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  1. 1. 1COMMON MISTAKES IN CREATING ENGLISH TEACHING LESSON PLAN Written by: Kuntum Trilestari, S.Pd. 20112506002 LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING EVALUATION Lecturer: Sofendi, M.A., Ph.D. Pascasarjana Program Sriwijaya University English Language and Study Program Palembang 2012
  2. 2. 2COMMON MISTAKES IN CREATING ENGLISH TEACHING LESSONPLAN Abstract In doing teaching and learning activity, one of the teacher‟s guides is lesson plan. Lesson plan is used in managing the teaching and learning activity. There is a rule from minister of education in creating the lesson plan. It is written in regulation of national education minister (PERMENDIKNAS) number 41 in 2007. Based on the rule, lesson plan has eleven components. Unfortunately, in the application of creating the lesson plan, there are still mistakes made by teachers especially in arranging a good structure of lesson plan components. Sometimes, teachers omit some parts of lesson plan. One of the presentation of Teaching Language and Learning Evaluation class presented that English curriculum written in lesson plan was not completely relevant to 2006 English Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP). This paper tries to elaborate the mistakes that commonly appear in creating the lesson plan. Furthermore, this paper tries to give suggestions to avoid making mistakes in creating English teaching lesson plan. Key words: Regulation of National Education Minister (PERMENDIKNAS) number 41 in 2007, 2006 English Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) Introduction Lesson plan is a guide for teachers in planning the teaching and learningactivities. A lesson plan is a framework and a road map, which each teacher willcreate using an individual style (Kelly, 2009). A good lesson plan gives a roughoutline of how a lesson in a classroom should run. It suggests ways ofapproaching the problem of teaching students about a particular subject. In this
  3. 3. 3case, lesson plan is focused on English subject. A lesson plan should include a lotof details, including information on possible problems and possible solutions thatmay appear during the class activity. It also has step by step instructions orteaching procedures to show what to teach and when. The guide of how to create a lesson plan in general, all school subject, isset in the rule named PERMENDIKNAS number 41 in 2007. This regulation ofnational education minister (PERMENDIKNAS) covers the information aboutplanning, implementation, evaluation and supervision of the learning process.Teachers should read and at least know about this rule. It helps the teachers increating the lesson plan well. Regulation of National Education Minister (PERMENDIKNAS) Number 41 in 2007: Standard Process Lesson plan is designed for each basic competency in one or moremeeting. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction(Wikipedia, 2012). Every teacher creates the lesson plan every meeting based onthe school academic calendar and schedule of education units. There are elevencomponents written in this rule about Lesson Plan Components (Attachment 1): 1. Subject Identity In subject identity, it includes: a. Education Unit (School Level Identity) b. Class c. Semester
  4. 4. 4 d. Subject e. Theme/Skill f. Meeting2. Standard Competency The standard competency is taken from 2006 English curriculum and must be the same (without editing). This is the minimum qualification skill of students which describes the mastery of skill and attitude that want to be achieved from a school subject.3. Basic Competency It is some of sub skills that should be achieved from standard competency. This basic competency should be relevant to the standard competency parts and must be written correctly based on 2006 English curriculum without editing.4. Indicator(s) It is a kind of behavior that can be measured or observed to achieve certain basic competencies. Indicator is designed by using operational verb in order to be measured and observed which covers knowledge, attitude and skill.5. Objective(s) It describes the process and result of study that is hoped to be achieved by the students based on the basic competency.
