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1127.02.november moe sample paper pirates-sample moe 2001 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PIRATES 1127 O Level English Language
  • 2. Background Information about types of pirates
    • “ Pirate” means “one who plunders on the sea”.
    • “ Privateers” means “sea-raiders with a government license to pillage enemy ships.
    • “ Buccaneers” means “17 th -century pirates who menaced the Spanish in the Carribean”.
    • “ Corsairs” means “privateers and pirates who roved the Mediterranean”.
  • 3. The Mediterranean Sea – Where the Barbary Corsairs Once Roved
  • 4. The Barbary Corsairs
  • 5. The Privates of The Carribean
  • 6. The Pirates of the Carribean
  • 7. The Pirates of the Carribean
  • 8.
    • Two hundred years ago, travellers sailing aboard had one great fear – that their ship might be taken by pirates. Some pirates had a fearsome reputation, especially the Barbary Corsairs who operated off the coast of North Africa. Yet an unexpected code of honour operated in those days. Travellers from the more powerful nations would carry a very special passport. If a ship were seized by pirates, a passenger carrying one of these passports hoped that he or she would not be harmed, and certainly not held prisoner for any length of time. That travellers could hope for such protection if they carried a mere document seems surprising. However, even the bloodthirsty Barbary Corsairs were careful to respect travellers belonging to countries boasting powerful navies; they did not want to provoke swift and damaging punishment.
    PASSSAGE A PARAGRAPH ONE
  • 9.
    • Two hundred years ago, travellers sailing aboard had one great fear – that their ship might be taken by pirates . Some pirates had a fearsome reputation, especially the Barbary Corsairs who operated off the coast of North Africa. Yet an unexpected code of honour operated in those days . Travellers from the more powerful nations would carry a very special passport. If a ship were seized by pirates, a passenger carrying one of these passports hoped that he or she would not be harmed, and certainly not held prisoner for any length of time. That travellers could hope for such protection if they carried a mere document seems surprising. However, even the bloodthirsty Barbary Corsairs were careful to respect travellers belonging to countries boasting powerful navies; they did not want to provoke swift and damaging punishment.
    Pirates invaded a ship to rob. The victims’ ships were usually taken by force. This word is used to introduce a fact that is surprising after what the writer has just mentioned earlier on in the text. In this case, we read about the fearsome reputation of pirates – the violence and the killing and the robbing. Although the pirates had a fearsome reputation, they observed a code of honour. Why surprising? Code of honour Travellers carried a special Passport. Purpose: for the travellers’ personal protection if they ran into pirates. Although it was JUST a piece of paper – a document, it offered protection to the owner. Corsairs: there were two types. One group was the “privateers” and the “pirates” who roved the Mediterranean. Even the fearsome Cosairs were careful to treat travellers who carried the special passports with respect.
  • 10.
    • Frequent warfare between powerful nations had encouraged what amounted to piracy under another name. Privately-owned, armed ships attacked and robbed ships belonging to an enemy country, and did so with the full blessing of their governments. Such private vessels were called “privateers” and would carry a “letter of marque”, an official licence from their governments, which allowed the captains of the privateers to carry out their attacks. Yet if the captains of privately-owned vessels operated without one they were ironically considered to be pirates.
    PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH TWO
  • 11.
    • Frequent warfare between powerful nations / had encouraged / what amounted to piracy / under another name. / Privately-owned, / armed ships attacked / and robbed ships / belonging to an enemy country, / and did so / with the full blessing of their governments. / Such private vessels were called “privateers” / and would carry a “letter of marque”, / an official licence from their governments, / which allowed the captains of the privateers / to carry out their attacks. / Yet / if the captains of privately-owned vessels / operated without one / they were ironically considered to be pirates. /
    READING ALOUD MEANINGFULLY: PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH TWO
  • 12.
    • Frequent warfare between powerful nations had encouraged what amounted to piracy under another name . Privately-owned, armed ships attacked and robbed ships belonging to an enemy country, and did so with the full blessing of their governments . Such private vessels were called “privateers” and would carry a “letter of marque”, an official licence from their governments, which allowed the captains of the privateers to carry out their attacks. Yet if the captains of privately-owned vessels operated without one they were ironically considered to be pirates.
    The countries were often at war. That was war time, not peace time. Powerful = strong Nations = countries Motivated The activities committed were no longer called acts of piracy. was equal to Full = Total, complete, absolute Blessing = Permission, Support Surprisingly being thought of Legally recognised document
  • 13. Where was the IRONY?
