What is constructivism?
• It is a theory to explain
how knowledge is
constructed in the human
being when information
comes into contact with
existing knowledge that
had been developed by
• It has its roots in cognitive
psychology and biology and an
approach to education that lays
emphasis on the ways knowledge is
created in order to adapt to the
• Students need to construct their own
understanding of each concepts that
will help them grow.
Cognitive Flexibility Theory
• emphasizes the need to treat
knowledge domains differently
from simple, well-structured
• suggests that learners grasp
the nature of complexity more
readily by being presented
with multiple representations
of the same information in
Generative Learning Theory
• An environment based theory
suggesting that, instead of
solving a pre-defined problem,
learners must be subjected to
generate their own learning by:
– Generating their own problems
– And then solving them…
Knowledge as Tools
• . These tools and the associated design
framework are in use, and anecdotal
evidence of effects and impact is
provided. Tools become more widely
used to support the planning,
implementation and management of
instructional systems and learning
• is a theory that posses that knowing
is inseparable from doing by arguing
that all knowledge is situated in
activity bound to social, cultural and
• is a process of appropriating 'tools for
thinking', that are made available by
social agents who initially act as
interpreters and guides in the
individual's cultural apprenticeship
• the child learns from others in social
contexts and during social exchange,
but rather that the actual means of
social interaction (language, gesture)
(Vanderbilt University) has been an instrumental
developer of this model, working with the Cognition &
Technology Group (CTGV).
• John Bransford (Vanderbilt
University) has been an
instrumental developer of a model,
working with the Cognition &
Technology Group (CTGV).
work in cognitive psycology lead to a theory
delineated in his books The Process of Education.
• work in cognitive psychology lead to a theory
delineated in his books The Process of
Education and Toward a Theory of Instruction
• believed that the goal of education is
• His theory has four components: 1) curiosity
and uncertainty, 2) structure of knowledge, 3)
sequencing, and 4) motivation.
• (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952)
was an American philosopher,
psychologist and educational
reformer whose ideas have been
influential in education and social
reform. Dewey was an important
early developer of the philosophy of
pragmatism and one of the founders
of functional psychology.
• Associate Professor in the Information and
Learning Technologies Program at the University
of Colorado at Denver. He is currently the
director of the Faculty Technology Studio and
the Technology and Learning Team. His
educational background and curriculum vita can
be explored at Ed.D. Retrieved September 9,
2002, from University of Colorado at Denver,
Information and Learning Technologies Program
• Jean Lave was (and is) a social
anthropologist with a strong interest
in social theory, based at the
University of California, Berkeley.
Much of her work has focused on the
‗re-conceiving‘ of learning, learners,
and educational institutions in terms
of social practice.
• was a teacher who joined the
Institute for Research on Learning,
Palo Alto having gained a Ph.D. in
artificial intelligence from the
University of California at Irvine.
(He is now an independent consultant
specializing in developing communities
of practice within organizations).
• Seymour Papert is a MIT
mathematician, computer scientist,
and educator. He is one of the
pioneers of artificial intelligence, as
well as an inventor of the Logo
• (August 9, 1896 –September 17,
1980) was a Swiss developmental
psychologist and philosopher known
for his epistemological studies with
children. His theory of cognitive
development and epistemological view
are together called ―genetic
• sees a messy complexity everywhere,
in medicine, engineering—and
teaching. That complexity is an
inevitable part of advanced
knowledge and a particularly thorny
problem for teaching and learning.
• (November 17 [November 5] 1896 – June
11, 1934) was a Russian and Soviet
psychologist, the founder of an original
holistic theory of human cultural and
biosocial development commonly referred
to as cultural-historical psychology, and
leader of the Vygotsky Cicle.
Goals Of Instruction
• Cuts a nice path between the main ideas
that could make the students remember.
• Educator's task is to figure out how
"smart" students are and choose the right
tasks for them to perform.
• The primary role of teaching is not to
lecture, explain, or just attempt to
'transfer' the knowledge from a book.
• is an educational process whereby people
work and learn together by tackling real
issues and reflecting on their actions.
Learners acquire knowledge through
actual actions and practice rather than
through traditional instruction.
• is done in conjunction with others, in
small groups called action learning sets.
• approach is an attempt to help students
become more actively engaged in learning
by situating or anchoring instruction
around an interesting topic.
• Learning and teaching activities should be
designed around an ―anchor‖ which is often
a story, adventure, or situation that
includes a problem or issue to be dealt with
that is if the interest to the students.