  5. 5. 56. Material It includes facts, concepts, principles and procedures, and written in the form of points based on the formulation indicator of competency achievement.7. Time Allocation It is arranged based on the need for basic competency achievement and load learned.8. Method It is used to create an atmosphere of teaching and learning process so that the learners achieve basic competencies or set of indicators that have been set. The selection of teaching methods adapted to the circumstances of learners, as well as the characteristics of each indicators and competencies to be achieved in each subject.9. Teaching and Learning Activity a. Pre activity This is an introduction session where the teacher motivates and attracts the students‟ attention to participate actively in teaching and learning process. b. Whilst activity In this part, the process of teaching and learning come up to achieve the basic competency. This activity should be in interactive way, inspiring, fun, challenging, motivating learners to participate actively and provide enough space for innovation, creativity. And
  6. 6. 6 independence based on their talents, interests and physical and psychological development of students. c. Post activity This is where the process of teaching and learning would be ended by having review, conclusion, scoring and reflecting, giving feedback. 10. Evaluation Procedure and instrument of process evaluation and result of study is based on competence and achievement indicators refer to the Standard Assessment. It means a test could be delivered to the students after at least one topic, indicator or basic competency is already being studied. 11. Learning Resources Determination of learning resources is based on the standard competency and basic competencies and teaching materials, learning activities, and indicators of achievement of competencies. After having the information about the lesson plan components, lessonplan should focuses on the 2006 English Education Unit Level Curriculum(KTSP). The main function of the lesson plan in an elementary to senior highschool setting is to ensure that teachers are following the correct curriculum andthat each class will be exposed to the data in a timely and efficient manner. Thegovernment gives the curriculum only, while the curriculum development issubmitted to the respective schools. Unfortunately, based on the interview fromteachers in Language Teaching and Learning Evaluation class, they stated that
  7. 7. 7curriculum on their school is not handed to teachers. In fact, some school justcopied annual program and semester program sample from other schools orinternet. These will affect to the lesson plan whether they have grabbed the rightand full text of curriculum or not. Mistakes in Creating English Teaching Lesson Plan1. Format In creating a lesson plan, the teacher should follow the format based on the regulation of national education minister number 41 in 2007. It is written that lesson plan has eleven components. The format is shown in the rule, so that the English teacher could follow the general rule of creating a lesson plan (Attachment 2 and 3). The format mistake that is found in creating the lesson plan is not totally following the general format. From three lesson planx analyzed in topic lesson plan, media and material presented on Language Teaching and Learning Evaluation class, three of them have different format. Some of them did not complete some components of lesson plan. For example in one lesson plan, there is no objective, no skill or theme, or no learning resource.2. Content The second common mistakes in creating English teaching lesson plan is in term of content. Based on the title, it should be relevance with the content. Sometimes, mistake happens in creating the content. For example, in standard competency, some lesson plans do not write in full text of the
  8. 8. 8 original text taken from 2006 English curriculum. Sometimes, the teachers edit the standard competency content and put the half text of it in lesson plan. It is not permitted because in writing the standard competency and basic competency, it must be the same as the original text of 2006 English curriculum. Teachers are not allowed to edit or cut the text.3. Objective versus Indicator There are two common mistakes in creating objective and indicator for lesson plan. First is in understanding of the difference between indicator and objective. Second is in the use of operational verb for indicators. Some teachers argued that the objective and indicator are the same so that they only create indicator in lesson plan and omit the objective. Some argued that the objective and indicator are similar so that they made the same points for indicator and objective but the different is for objective, there is no subject and directly use operational verb. For example: Indicators: At the end of teaching and learning process, the students are to be careful, fast and correct: (a) To understand the purpose of news item in pairs (b) To identify the generic structure of news item text in pairs Objectives: At the end of the learning process the students are able:
  9. 9. 9(a) To understand the purpose of news item text(b) To identify the generic structure of news item text Based on the regulation of national education minister(PERMENDIKNAS), the indicator is created to measure a skill based on thecompetency that wants to be achieved. While objective describes the processand result that is hoped to be achieved by the students based on the basiccompetency. It is clear that the objective and indicator are parallel andsupport each other. Second mistake in creating indicator is the use of operational verb.Indicator is created to measure a skill. It means that in creating indicator, ituses operational verb with the aim that the action can be measured. Mostly,lesson plan use the word „understand‟, „identify‟, „answer question‟. In fact,those words are still abstract and cannot be measured yet. The indicatorsshould use quantitative word in order to measure certain skill. For example: Indicators: (a) Students are able to identify at least three generic structure of news item. (b) Students are able to answer ten question correctly based on the paragraph.