    • Privately owned vessels which successfully obtained the full blessing of the government to plunder other ships at sea.
    Privately owned vessels which failed to obtain the full blessing of the government because they did not get any letter of marque. These were the privateers. These were the pirates. Whether they were “privateers” or “pirates”, they were both doing the same thing on the high seas: they attacked and plundered their victims’ships. The irony was: the privateers were not considered to be pirates while those who did not have the letter of marque were considered to be so. The irony of this situation is the way in which this situation is ODD or ABSURD or AMUSING because we do not see any real difference between the privateers and the pirates, except in name.
  • 14. SHOW YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF PARAGRAPH TWO
    • Ask yourselves this question constantly: Do I understand what I have read?
    • Are you able to use your own words to report what you read to another person?
    • Use Mr. Yeo’s explanation of words, phrases and expressions to help you rewrite Passage A Paragraph Two. Do not add any new facts. You are also not summarising. You are supposed to “paraphrase” – use your own words based on your understanding of the text.
    • 4. Read it to yourself and compare your understanding with the original paragraph.
  • 15.
    • Continual and [---1---] fighting amongst strong countries had [---2---] a new kind of piracy. Privateers who [---3---] ships and carried a legal [---4---] called the letter of marque, attacked enemy ships with [---5---] governmental support. However if the captains of privately-owned ships operated without such a document, they were
    • [---6---] considered to be pirates. That was so even [---7---] both the privateers and the pirates were actually committing the [---8---] acts of plundering in the high seas.
    COMPRENHENSION CLOZE OF PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH TWO TAKE NOTE: 1189 N Level Examinations Requirement for 4D
  • 16.
    • Continual and [REGULAR] fighting amongst strong countries had [MOTIVATED] a new kind of piracy. Privateers who [OWNED] ships and carried a legal [DOCUMENT] called the letter of marque, attacked enemy ships with [COMPLETE] governmental support. However if the captains of privately-owned ships operated without such a document, they were
    • [SURPRISINGLY] considered to be pirates. That was so even [THOUGH] both the privateers and the pirates were actually committing the [SAME] acts of plundering in the high seas.
    ANSWER KEY TO COMPRENHENSION CLOZE OF PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH TWO TAKE NOTE: 1189 N Level Examinations Requirement for 4D
  • 17.
    • Continual and regular fighting amongst strong countries had motivated a new kind of piracy. Privateers who owned ships and carried a legal document called the letter of marque, attacked enemy ships with complete governmental support. However if the captains of privately-owned ships operated without such a document, they were surprisingly considered to be pirates. That was so even though both the privateers and the pirates were actually committing the same acts of plundering in the high seas.
    PARAPHRASE OF PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH TWO
  • 18.
    • Continual and regular fighting amongst strong countries / had motivated a new kind of piracy. / Privateers who owned ships / and carried a legal document called the letter of marque, / attacked enemy ships / with complete governmental support. / However / if the captains of privately-owned ships operated without such a document, / they were surprisingly considered to be pirates. / That was so even though / both the privateers / and the pirates / were actually committing the same acts of plundering / in the high seas. /
    READIN ALOUD MEANINGFULLY: PARAPHRASE OF PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH TWO
  • 19.
    • Also, owners of privately-owned ships applied for a “letter of marque” when they had suffered a loss of cargo at the hands of an enemy ship; they had an understandable right to retaliate against enemy ships in the same way. But soon the opportunity to sail out in search of plunder became available for ship-owners who had suffered no such loss; licences to operate as official “privateers” were put up for sale by governments. Thus they were responsible for the continued growth of piracy, even if it carried the official title of privateering.
    PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH THREE
  • 20.
    • Also, owners of privately-owned ships applied for a “letter of marque” when they had suffered a loss of cargo at the hands of an enemy ship; they had an understandable right to retaliate against enemy ships in the same way. But soon the opportunity to sail out in search of plunder became available for ship-owners who had suffered no such loss; licences to operate as official “privateers” were put up for sale by governments . Thus they were responsible for the continued growth of piracy, even if it carried the official title of privateering.
    Hit back / fight back Loot / pillage Guilty of / To take the blame for “They” refers to “governments” Reasonable grounds
  • 21.
