy”.
  • 50. WARNING
    • NOT ALL AJECTIVES APPEAR IN BOTH POSITIONS.
  • 51. See for yourselves: He is clever . He is a clever boy . BUT He is ill . [correct] He is an ill boy . [X]
  • 52. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened, with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near- extinction of the big cats”.
    • The tiger is a magnificent animal.
    • “ Magnificent” is used to describe the tiger.
    • “ Magnificent” is
    • [a] a noun
    • [b] a verb
    • [c] an adverb
    • [d] an adjective
  • 53. Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world is being threatened , with some quarters in the animal conservation world even calling this, “the near-extinction of the big cats”.
    • “ Threatened” is a verb. Which verb is it?
    • [1] V0 - dictionary form
    • [2] V1 - present tense
    • [3] V2 - past tense
    • [4] V3 - past participle
    • [5] V4 - verb + ing / present participle
  • 54. Paragraph 1: Making Sentences Simpler
    • Tigers in India are facing a large number of serious threats.
    • Tigers in India face many serious threats.
    •  Indian tigers face many serious threats.
  • 55. Paragraph 1
    • The forests in which they roam are being fragmented and lost due to growing villages and towns as well as other factors. With growing demands, the expansion of agricultural lands would need to continue.
    The forests / Their forests are disappearing urbanisation and agricultural land expansion Will / Must
  • 56. Comprehension CLOZE
    • [-----1-----] due to urbanisation and other factors causes the loss of the natural tiger [------2-----] . With growing demands, agricultural land expansion continues.
  • 57. Paragraph 1
    • Deforestation due to urbanisation and other factors cause the loss of the natural tiger habitats . With growing demands, agricultural land expansion continues.
  • 58. Beware of Big (aka bombastic) Words
    • Deforestation – is bigger than “fragmentation” and “loss” of forest habitats.
    • Deforestation – covers a wider range than what is happening to the Indian forest habitats.
    • Dictionary definition of “ deforestation ” – “the cutting and burning down of ALL trees in an area”.
    • Big words are convenient but not always good enough when we need to explain things CLEARLY and FULLY.
  • 59. Beware of BIG words again!
    • In the context of what you read about land use in the given passage, you cannot comfortably use the word “urbanisation” without qualifying “to what extent it is taking or has taken place”.
    • The dictionary meaning of “urbanisation” is “the development of an area by building social structures such as houses, shops, factories, schools and so on to support a community”.
  • 60. Paragraph 1
    • Mining would also need to increase to extract minerals. In addition, as towns and cities get more modern and interconnected, and communications increase, there would be more electricity lines and more roads.
  • 61. Paragraph 1
    • In addition, as towns and cities get more modern and interconnected, and communications increase, there would be more electricity lines and more roads.
  • 62. Paragraph 1
    • Another problem is that tigers are also being hunted down by people in retaliation for them killing cattle.
  • 63. Paragraph 1
    • Tigers are also being poached by organized gangs who earn handsome rewards for tiger skins and bones.
  • 64. READ ALOUD: Paragraph 1
    • One of the most magnificent creatures in the world / is being threatened, / with some quarters / in the animal conservation world / even calling this, / “the near-extinction / of the big cats”. / Tigers in India / are facing a large number of / serious threats. / The forests in which they roam / are being / fragmented / and lost / due to growing villages and towns / as well as other factors./ With growing demands,/ the expansion of agricultural lands / would need to continue. / Mining would also need to increase / to extract minerals. / In addition,/ as towns and cities get more modern / and interconnected, / and communications increase, / there would be more electricity lines / and more roads. / Another problem is that tigers / are also being hunted down by people / in retaliation / for them killing cattle. / Tigers are also being poached by / organized gangs / who earn handsome rewards / for tiger skins and bones. /
  • 65. Paragraph 2
    • Areas, such as Tiger Reserves and National Parks, in which tigers are meant to be well-protected, are sadly deficient. For example, the loss of all tigers from Sariska Tiger Reserve is an embarrassing fact not lost on the state government who would want to catch the perpetrators. The government will inevitably always finds itself entangled in a never-ending debate of poverty reduction and animal conservation. Should it keep pursuing the needs of the animals and their well-wishers or “turn a blind eye” to poor people who just want to survive even if it means killing them and sell their skins and bones. However, the serious threat still remains and effective solutions would have to be sought.
  • 66. From Paragraph 2
    • What is ironic about the state of Sariska Tiger Reserve? [1 mark]
    • The Reserve is meant to be a sanctuary for tigers but they have been hunted down and killed in the place.
