Submitted by :
SANTHI BIJU
DHWANI SHAH
CONTENTS
a) INTRODUCTION
b) FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION
c) ATTRIBUTION THEORY
d) THE LINK BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND IND...
“The eye sees only what the
mind is prepared to
comprehend”
ROBERTSON DAVIES, quoted in The Wordsworth
Dictionary of Quotes
INTRODUCTION
Perception
A Process by which individuals
organize and interpret their sensory
impressions in order to give
m...
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION
FACTORS IN
TARGET
• MOTIVATION
• PROXIMITY
• SOUND
• SIZE
• BACKGROUND
• SIMILARITY
• NO...
Attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which
we judge people differently, depending on the
meaning we attribute t...
KEY ELEMENTS OF ATTRIBUTION THEORY
INDIVIDUAL
BEHAVIOUR
DISTINCTIVENESS
EXTERNAL INTERNAL
CONSENSUS
EXTERNAL INTERNAL
CONS...
ERRORS AND BIASES OF ATTRIBUTION THEORY
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the influence of
exter...
FREQUENTLY USED SHORTCUTS IN JUDGING OTHERS
Selective Perception
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis o...
Projection
Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people.
Stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of one’s perce...
Problem
A perceived discrepancy between the
current state of affairs and a desired
state.
Decisions
Choices made from amon...
THREE COMPONENT MODEL OF CREATIVITY
EXPERTISE
INTRINSIC
TASK
MOTIVATION
CREATIVE
THINKING
SKILLS
Perception and Individual...
DECISION MAKING
Rational Model:
Characterized by making consistent,
value- maximizing choices within
specified constraints...
DECISION MAKING IN ORGANIZATIONS
Bounded Rationality
Individuals make decisions by
constructing simplified models
that ext...
COMMON BIASES AND ERRORS IN DECISION MAKING
someone's subjective confidence in their judgments is reliably greater than th...
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
PERSONALITY GENDER MENTAL
ABILITY
CULTURAL
DIFFERENCESPerception and Individual Decision Making
ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS
PERFORMANCE EVLUATION
REWARD SYSTEM
FORMAL REGULATIONS
SYSTEM-IMPOSED TIME CONSTRAINTS
HISTORIC...
CONCLUSION
“What you see and hear depends a good deal on where you are standing;
it also depends on what sort of person yo...
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Perception and Individual Decision Making
BOOKS
1. Henry, D. &. (1993). Spatial Perception in Virtual Environ...
THANK YOU
Perception and Individual Decision Making
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Perception & individual decision making

  1. 1. Submitted by : SANTHI BIJU DHWANI SHAH
  2. 2. CONTENTS a) INTRODUCTION b) FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION c) ATTRIBUTION THEORY d) THE LINK BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING e) DECISION MAKING f) INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES g) ORGANIZTIONAL CONSTRAINTS Perception and Individual Decision Making
  3. 3. “The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend” ROBERTSON DAVIES, quoted in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Quotes
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Perception A Process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge. “WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE” The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. Perception and Individual Decision Making
  5. 5. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION FACTORS IN TARGET • MOTIVATION • PROXIMITY • SOUND • SIZE • BACKGROUND • SIMILARITY • NOVELTY FACTORS IN SITUATION • TIME • WORK SETTING • SOCIAL SETTING FACTORS IN PERCEIVER • ATITUDES • MOTIVES • INTEREST • EXPERIENCE • EXPECTATIONS PERCEPTION Perception and Individual Decision Making
  6. 6. Attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior. It suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior ,we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. This determination depends mainly on three factors: Distinctiveness consensus consistency ATTRIBUTION THEORY
  7. 7. KEY ELEMENTS OF ATTRIBUTION THEORY INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR DISTINCTIVENESS EXTERNAL INTERNAL CONSENSUS EXTERNAL INTERNAL CONSISTENCY INTERNAL EXTERNAL HIGH HIGH HIGHLOW LOW LOW OBSERVATION INTERPRETATION ATTRIBUTION OF CAUSE Perception and Individual Decision Making
  8. 8. ERRORS AND BIASES OF ATTRIBUTION THEORY Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. In general, we tend to blame the person first, not the situation. Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors . Thought: When student gets an “A” on an exam,. they often say they studied hard. But when they don’t do well, how does the self serving bias come into play? Hint: Whose fault is it usually when an exam is “tough”? In general, we tend to blame the person first, not the situation. Perception and Individual Decision Making
  9. 9. FREQUENTLY USED SHORTCUTS IN JUDGING OTHERS Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. Perception and Individual Decision Making
  10. 10. Projection Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. Perception and Individual Decision Making
  11. 11. Problem A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. Decisions Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant Perception and Individual Decision Making PERCEPTION OF THE DECISION MAKER OUTCOMES
  12. 12. THREE COMPONENT MODEL OF CREATIVITY EXPERTISE INTRINSIC TASK MOTIVATION CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS Perception and Individual Decision Making The ability to produce novel and useful ideas Helps people to: • Better understand the problem • See problems others can’t see • Identify all viable alternatives • Identify alternatives that aren’t readily apparent
  13. 13. DECISION MAKING Rational Model: Characterized by making consistent, value- maximizing choices within specified constraints. PROBLEM CLARITY KNOWN OPTIONS CLEAR PREFERENCES CONSTANT PREFERENCES NO TIME /COST CONSTRAINTS MAXIMUM PAY OFF Perception and Individual Decision Making
  14. 14. DECISION MAKING IN ORGANIZATIONS Bounded Rationality Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. Intuition decision making An unconscious process created out of distilled experience. Perception and Individual Decision Making
  15. 15. COMMON BIASES AND ERRORS IN DECISION MAKING someone's subjective confidence in their judgments is reliably greater than their objective accuracy, especially when confidence is relatively high. A tendency to fixate on initial information ,from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information . The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them. The tendency of individuals to believe that they can perfect the outcome of random events. An increases commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information. The tendency of people to favor information that confirms their beliefs. Perception and Individual Decision Making
  16. 16. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES PERSONALITY GENDER MENTAL ABILITY CULTURAL DIFFERENCESPerception and Individual Decision Making
  17. 17. ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS PERFORMANCE EVLUATION REWARD SYSTEM FORMAL REGULATIONS SYSTEM-IMPOSED TIME CONSTRAINTS HISTORICAL PRECEDENTS Perception and Individual Decision Making
  18. 18. CONCLUSION “What you see and hear depends a good deal on where you are standing; it also depends on what sort of person you are.” C.S. LEWIS, The Magician's Nephew Perception in Decision-making is based on a person’s internal understanding of reality rather than reality itself. Perception and Individual Decision Making
  19. 19. BIBLIOGRAPHY Perception and Individual Decision Making BOOKS 1. Henry, D. &. (1993). Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments: Evaluating an Architectural Application. 2. Hubel, M. L. (1988). Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth:Anatomy,physiology and perception. 3. Schermerhorn, H. (2005). Organizational Behavior. JOHN WILEY & SONS. WEBSITES 1. (2013, 04). Perception, Sensation. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 04, 2013, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Perception-Sensation-1612267.html 2. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://somepsychology.com/psisper2.htm 3. (2008, 10). Perception. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 10, 2008, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Perception-171322.html
  20. 20. THANK YOU Perception and Individual Decision Making
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