    • Privateers flourished in Caribbean waters during this time, because of the constant conflict there between navies from European countries. Many privateers from these countries sailed out into the Caribbean seas in search of a quick fortune. There was a steady supply of outcasts and drop-outs to serve as crew on board these ships, all of them dubiously protected by the “letters of marque”. Indeed, some countries soon became known for their ability to supply the rough, tough crew for the privateers. The nationality of the ship they served on did not matter to them; the loot was all they cared about. In spite of, or even because of, the barbarous motives of the crew, the ships were usually efficiently organized along democratic lines. Frequently the captain was elected by the sailors, and if he did not do well in leading his ship in lucrative raids, he might be abandoned on some island, or find his crew leaving for a more successful ship. Plunder financed the whole operation; if there was no plunder, there was no payment for the crew.
    PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH FOUR
  • 22.
    • Privateers flourished in Caribbean waters during this time, because of the constant conflict there between navies from European countries. Many privateers from these countries sailed out into the Caribbean seas in search of a quick fortune . There was a steady supply of outcasts and drop-outs to serve as crew on board these ships, all of them dubiously protected by the “letters of marque”. Indeed, some countries soon became known for their ability to supply the rough, tough crew for the privateers. The nationality of the ship they served on did not matter to them; the loot was all they cared about. In spite of, or even because of, the barbarous motives of the crew , the ships were usually efficiently organized along democratic lines. Frequently the captain was elected by the sailors, and if he did not do well in leading his ship in lucrative raids , he might be abandoned on some island, or find his crew leaving for a more successful ship. Plunder financed the whole operation; if there was no plunder, there was no payment for the crew .
    Many people who owned vessels became privateers Caribbean Seas Persistent fighting Easy money A flowing stream of unwanted people in society The country which owned it. Intentions Rule by the majority: Whoever got the most vote from the majority would rule. Lucrative: productive Raids: attacks Being left behind on purpose Running a pirate ship cost money too. The money to do so came from the attacks conducted on other ships at sea. Savage, unsavoury, Cruel, aggressive Passage A Paragraph Four
  • 23.
    • One of the most profitable wars for privateers was that fought more than a hundred and fifty years ago between France and England. Each side freely granted letters of marque to private ships to attack the shipping of the other and it was not long before the true pirates saw the advantage in joining the ranks of the privateers from either nation; they would be useful allies in hunting down unarmed ships. So the Barbary Corsairs from North Africa sailed alongside the French privateers, while pirates from the Mediterranean island of Malta swelled the numbers of the English privateers. Although it was difficult to distinguish between privateers and pirates in their violent trade, it was in the interests of powerful nations that privateering should continue: it gave their merchants much more opportunity for business than might have been possible sailing the seas with other, more respectable motives. The captains of these privateers had always found it difficult to draw the line between enemy and neutral ships, and when peace returned they found it equally as difficult to be content with honest wages earned by dull trading. They turned to piracy pure and simple. The fact that they would now be regarded as criminals did not appear to concern them.
    PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH FIVE
  • 24.
    • One of the most profitable wars for privateers was that fought more than a hundred and fifty years ago between France and England. Each side freely granted letters of marque to private ships to attack the shipping of the other and it was not long before the true pirates saw the advantage in joining the ranks of the privateers from either nation; they would be useful allies in hunting down unarmed ships. So the Barbary Corsairs from North Africa sailed alongside the French privateers, while pirates from the Mediterranean island of Malta swelled the numbers of the English privateers. Although it was difficult to distinguish between privateers and pirates in their violent trade , it was in the interests of powerful nations that privateering should continue: it gave their merchants much more opportunity for business than might have been possible sailing the seas with other, more respectable motives . The captains of these privateers had always found it difficult to draw the line between enemy and neutral ships, and when peace returned they found it equally as difficult to be content with honest wages earned by dull trading . They turned to piracy pure and simple. The fact that they would now be regarded as criminals did not appear to concern them.
    Both countries: France and England Issued, handed out The true pirates were at first not Interested in the favours offered by rival countries’ governments . Privateering was unrespectable but profitable. They became pirates as a way of life – to survive. When it was peace time, they did not care about whether they were being considered to be doing illegal activities in the high seas. They did not care what the law then thought about them as criminals. To tell the difference To be satisfied, To be happy Good point Violent trade: illegal business Dull trading: legal business Tell the difference To the benefit Respective motives – Honest intentions Non-enemy or Those not taking sides in the war. Passage A Paragraph 5
  • 25.
