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  1. 1. Instructional Design Knowledge Base
  2. 2. What is constructivism? • It is a theory to explain how knowledge is constructed in the human being when information comes into contact with existing knowledge that had been developed by experiences.
  3. 3. • It has its roots in cognitive psychology and biology and an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created in order to adapt to the world. • Students need to construct their own understanding of each concepts that will help them grow.
  4. 4. Cognitive Flexibility Theory • emphasizes the need to treat complex, ill-structured knowledge domains differently from simple, well-structured domains.
  5. 5. • suggests that learners grasp the nature of complexity more readily by being presented with multiple representations of the same information in different contexts.
  6. 6. Generative Learning Theory • An environment based theory suggesting that, instead of solving a pre-defined problem, learners must be subjected to generate their own learning by: – Generating their own problems – And then solving them…
  7. 7. Knowledge as Tools • . These tools and the associated design framework are in use, and anecdotal evidence of effects and impact is provided. Tools become more widely used to support the planning, implementation and management of instructional systems and learning environments.
  8. 8. Situated cognition • is a theory that posses that knowing is inseparable from doing by arguing that all knowledge is situated in activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts.
  9. 9. Social-Cultural Theory • is a process of appropriating 'tools for thinking', that are made available by social agents who initially act as interpreters and guides in the individual's cultural apprenticeship (Rogoff 1990). • the child learns from others in social contexts and during social exchange, but rather that the actual means of social interaction (language, gesture)
  11. 11. John Bransford (Vanderbilt University) has been an instrumental developer of this model, working with the Cognition & Technology Group (CTGV).
  12. 12. John Bransford • John Bransford (Vanderbilt University) has been an instrumental developer of a model, working with the Cognition & Technology Group (CTGV).
  13. 13. Jerome Bruner work in cognitive psycology lead to a theory delineated in his books The Process of Education.
  14. 14. Jerome Bruner • work in cognitive psychology lead to a theory delineated in his books The Process of Education and Toward a Theory of Instruction • believed that the goal of education is intellectual development. • His theory has four components: 1) curiosity and uncertainty, 2) structure of knowledge, 3) sequencing, and 4) motivation.
  15. 15. John Dewey
  16. 16. John Dewey • (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology.
  17. 17. Grabinger, Scott • Associate Professor in the Information and Learning Technologies Program at the University of Colorado at Denver. He is currently the director of the Faculty Technology Studio and the Technology and Learning Team. His educational background and curriculum vita can be explored at Ed.D. Retrieved September 9, 2002, from University of Colorado at Denver, Information and Learning Technologies Program
  18. 18. Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger
  19. 19. Jean Lave • Jean Lave was (and is) a social anthropologist with a strong interest in social theory, based at the University of California, Berkeley. Much of her work has focused on the ‗re-conceiving‘ of learning, learners, and educational institutions in terms of social practice.
  20. 20. Etienne Wenger • was a teacher who joined the Institute for Research on Learning, Palo Alto having gained a Ph.D. in artificial intelligence from the University of California at Irvine. (He is now an independent consultant specializing in developing communities of practice within organizations).
  21. 21. Seymour Papert
  22. 22. Seymour Papert • Mathematician • Seymour Papert is a MIT mathematician, computer scientist, and educator. He is one of the pioneers of artificial intelligence, as well as an inventor of the Logo programming language.
  23. 23. Jean Piaget
  24. 24. Jean Piaget • (August 9, 1896 –September 17, 1980) was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called ―genetic epistemology"
  25. 25. Rand Spiro
  26. 26. Rand Spiro • sees a messy complexity everywhere, in medicine, engineering—and teaching. That complexity is an inevitable part of advanced knowledge and a particularly thorny problem for teaching and learning.
  27. 27. Lev Vygotskie
  28. 28. Lev Vygotskie • (November 17 [November 5] 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Russian and Soviet psychologist, the founder of an original holistic theory of human cultural and biosocial development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, and leader of the Vygotsky Cicle.
  29. 29. Goals Of Instruction • Cuts a nice path between the main ideas that could make the students remember. • Educator's task is to figure out how "smart" students are and choose the right tasks for them to perform. • The primary role of teaching is not to lecture, explain, or just attempt to 'transfer' the knowledge from a book.
  31. 31. Action learning • is an educational process whereby people work and learn together by tackling real issues and reflecting on their actions. Learners acquire knowledge through actual actions and practice rather than through traditional instruction. • is done in conjunction with others, in small groups called action learning sets.