  10. 10. 104. Material “The materials specified in the lesson are extraneous to the actual described learning activities. This means keep the list of materials in line with what you actually plan to do” (Kizlik, 2012). Material should be written in the lesson plan. It is useful to guide which part of activity that the students will do later. In material, there should be teaching material and learning material. Mostly, teachers omit the teaching material in lesson plan and only create the learning material taken from textbook. Ideally, material in lesson plan is a guide of what the teachers are going to teach. It is used as the note while teaching activity is running so that the teacher could focus in line of lesson plan.5. Language Language means the use of English in creating lesson plan. The use of English sometime imitates Indonesian style. Mistakes happen in language term when teachers should translate standard competency and basic competency. It is because the term used in Bahasa will be different in English context. For example the word „berterima‟ will be translated as „acceptable‟ not „thanks‟.6. Students activity The student activities described in the lesson plan do not contribute in a direct and effective way to the lesson objective. Dont have the students engaged in activities just to keep them busy (Kizlik, 2012). Students‟ activity created in lesson plan is focused on doing the assessment, not in term of
  11. 11. 11 understanding English. They are taught and learned about structure and form but not in the real context of communication. That is why when teachers create a lesson plan, the students activity will be doing assessment, test and homework. Conclusion The Regulation of National Education Minister (PERMENDIKNAS) hasset the general format and components of lesson plan. Ideally, the creation ofmaking a lesson plan for format should follow the rule. The guide for creatingEnglish teaching lesson plan refers to the 2006 English curriculum (KTSP).Unfortunately, there are still some mistakes in creating lesson plan such asmistakes in format, content, objective versus indicator, material, language andstudents activity. Some mistakes written in this paper is based on topic analysis inLanguage Teaching and Learning Evaluation class held for at least 4 months,especially from lesson plan topic presentation. Suggestion In writing English teaching lesson plan, it should follow the format andcomponents required by the regulation of national education minister. The clarityof content is important in order to guide teacher in handling teaching and learningactivities. The understanding of indicator and objective is based on the teachers‟perception but guided in the rule. If teachers still have problems in describingindicator and objective, it should be discussed in teachers meeting to solve this
  12. 12. 12problem. And remember, teaching English is not only about structure and formbut also meaning and context. Do not teach textbook to the students, but followthe standard and basic competency needs to be achieved for suitable materials.And for students activity, do not lecture above or below the students‟ level ofunderstanding. Create a lesson plan based on the students‟ needs. ReferencesCapati, J., & Taylor, S. (2010). 5 Mistakes that Students and Teachers Should Make. Retrieved on June 2, 2012, from Convergemag: 111510.htmlJohanson, M. (2006). Eight Common Lesson Plan Mistakes. Retrieved on June 2, 2012, from Yahoo Voice: plan-mistakes-33700.html?cat=4Kelly, M. (2009). What is a lesson plan? Retrieved on May 29, 2012, from lesson-plan/what-is-a-lesson-plan.htmKizlik, B. (2012). Six Common Mistakes in Writing Lesson Plans. Retrieved on June 2, 2012, from Adprima: (2012). Lesson Plan. Retrieved on May 29, 2012, from Wikipedia:
  13. 13. 13Attachment 1 PERMENDIKNAS NOMOR 41Dalam membuat dan mempersiapkan RPP untuk sekolah dasar dan menengah kitaharuslah mengacu pada peraturan yang ada dan telah di legitimasi oleh pihak yangberwewenang dalam hal ini pemerintah. Berdasar PERMENDIKNAS NOMOR 41 TAHUN2007 Tentang STANDAR PROSES UNTUK SATUAN PENDIDIKAN DASAR DAN MENENGAH,RPP yang di buat oleh guru harus memenuhi 11 komponen RPP dan Prinsip-prinsippenyusunannya.RPP dijabarkan dari silabus untuk mengarahkan kegiatan belajar peserta didik dalamupaya mencapai KD. Setiap guru pada satuan pendidikan berkewajiban menyusun RPPsecara lengkap dan sistematis agar pembelajaran berlangsung secara interaktif,inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasiaktif, serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas, dan kemandiriansesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik.RPP disusun untuk setiap KD yang dapat dilaksanakan dalam satu kali pertemuan ataulebih. Guru merancang penggalan RPP untuk setiap pertemuan yang disesuaikan denganpenjadwalan di satuan pendidikan.Komponen RPP adalah : 1. Identitas mata pelajaran ; Identitas mata pelajaran, meliputi: satuan pendidikan, kelas, semester, program/program keahlian, mata pelajaran atau tema pelajaran, jumlah pertemuan. 2. Standar kompetensi ; Standar kompetensi merupakan kualifikasi kemampuan minimal peserta didik yang menggambarkan penguasaan pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan yang diharapkan dicapai pada setiap kelas dan/atau semester pada suatu mata pelajaran. 3. Kompetensi dasar ; Kompetensi dasar adalah sejumlah kemampuan yang harus dikuasai pesertadidik dalam mata pelajaran tertentu sebagai rujukan penyusunan indikator kompetensi dalam suatu pelajaran. 4. Indikator pencapaian kompetensi ; Indikator kompetensi adalah perilaku yang dapat diukur dan/atau diobservasi untuk menunjukkan ketercapaian kompetensi dasar tertentu yang menjadi acuan penilaian mata pelajaran. Indikator pencapaian kompetensi dirumuskan dengan menggunakan kata kerja operasional yang dapat diamati dan diukur, yang mencakup pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan. 5. Tujuan pembelajaran ; Tujuan pembelajaran menggambarkan proses dan hasil belajar yang diharapkandicapai oleh peserta didik sesuai dengan kompetensi dasar. 6. Materi ajar ; Materi ajar memuat fakta, konsep, prinsip, dan prosedur yang relevan, dan ditulis dalam bentuk butir-butir sesuai dengan rumusan indikator pencapaian kompetensi. 7. Alokasi waktu ; Alokasi waktu ditentukan sesuai dengan keperluan untuk pencapaian KD dan beban belajar.
  14. 14. 14 8. Metode pembelajaran ; Metode pembelajaran digunakan oleh guru untuk mewujudkan suasana belajar dan proses pembelajaran agar peserta didik mencapai kompetensi dasar atau seperangkat indikator yang telah ditetapkan. Pemilihan metode pembelajaran disesuaikan dengan situasi dan kondisi peserta didik, serta karakteristik dari setiap indikator dan kompetensi yang hendak dicapai pada setiap mata pelajaran. Pendekatan pembelajaran tematik digunakan untuk peserta didik kelas 1 sampai kelas 3 SD/MI. 9. Kegiatan pembelajaran a. Pendahuluan ; Pendahuluan merupakan kegiatan awal dalam suatu pertemuan pembelajaran yang ditujukan untuk membangkitkan motivasi dan memfokuskan perhatian peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif dalam proses pembelajaran. b. Inti ; Kegiatan inti merupakan proses pembelajaran untuk mencapai KD. Kegiatan pembelajaran dilakukan secara interaktif, inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif, serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas, dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik. Kegiatan ini dilakukan secara sistematis dan sistemik melalui proses eksplorasi, elaborasi, dan konfirmasi. c. Penutup ; Penutup merupakan kegiatan yang dilakukan untuk mengakhiri aktivitas pembelajaran yang dapat dilakukan dalam bentuk rangkuman