    • Many found favourable conditions for their activities. First there was the availability of good hiding places – waters dotted with small islands or a coast with secluded harbours. Then there was the ready market for their goods. One town cared nothing for the suffering of another. Pirates knew that their own townsmen would never ask questions if they had loot for sale from the ships of some nearby community; they bought it just as happily. The old proverb that “War makes thieves and Peace hangs them” had proved particularly true in the case of privateer turned pirate.
    PASSAGE A PARAGRAPH SIX
  • 26.
    • Many found favourable conditions for their activities. First there was the availability of good hiding places – waters dotted with small islands or a coast with secluded harbours. Then there was the ready market for their goods. One town cared nothing for the suffering of another. Pirates knew that their own townsmen would never ask questions if they had loot for sale from the ships of some nearby community; they bought it just as happily. The old proverb that “ War makes thieves and Peace hangs them ” had proved particularly true in the case of privateer turned pirate.
    “ Many” refers to those people who returned to take up piracy. Helpful, beneficial, advantageous How many favourable conditions were there, as identified in this paragraph? Steady demand for stolen goods Nobody felt sorry for anybody else. Stolen goods And valuables saying especially, highly when became War makes thieves: in times of war It is all right for people to rob and plunder, especially from the enemies. Law and order becomes irrelevant. Peace hangs them: When peace returns, law and order becomes relevant again. Those who rob and steal will be caught and punshished. Well hidden, Remote, Isolated Why did the privateers need to look for hiding places in times of peace? Passage A Paragraph 6
  • 27.
    • Colourful tales are told of the adventures of pirates, but behind these tales lies a more unpleasant truth. The exploits of pirates were usually blood-stained, and they obeyed no rules in following their violent trade; ships from their own towns were just as open to attack as those from any other. Many pirate ships had once served their governments in wars, as privateers, carrying an official licence to plunder enemy ships. In peace time the taste for plunder attracted them to piracy, and to a more cold-blooded practice of their profession.
    PASSAGE B PARAGRAPH ONE
  • 28.
    • Even today ships fall victim to the attacks of pirates. Not so long ago, the Global Mars, a ship bound for India with 6,000 tonnes of palm oil, was sailing through the crowded waters of the Malacca Straits. As night fell, its captain steered a leisurely course towards the coast of Thailand, the busy waters of the Malacca Straits now behind him; the bulk of the crew could relax in their cabins. Silently, an unlit vessel glided up behind the Global Mars. A masked man clambered aboard, then lowered a rope to his pirate accomplices in the boat below. Within minutes they had rounded up the startled crew, tied them up, and transferred them to the hold of the waiting boat.
    PASSAGE B PARAGRAPH TWO
  • 29.
    • Swiftly their captors anchored the Global Mars at sea, re-painted it, re-named it Bulawan, and sailed it into a pre-selected port, carrying forged identity papers and flying a different flag, and there unloaded their booty. Meanwhile the crew of the Global Mars had been dumped into an open boat and abandoned. After five days they were found off the coast of Phuket. They were lucky, in one sense; in recent years 72 crew and passengers have been killed in pirate attacks, and 26 people have gone missing.
    PASSAGE B PARAGRAPH THREE
  • 30.
    • Pirates are now operating world-wide, especially where the shipping routes are crowded and the ships move slowly, heavily laden, and sitting very low in the water. There pirates use boats capable of very high speed to overtake ships going half as fast. Moreover, there has been a rise in “ship-jacking”, i.e. the seizure of a ship and then sailing it under illegal ownership, as in the case of the Global Mars. The scale of that operation, as in other similar cases, indicates that an organized crime group was at work, for it exhibits their kind of professionalism. One gang of these “professional” pirates was found to be operating from a mother-ship, where police discovered arms, forged identity papers, and all the equipment needed to re-paint a captured vessel.
    PASSAGE B PARAGRAPH FOUR
  • 31. PASSAGE B PARAGRAPH FIVE
    • Whereas privateers could make the feeble boast that their activities were officially licensed by their country, modern pirates make no such pretence; theirs is an out-and-out assault on the ships of international owners. They have special encouragements for their operations. In countries which cannot afford the international prices of some essential goods there are always customers for the smuggled merchandise, regardless of the amount involved. That is why some modern pirates have even gone to the lengths of stealing huge vessels such as oil tankers, worth millions of pounds; they know where they can find willing buyers for the huge cargo.