Help infant learn & grow


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Help infant learn & grow

  1. 1. Help the Baby Grow & Develop with Human Rights Dr Kuntal BiswasMBBS, DPH, DNB(P), FCCP, FCAM, FMCESA Registrar Medical College & Hospitals, Kolkata. What differences do you see?
  2. 2. Life To the world you may be just one person, but to one person you may just be the world.” 2
  3. 3. Barker HypothesisPrenatal events establish lifelong physiologicalpatterns that may manifest as disease processesin later life.Term infants who are small for their gestationalage are predisposed to obesity and have anincreased susceptibility to cardiovascular diseaseand Type II diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance)in adulthood i.e „Adulthood Diseases of Infancy‟as a consequence of physiologic adaptations tounder-nutrition during fetal life.-David Barker, FRS, University of Southampton
  4. 4. Early Brain Development• All behavioral development has to do with the brain.• Brain development is dependent upon both experience and genetics i.e. Nature & Nurture• The brain has a great deal of plasticity and can recover over time.• Growth of the brain occurs from the inside.• There can be 15,000 synaptic connections for each cell.• By 2 yrs age baby‟s brain has double & by 3 yrs triple synaptic connections than adult brain, but in later life the brain mapping decreases due to inappropriate handling.• By age 3, 80% of synaptic connections are already made.• 60% of nutrition is used by the brain during the first year of life. This decreases to 30% by age 3.• During the first 10 years of life the brain is twice as active as that of an adult’s• By 2nd decade of life growth levels off and pruning begins.
  5. 5. Importance of Early Psycho-Social Care of the Baby • Babies thrive with warm, responsive early care. • Early care has a decisive, long lasting impact on how people develop, their ability to learn, and their capacity to regulate their own emotions. • Increased experiences define the wiring of infant‟s brain. • Genetic & environmental factors have a more dynamic, qualitative interplay.I.Q can be enhanced by teaching but EmotionalIntelligence can be increased by proper caring5
  6. 6. Human Brain Development Synapse Formation Dependent on Early Experiences Required3 Components1. Nutrition2. Prevention of infection3. Psycho Social Stimulation Synaptic Connections 6
  7. 7. Brain development 5 to 6 Weeks Forebrain 7 WeeksNeurons formingrapidly,1000‟s/ mts Midbrain Hindbrain• 50,000 brain cells produced/second in developing fetal brain• 100 billion brain cells in adult• 1million billion connections between these brain cells: Determine IQ.
  8. 8. Emerging Brain Structures• At 3 weeks after conception the neural plate, a flat structure of cells, forms• In the 4th month of prenatal development, axons begin to form myelin, which helps to speed transmission• Nerve cell generation complete.• Cortex beginning to wrinkle.• By 28 weeks after conception, the brain has all the neurons it will ever have• Myelinization completes by 30 yrs 7 Weeks 14 Weeks 6 Months 8
  9. 9. Eight Phases in Embryonic and Fetal Development at a Cellular Level1. Mitosis 2. Migration 3. Aggregation 4. Differentiation5. Synaptogenesis 6. Death 7.Rearrangement 8. Myelination Between 40 and 75 % of all neurons born in embryonic and fetal development do not survive.
  10. 10. Brain Cell Connections in the Early Monthsnewborn 1 month 3 months 6 months6 Years Old 14 Years Old 10
  11. 11. IYCF Practices- INDIA 2006-68/150 2008-69/150Key: 0-29% scores as 3/Red; 30-49% as 6/Yellow; 50-89% scores as 9/Blue; 90-100% scores as 10/Green. CountriesIYCF Practices Score Scor e 08 061. Initiation of Breastfeeding (within 1 hour) 3 3 India 69.0 68.02. Exclusive Breastfeeding (for first 6 months) 6 6 China 80. 5 Not done3. Median Duration of Breastfeeding 10 10 Nepal 80.5 71.54. Bottle Feeding (<6 months) 6 6 Pakistan 86.0 75.55. Complementary Feeding (6-9 months) 3 3 Bangla 87.0 91.56. National Policy, Programme and 5 2 DeshCoordination Sri Lanka 116.5 101.57. Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative 4.5 48. Implementation of the International Code 10 8 Growth Faltering by Age9. Maternity Protection 0 510. Health and Nutrition Care Systems 3.5 411. Mother Support and Community Outreach 5 412. Information Support 4 513. Infant Feeding and HIV 3 214. Infant Feeding during Emergencies 0 015. Mechanisms of Monitoring and Evaluation 5 7 11System
  12. 12. The Picture of Malnutrition-Today Under 5 under- nourished Children 10 Million die in the world, 2.2 million in India More than 50% of them contributed by Mal nutrition IMS Act E. Sakazakii (Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding What is it? Bottles and Infant Foods, 1992). ’Killer bug originating in The amendment of 2003 factories that elevated the IMS Act to produce the new heights by extending Formula. its scope to all products for Severe children under 2 years neurological disorders may 12 It is not a motorbike remain.