atau kesimpulan, penilaian dan refleksi, umpan balik, dan tindak lanjut.10. Penilaian hasil belajar ; Prosedur dan instrumen penilaian proses dan hasil belajardisesuaikan dengan indikator pencapaian kompetensi dan mengacu kepada StandarPenilaian.11. Sumber belajar ; Penentuan sumber belajar didasarkan pada standar kompetensidan kompetensi dasar, serta materi ajar, kegiatan pembelajaran, dan indikatorpencapaian kom petensi.Prinsip-prinsip Penyusunan RPP 1. Memperhatikan perbedaan individu peserta didik; RPP disusun dengan memperhatikan perbedaan jenis kelamin, kemampuan awal, tingkat intelektual, minat, motivasi belajar, bakat, potensi, kemampuan sosial, emosi, gaya belajar, kebutuhan khusus, kecepatan belajar, latar belakang budaya, norma, nilai, dan/atau lingkungan peserta didik. 2. Mendorong partisipasi aktif peserta didik; Proses pembelajaran dirancang dengan berpusat pada peserta didik untuk mendorong motivasi, minat, kreativitas, inisiatif, inspirasi, kemandirian, dan semangat belajar. 3. Mengembangkan budaya membaca dan menulis; Proses pembelajaran dirancang untuk mengembangkan kegemaran membaca, pemahaman beragam bacaan, dan berekspresi dalam berbagai bentuk tulisan.
  15. 15. 15 4. Memberikan umpan balik dan tindak lanjut; RPP memuat rancangan program pemberian umpan balik positif, penguatan, pengayaan, dan remedial. 5. Keterkaitan dan keterpaduan; RPP disusun dengan memperhatikan keterkaitan dan keterpaduan antara SK, KD, materi pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, indikator pencapaian kompetensi, penilaian, dan sumber belajar dalam satu keutuhan pengalaman belajar. RPP disusun dengan mengakomodasikan pembelajaran tematik, keterpaduan lintas mata pelajaran, lintas aspek belajar, dan keragaman budaya. 6. Menerapkan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi; RPP disusun dengan mempertimbangkan penerapan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi secara terintegrasi, sistematis, dan efektif sesuai dengan situasi dan kondisi.Untuk kedepannya Kabar Sekolah akan berusaha menyajikan RPP Lengkap SD yangmengacu pada 11 komponen RPP dan Prinsip-prinsip Penyusunan RPP.
  16. 16. 16Attachment 2 (Bahasa version) RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP) A. Identitas Nama Sekolah : ................................... Mata Pelajaran : ................................... Kelas, Semester : ................................... Standar Kompetensi : ................................... Kompetensi Dasar : ................................... Indikator : ................................... Alokasi Waktu : ..... x ... menit (… pertemuan) B. Tujuan Pembelajaran C. Materi Pembelajaran D. Metode Pembelajaran E. Kegiatan Pembelajaran Langkah-langkah : Pertemuan 1  Kegiatan Awal  Kegiatan Inti  Kegiatan Penutup Pertemuan 2  Kegiatan Awal  Kegiatan Inti  Kegiatan Penutup Pertemuan 3. dst F. Sumber Belajar G. PenilaianMengetahuiKepala Sekolah..................., Guru Mata Pelajaran,.................................. ............................NIP. NIP.
  17. 17. 17Attachment 3 (English version) LESSON PLANA. Identity School name : ................................... Subject : ................................... Class, Semester : ................................... Standard Competency : ................................... Basic Competency : ................................... Indicators : ................................... Time Allocation : ..... x ... minutes (... meetings)B. The ObjectivesC. MaterialsD. MethodsE. Teaching and Learning Activities Steps: First meeting  PreActivity  Whilst Activities  Post Activities Second meeting  Early Activity  Core Activities  Closing Activities Third meeting. etc.F. Learning ResourcesG. Evaluation/TestAgreed by,School Principal, Teacher,.................................. .................................NIP. NIP.