    • (Do not accept an answer which just states that the Reserve is meant to be a sanctuary for tigers without the second part of the answer. Completeness of answer is required to illustrate “irony”.)
  • 67. What does Mr. Yeo mean when he says, “Read the question?”
    • What is ironic about the state of Sariska Tiger Reserve? [1 mark]
    Use this rubric to inform yourself how much time and space you would need to devote to this question.
  • 68. What does Mr. Yeo mean when he says, “Read the question?”
    • What is ironic about the state of Sariska Tiger Reserve? [1 mark]
    Determine the MAIN VERB of the sentence. Is this a PRESENT or PAST tense question.
  • 69. What does Mr. Yeo mean when he says, “Read the question?”
    • What is ironic about the state of Sariska Tiger Reserve? [1 mark]
    Find out what is it the question wants you to do and deliver it accordingly. You cannot run away from the 6Ws and 1 H. Why What Where Which Who When How
  • 70. What is ironic about the state of Sariska Tiger Reserve? [1 mark] REGARDING THE IRONIC SITUATION AT THE TIGER RESERVE WHY? Why is the situation considered to be ironic? WHAT? What makes the situation Ironic? WHEN? When does it become an ironic situation? HOW? How does it become an ironic situation? WHO? Who makes the situation ironic? WHERE? Where does the irony come from? WHICH? Which two factors contribute to the making of the ironic situation?
  • 71. What does Mr. Yeo mean when he says, “Read the question?”
    • What is ironic about the state of Sariska Tiger Reserve? [1 mark]
    BY UNDERSTANDING THE QUESTION, YOU ARE CLAIMING “OWNERSHIP” OVER IT: Surprising / Shocking Unexpected Absurd / Unbelievable Ridiculous The condition of…. The situation in which… The position as it is…
  • 72. What does Mr. Yeo mean when he says, “Read the question?”
    • What is ironic about the state of Sariska Tiger Reserve? [1 mark]
    BY UNDERSTANDING THE QUESTION, YOU ARE CLAIMING “OWNERSHIP” OVER IT: What is so unexpected about what is going on in Sariska Tiger Reserve? What is so surprising about the condition of Sariska Tiger Reserve? How is it that what is going on in Sariska Tiger Reserve is seen to be an irony?
  • 73. From Paragraph 2
    • Why is the government finding the issue of dealing with the loss of tigers so complicated? [1 mark]
    • The government has to decide what is more important: the livelihood of poor people who hunt tigers as a means of survival, or to protect tigers and in so doing bring further problems to those people.
  • 74. From Paragraph 2
    • Why is the government finding the issue of dealing with the loss of tigers so complicated? [1 mark]
    • The government has to decide what is more important: the livelihood of poor people who hunt tigers as a means of survival, or to protect tigers and in so doing bring further problems to those people.
    A noun word
  • 75. Verbs and Nouns
    • To lose – V0
    • Lose / loses – V1
    • [without helping verb] + lost – V2
    • [with helping verb] + lost - V3
    • [with helping verb] + losing – V4
    • The loss of tigers
    • The loss of freedom
    • The loss of data
  • 76. From Paragraph 2
    • What does the writer mean when he says the government tries to “turn a blind eye”? Explain why it does this. [2 mark]
    • He means that the government ignores the fact that the poor people hunt tigers. It does this because it understands that that is their means of survival.
  • 77. Paragraph 3
    • In response to these grave threats, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) India has developed a number of innovative programmes. WWF is working with local governments to reduce and halt the intrusion of people, agriculture and development projects into forest lands. WWF is working directly with local communities most affected by tigers through the provision of rapid compensation for cattle killings and by putting up electric fences to stop tigers entering villages. In partnership with local governments, WWF works to rehabilitate tribal hunting communities by providing alternative livelihood opportunities. With other partners, WWF has established “informer networks” to prevent organized poaching gangs killing tigers. Finally, WWF provides training and equipment (such as vehicles, boats, wireless and radio equipment, searchlights, camping gear, binoculars) to improve the management of National Parks.
  • 78. From Paragraph 3
    • What do you think “informer networks” are? [1 mark]
    • These are groups of people who report and communicate to the government on poachers and their poaching activities so that the latter can be caught easily.
  • 79. From Paragraph 3
    • What do you think “informer networks” are? [1 mark]
    • These are groups of people who report and communicate to the government on poachers and their poaching activities so that the latter can be caught easily.