• Authentic learning says that...we should learn
what happens in the "real world", and become
"cognitive apprentices" to the experts. When
we learn about math, we learn to think like
mathematicians. When we learn about the
weather, we learn to use tools that a
meteorologist would use. When we learn to
draw, we are taught techniques that real
• Using a case-based approach engages students
in discussion of specific scenarios that
resemble or typically are real-world examples.
• is learner-centered with intense interaction
between participants as they build their
knowledge and work together as a group to
examine the case. The instructor's role is that
of a facilitator while the students
collaboratively analyze and address problems
and resolve questions that have no single right
• is a theory of the process where a
master of a skill teaches that skill to
• are designed, among other things, to
bring these tacit processes into the
open, where students can observe,
enact, and practice them with help
from the teacher.
Cognitive flexibility theory
• Theory and technology for the nonlinear
and multidimensional traversal of
complex subject matter.
• when promoting knowledge acquisition and
application in ill-structured domains. The
complexity of such domain are best
addressed through nonlinear learning
aids, such as random access media.
• is a situation in which two or more
people learn or attempt to learn
• refers to methodologies and
environments in which learners
engage in a common task where each
individual depends on and is
accountable to each other.
Community of practice (CoP)
• a group of people who share a craft
and/or a profession.
• It is through the process of sharing
information and experiences with the
group that the members learn from
each other, and have an opportunity
to develop themselves personally and
• is a technique of inquiry-based
instruction and is considered
constructivist based approach to
• can occur whenever the student is
not provided with an exact answer
but rather the materials in order to
find the answer themselves.
Distributed Learning (DL)
takes place when:
• a student is primarily at a distance
from the teacher,
• whether he/she is at home; or
• connected to teachers from another
• are computer games that are essentially
about learning to think in innovative
• designed to be pedagogical tools for the
digital age where the player learns to
think like professionals by playing a
simulated game of such professions as
management, engineering, journalism or
• Students are exposed to prespecified content that the instructor
chooses, and for that reason, the
paradigm for goal-based scenarios is
skewed slightly toward mastery
• teachers may design a diverse set of
goals to help learners with different
interests acquire the same skills.
• describes approaches to learning
that are based on the investigation
of questions, scenarios or problems often assisted by a facilitator.
• Inquirers will identify and research
issues and questions to develop their
knowledge or solutions.
•can be important tools to support
learning. In this respect, socalled
microworlds have been said to
build substantial synergy between
learning to think in
systems frameworks and learning
to deal with the complexity of
Problem-based learning (PBL)
• is a student-centered pedagogy in which
students learn about a subject through
the experience of problem solving.
• Working in groups, students identify
what they already know, what they need
to know, and how and where to access
new information that may lead to
resolution of the problem
Rich environments for active
• REALs, are comprehensive instructional
systems that evolve from and are consistent
with constructivist philosophies and theories.
• provide learning activities that engage students in a
continuous collaborative process of building and
reshaping understanding as a natural consequence of
their experiences and interactions within learning
environments that authentically reflect the world
• an instructional activity that takes the
form of a dialogue between teachers and
students regarding segments of text for
the purpose of constructing the meaning
• approach provides students with four
specific reading strategies that are
actively and consciously used to support
comprehension: Questioning, Clarifying,
Summarizing, and Predicting
• learning that takes place in the same
context in which it is applied.
• such learning is situated in a specific
context and embedded within a
particular social and physical
• an inquiry-oriented lesson format in
which most or all the information
that learners work with comes from
• These can be created using various
programs, including a simple word
processing document that includes
links to websites.
Authentic assessment methods
• An assessment that examines
students' collective abilities. It
presents students with real-world
challenges that require them to apply
their relevant knowledge, skills,
attitudes and wisdom.
Learning through exploration
• is a concept that involves use of handson manipulatives, student inquiry,
instruction, learning in multi-aged
cooperative groups, and active
participation in a project-based
authentic assessment learning process.
• A step-by-step procedure with
discussions of rubrics, authentic
assessment and incorporating inquiry
and multiple intelligences will give
participants all the background they
need to develop PBL activities for
Visual formats and mental
• can benefit our understanding of the role of
information visualization (InfoVis) in human
cognitive activities, there has been little
workdetailing the nature of internal
representations, the relationship between
internal and external representations and how
interaction is related to these representations.
Thank you for listening
This report is created by:
Joverey Angel D. Oton
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