  32. 32. Anchored Instruction • approach is an attempt to help students become more actively engaged in learning by situating or anchoring instruction around an interesting topic. • Learning and teaching activities should be designed around an ―anchor‖ which is often a story, adventure, or situation that includes a problem or issue to be dealt with that is if the interest to the students.
  33. 33. Authentic learning • Authentic learning says that...we should learn what happens in the "real world", and become "cognitive apprentices" to the experts. When we learn about math, we learn to think like mathematicians. When we learn about the weather, we learn to use tools that a meteorologist would use. When we learn to draw, we are taught techniques that real artists use.
  34. 34. Case-Based Learning • Using a case-based approach engages students in discussion of specific scenarios that resemble or typically are real-world examples. • is learner-centered with intense interaction between participants as they build their knowledge and work together as a group to examine the case. The instructor's role is that of a facilitator while the students collaboratively analyze and address problems and resolve questions that have no single right answer.
  35. 35. Cognitive apprenticeship • is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice. • are designed, among other things, to bring these tacit processes into the open, where students can observe, enact, and practice them with help from the teacher.
  36. 36. Cognitive flexibility theory • Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. • when promoting knowledge acquisition and application in ill-structured domains. The complexity of such domain are best addressed through nonlinear learning aids, such as random access media.
  37. 37. Collaborative learning • is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. • refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task where each individual depends on and is accountable to each other.
  38. 38. Community of practice (CoP) • a group of people who share a craft and/or a profession. • It is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that the members learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally.
  39. 39. Discovery learning • is a technique of inquiry-based instruction and is considered constructivist based approach to education. • can occur whenever the student is not provided with an exact answer but rather the materials in order to find the answer themselves.
  40. 40. Distributed Learning (DL) takes place when: • a student is primarily at a distance from the teacher, • whether he/she is at home; or • connected to teachers from another learning facility
  41. 41. Epistemic games • are computer games that are essentially about learning to think in innovative ways. • designed to be pedagogical tools for the digital age where the player learns to think like professionals by playing a simulated game of such professions as management, engineering, journalism or urban planning.
  42. 42. Goal-based scenario • Students are exposed to prespecified content that the instructor chooses, and for that reason, the paradigm for goal-based scenarios is skewed slightly toward mastery learning. • teachers may design a diverse set of goals to help learners with different interests acquire the same skills.
  43. 43. Inquiry-based learning • describes approaches to learning that are based on the investigation of questions, scenarios or problems often assisted by a facilitator. • Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions.
  44. 44. Computer-based simulations •can be important tools to support learning. In this respect, socalled microworlds have been said to build substantial synergy between learning to think in systems frameworks and learning to deal with the complexity of actual settings.
  45. 45. Problem-based learning (PBL) • is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of problem solving. • Working in groups, students identify what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information that may lead to resolution of the problem
  46. 46. Rich environments for active learning • REALs, are comprehensive instructional systems that evolve from and are consistent with constructivist philosophies and theories. • provide learning activities that engage students in a continuous collaborative process of building and reshaping understanding as a natural consequence of their experiences and interactions within learning environments that authentically reflect the world around them
  47. 47. Reciprocal teaching • an instructional activity that takes the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text for the purpose of constructing the meaning of text. • approach provides students with four specific reading strategies that are actively and consciously used to support comprehension: Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing, and Predicting
  48. 48. Situated learning • learning that takes place in the same context in which it is applied. • such learning is situated in a specific context and embedded within a particular social and physical environment
  49. 49. WebQuest • an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes from the web. • These can be created using various programs, including a simple word processing document that includes links to websites.
  51. 51. Authentic assessment methods • An assessment that examines students' collective abilities. It presents students with real-world challenges that require them to apply their relevant knowledge, skills, attitudes and wisdom.
  52. 52. Learning through exploration • is a concept that involves use of handson manipulatives, student inquiry, thematic integrated-subject instruction, learning in multi-aged cooperative groups, and active participation in a project-based authentic assessment learning process.
  53. 53. Problem-oriented activities • A step-by-step procedure with discussions of rubrics, authentic assessment and incorporating inquiry and multiple intelligences will give participants all the background they need to develop PBL activities for their classrooms.
  54. 54. Visual formats and mental models • can benefit our understanding of the role of information visualization (InfoVis) in human cognitive activities, there has been little workdetailing the nature of internal representations, the relationship between internal and external representations and how interaction is related to these representations.
  55. 55. Thank you for listening :D This report is created by: Joverey Angel D. Oton