  13. 13. Intelligence quotient by type of feeding BF 12.9 points BF 2 points higher than FFhigher than FF Study in 9.5 year-olds Study in 3-7 1996 year-olds 1982 BF 8.3 points higher than FF Study in 7.5-8 BF 2.1 points year-olds higher than FF 1992Study in 6 months to 2 year- olds References: 1988 BM 7.5 points •Fergusson DM et al. Soc higher than no BM SciMed 1982 •Morrow-Tlucak M et al. Study in 7.5-8 SocSciMed 1988BF = breastfed year-olds •Lucas A et al. Lancet 1992FF = formula fed •Riva Eet al. Acta Paediatr 1996BM = breast milk 1992
  14. 14. Breast Crawl{Baby is given to mother’s breast just after delivery} 14
  15. 15. Good support is important in breastfeeding. Use a good pillow table or “My Brest Friend” Pillow. Use good foot support, as well. Bring Baby to you. Leaning over to feed will hurt your back. Football Hold Cradle Hold Cross-Cradle Side Lying Proper Foot Support is important1. Tickle from top lip to bottom lip. 2. Bring baby to you instead of you to him. 3. Make sure lips are flanged. Feeding Twin Position when awake 15 Colostrum Feeding Burping after feeding
  16. 16. Expressed Breast Milk & its use Collection, Storage, and Handling Wash hands 1st Hand expression Manual expression is an important skill for all nursing mothers. . The basic technique STEP 1 Cup the breast in hand with the thumb above and just behind the areola (dark area) & fingers below, forming a “C.” STEP 2 Squeeze thumb and fingers together while pushing back toward the chest wall. Do not slide fingers along the skin. STEP 3 Roll fingers forward, shifting the pressure from the back of the breast toward the nipple. STEP 4 The gentle pressure produced by rolling the thumb and fingers won‟t damage tender breast tissue and milk ducts but willBM can be release stored milk.stored at Rotate hand around the breast in order to drain all the milk temp Use each hand on each breast.for 8 hrs & in Work on one breast for 3 to 5 minutes, switch to the otherFreeze for breast, and then repeat the sequence on both breasts.24 hrs-3 dsThawed BF Expressing milk from both breasts using this technique takes mostto be fed in women 20 to 30 minutes. 16cup
  17. 17. POSTPARTUM BABY BLUES For Mother • Sunshine •Taking time to get dressed and• Transit period of fix hair • Light activity or exercisedepression (*after doctor clears for•Occurs first few days exercise in postpartum)after delivery • Balanced diet • Rest (as much as possible)•Mother may experience • Talking to partner & friendstearfulness, anorexia, dif about fears& concernsficulty sleeping, feeling • Talking about fears and concernsof let down • Support group of other•Usually resolves in mothers .10-14 days 17
  18. 18. Locomotors skills improve rapidly in the 15months after birth and progress can be measured by many developmental milestones. 30
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  20. 20. Children Learn What They LiveIf a child lives with criticism, he learns to condemn.If a child lives with hostility, he learns to fight.If a child lives with ridicule, he learns to be shy.If a child lives with shame, he learns to feel guilty.If a child lives with tolerance, he learns to be patient.If a child lives with encouragement, he learns confidence.If a child lives with praise, he learns to appreciate.If a child lives with fairness, he learns justice.If a child lives with security, he learns to have faith.If a child lives with approval, he learns to like himself.If a child lives with acceptance and friendship, he learns to find love in the world. 32 By Dorothy Law Nolte
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  22. 22. +Water +Fiber 34
  23. 23. Concept Map: Behavioral Approaches
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