    THE FORMER THE LATTER
  • 80. Sample Sentence
    • The boys and the girls are celebrating Chinese New Year. The former are dressed in blue while the latter are in pink.
  • 81. From Paragraph 3
    • Explain FULLY how an improvement in the management of National Parks can prevent the killing of tigers. [2 marks]
    • With better equipment and training, the management is better able to track down the poachers and therefore prevent the killing of tigers in the reserves.
  • 82. Paragraph 4
    • Though tigers face a clear and present danger in India, WWF is optimistic that the downward spiral in tiger population can be halted in the near future. This optimism is based on a number of factors. Firstly, Dr. Manmohan Singh’s (current Indian Prime Minister) personal interest in tiger conservation. Secondly, there is an apparent commitment by the Government of India to tiger conservation as evident in their plans to form a National Tiger Conservation Authority and establish a Wildlife Crime Bureau. These factors provide much needed fillip for WWF’s continuing efforts to conserve tigers in India by working with local communities, state governments and the central government.
  • 83. From Paragraph 4
    • Quote ONE word to suggest that the author does not really believe the government is serious about protecting tigers. [1 mark]
    • The word is “apparent”.
  • 84. Vocabulary 9(1)
    • [1] Tigers are also being poached by organized gangs who earn handsome rewards for tiger skins and bones.
    • “ Handsome” means “generous”.
    • “ Handsome” means “substantial”.
    • “ Handsome” means “considerable”.
    • “ Handsome” means “attractive”.
    • “ Handsome” means “sizeable”.
  • 85. “Handsome” means “…?...”.
    • What kind of reward?
    • A handsome reward.
    “ Handsome” describes the reward. So, it is an ADJECTIVE.
  • 86. “ Handsome” means “very huge”.
    • What kind of reward?
    • A very huge reward.
    “ Very huge” describes the reward. So, it is an ADJECTIVE.
  • 87. “Handsome” means “very large”.
    • What kind of reward?
    • A very large reward.
    “ Very large” describes the reward. So, it is an ADJECTIVE.
  • 88. “Handsome” means “sizeable”.
    • What kind of reward?
    • A sizeable reward.
    “ sizeable” describes the reward. So, it is an ADJECTIVE.
  • 89. Vocabulary 9(2)
    • [2] The government will inevitably always finds itself entangled in a never-ending debate of poverty reduction and animal conservation.
    • “ Inevitably” means “unavoidably”.
    • “ Inevitably” means “without doubt”.
    • “ Inevitably” means “inescapably”.
    • “ Inevitably” means “certainly”.
    • “ Inevitably” means “doubtlessly”.
  • 90. You reap what you sow.
  • 91. PARTS OF SPEECH
    • There are NINE parts of speech in English.
    • We must be familiar with FOUR of them.
    • They are:
    ADVERB ADJECTIVE VERB NOUN
  • 92. PARTS OF SPEECH
    • There are NINE parts of speech in English.
    • We must be familiar with FOUR of them.
    • They are:
    An adverb changes the meaning of a verb or an adjective. A adjective is a descriptive word. A verb is an action word. A noun is a naming word.
  • 93. Adverbs are Modifying Tools
    • Adverbs are words which modify (change) or tell us more about the meaning of a verb , an adjective or another adverb.
  • 94. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • A verb:
    • The children ran towards the fire exit.
  • 95. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • A verb:
    • The children ran towards the fire exit.
    Verb – V2 – past tense
  • 96. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • A verb:
    • The children ran quickly towards the fire exit.
    How did the children run? VERB ADVERB
  • 97. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • An adjective:
    • He is ill .
    • He is silly .
    • He is lazy .
    • He is intelligent .
    • He is patient .
    • He is tolerant .
  • 98. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • An adjective:
    • He is SELDOM ill .
    • He is SOMETIMES silly .
    • He is EXTREMELY lazy .
    • He is QUITE intelligent .
    • He is VERY patient .
    • He is NEVER tolerant .
  • 99. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • An adjective:
    • He is SELDOM ill .
    • He is SOMETIMES silly .
    • He is EXTREMELY lazy .
    • He is QUITE intelligent .
    • He is VERY patient .
    • He is NEVER tolerant .
    Adjective Adverb
  • 100. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • another ADVERB:
    • ADVERB
    • He did the task quickly .
  • 101. Functions of Adverbs
    • Adverbs have THREE common functions. They are used to modify (change):
    • another ADVERB:
    • ADVERB 1 ADVERB 2
    • He did the task VERY quickly .
  • 102. Adverbs
    • Adverbs commonly answer the questions:
    • How?
    • When?
    • Where?
    • To what extent?
    • How often?
  • 103. Adverbs of manner answer the question HOW?
    • He ran well .  How did he run?
    • He eats quickly .  How does he eat?
    • He is moving slowly .  How is he moving?
    • He drove carelessly .  How did he drive?
  • 104. Adverbs of PLACE answer the question WHERE ?
    • He lives here .
    • He goes there .
    • His wallet was found here .
    • His shirt was kept somewhere .
    • The answer is found within the book.
    • I cannot find his shirt anywhere .
  • 105. Adverbs of TIME answer the question: WHEN?
    • He went there yesterday .
    • He will be present tonight .
    • His friends arrived i mmediately when they heard the news.
    • The prices went up recently .
    • She is late today .
  • 106. Adverbs of DEGREE answer the question: TO WHAT EXTENT ?
    • The hall was almost filled with people.
    • He can just understand Mandarin.
    • I have enough money to pay for what need.
  • 107. Adverbs of FREQUENCY answer the question: HOW OFTEN?
    • She always listens to the radio.
    • I seldom watch television programmes.
    • She inspects the classrooms frequently .
    • We celebrate our birthdays occasionally .
  • 108. Adjectives and Adverbs Different ly Different Quick ly Quick Splendid ly Splendid Happ ily Happy Effective ly Effective Favourabl y Favourable Awful ly Awful
  • 109. FORMATION OF ADVERBS
    • Most adverbs are formed from ADJECTIVES when the suffix – ly
    • is added.
    Wise ly Wise New ly New Abundant ly Abundant Distinct ly Distinct Immediate ly Immediate
  • 110. Formation of Adverbs
    • Most adverbs are formed from adjectives when the suffix – ily is added.
    Angr ily Angry Bus ily Busy Tid ily Tidy Unluck ily Unlucky Eas ily Easy
  • 111. Formation of Adverbs
    • Most adverbs are formed from adjectives when the suffix – y is added.
    Sensibl y Sensible Suitabl y Suitable Capabl y Capable Abl y Able Gentl y Gentle
  • 112. What is the function of Adverbs? He sings melodiously . He sings poorly . The adverbs add meaning to the verb “sings”  How does he sing…? He sings beautifully . He sings. He walks slowly to school. He walks sadly to school. The adverbs add meaning to the verb “walks”  How does he walk…? He walks hurriedly to school. He walks to school
  • 113. Adverb =/= Adjective
    • “Inevitably” means “unavoidable” [X]
    • “ Adverb” is not equal to “Adjective”.
    • “Inevitably” means “unavoidably”. [CORRECT]
    • “ Adverb” means “adverb”.
  • 114. What is the ADVANTAGE of using ADVERBS in Actual Sentences?
    • 1a.He was rushed to the hospital without delay when he told his mother that he felt dizzy and nauseous.
    • 1b.He was rushed to the hospital at once when he told his mother that he felt dizzy and nauseous.
  • 115. Using Adverbs in Actual Sentences
    • 1c.He was rushed to the hospital immediately when he told his mother that he felt dizzy and nauseous.
  • 116. Further Practice – How knowledge of Adverbs can help you in Summary Writing
    • 2a. He died a short while ago .
  • 117. Further Practice
    • 2a. He died a short while ago .
    • 2b. He just died.
    • 2c. He died recently .
  • 118. Further Practice
    • 3a. He answered in a careless manner .
  • 119. Further Practice
    • 3a. He answered in a careless manner .
    • 3b. He answered carelessly .
    • 3c. He answered irresponsibly .
    • 3d. He answered recklessly .
  • 120. Further Practice
    • 4a. I climbed the hill without any difficulty .
  • 121. Further Practice
    • 4a. I climbed the hill without any difficulty .
    • 4b. I climbed the hill easily .
    • 4c. I climbed the hill effortlessly .
  • 122. Further Practice
    • 5a. Raymond spoke for a while on his trip to Japan.
  • 123. Further Practice
    • 5a. Raymond spoke for a while on his trip to Japan.
    • 5b. Raymond spoke shortly on his trip to Japan.
    • 5c. Raymond spoke briefly on his trip to Japan.
    • 5d. Raymond spoke cursorily on his trip to Japan.
  • 124. Adjective = Adjective
    • The government will one day have to stop the poachers from hunting down any more tigers. It is an unavoidable measure.
    • The government will one day have to stop the poachers from hunting down any more tigers. It is an inevitable measure.
    ADJECTIVE Because it describes “measure”. / It answers the queston: “What kind of measure?”
  • 125. Adverb = Adverb
    • The government will one day unavoidably have to stop the poachers from hunting down any more tigers.
    • The government will one day inevitably have to stop the poachers from hunting down any more tigers.
    ADVERB Because it tells you just how much the government will have to do to stop the poaching activities. The ADVERB here answers the question: “How or how much?” or “to what extent”?
  • 126. Compare and contrast
    • An inevitable measure.
    An inevitably measure. ADJECTIVES X An suitable measure. A feasible measure. An effective measure. An unavoidable measure. An suitably measure. A feasibly measure. An effectively measure. An unavoidably measure. X ADVERBS cannot be used in place of ADJECTIVES and vice versa.
  • 127. How to spot ADVERBS.
    • The government will introduce the preventive measures against inflation suitably .
    • The government will fight H1N1 flu infection effectively .
    • She thinks she is going to run into him inevitably because they work in the same office.
  • 128. ADVERBS can easily shift their positions within a sentence.
    • 1a. The government will introduce the preventive measures to fight against inflation suitably .
    • 1b. The government will suitably introduce the preventive measures to fight against inflation.
    • 1c. The government will introduce suitably the preventive measures to fight against inflation.
  • 129. ADVERBS can easily shift their positions within a sentence.
    • 1a. The government will introduce the preventive measures to fight against inflation effectively .
    • 1b. The government will effectively introduce the preventive measures to fight against inflation.
    • 1c. The government will introduce effectively the preventive measures to fight against inflation.
  • 130. ADVERBS can easily shift their positions within a sentence.
    • 1a. The government will introduce the preventive measures to fight against inflation swiftly .
    • 1b. The government will swiftly introduce the preventive measures to fight against inflation.
    • 1c. The government will introduce swiftly the preventive measures to fight against inflation.
  • 131. Vocabulary 9(3)
    • [3] In response to these grave threats, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) India has developed a number of innovative programmes.
    • “ Grave” means “serious”.
    • “ Grave” means “critical”.
    • “ Grave” means “crucial”.
    • “ Grave” means “severe”.
  • 132. Vocabulary 9(4)
    • [4] WWF is working with local governments to reduce and halt the intrusion of people, agriculture and development projects into forest lands.
    • “ Intrusion” means “encroachment”.
    • “ Intrusion” means “invasion”.
    • “ Intrusion” means “infringement”.
  • 133. to intrude An intrusion The intrusion Some intrusions Many intrusions An intruder The intruder Some intruders Many intruders An intrusive nature An intrusive gesture An intrusive manner To be intrusive He barged in on us intrusively. He was intrusively ill-mannered. He wishes to intrude. He intrudes into her private life. They intrude on us. He intruded into her personal life. The army intruded when all else failed. The army had intruded. The army was intruding.
  • 134. Vocabulary 9(5)
    • [1] Another problem is that tigers are also being hunted down by people in retaliation for them killing cattle.
    • “ Retaliation” means “revenge”.
    • “ Retaliation” means “vengeance”.
    • “ Retaliation” means “payback”.
    • “ Retaliation” means “reprisal”.
  • 135. Vocabulary 9(6)
    • [2] Areas, such as Tiger Reserves and National Parks, in which tigers are meant to be well-protected, are sadly deficient .
    • “ Deficient” means “insufficient”.
    • “ Deficient” means “inadequate”.
    • “ Deficient” means “scarce”.
    • “ Deficient” means “lacking”.
  • 136. Vocabulary 9(7)
    • [3] For example, the loss of all tigers from Sariska Tiger Reserve is an embarrassing fact not lost on the state government who would want to catch the perpetrators.
    • “ Perpetrators” means “culprits”.
    • “ Perpetrators” means “poachers”.
    • “ Perpetrators” means “trespassers”.
    • “ Perpetrators” means “offenders”.
    • “ Perpetrators” means “those responsible for doing something wrong”.
  • 137. Vocabulary 9(8)
    • [4] In response to these grave threats, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) India has developed a number of innovative programmes.
    • “ Innovative” means “inventive”.
    • “ Innovative” means “creative”.
    • “ Innovative” means “enterprising”.
    • “ Innovative” means “revolutionary”.
    • “ Innovative” means “new”.

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