attitude -organisational behaviour


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attitude -organisational behaviour

  3. 3. THE NATURE AND DIMENSIONS OF ATTITUDES  “Attitudes”  Persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object  Characteristics of Attitudes  They tend to persist unless something is done to change them.  They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable.  They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs.
  4. 4. ATTITUDE MODEL Informational/ Cognitive (i.e. beliefs) Affective (i.e. emotions) Attitude Behavior
  5. 5.  Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event-- this is often referred to as the attitude object.  People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. Attitudes are judgments. They develop on the ABC model (affect, behavior, and cognition). The affective response is an emotional response that expresses an individual's degree of preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual's beliefs about the object. Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment.  It can also be defined as,” A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways.” For example, if someone says that “I like my Job”. This statement expresses his attitude towards his Job.
  6. 6. TYPES OF ATTITUDES  Job Satisfaction  A collection of positive and or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.  Job Involvement  Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self- worth.  Organizational Commitment  Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
  7. 7. • Only behavioral can be directly observed Behavioral – tendencies to behave in a particular manner towards an object (usually behavioral intentions) Informational – beliefs and information about the object Emotional – feelings about an object THE NATURE AND DIMENSIONS OF ATTITUDES  Components of Attitudes
  8. 8. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES  Attitudes structure can be described in terms of three components.  Affective component: this involves a person’s feelings / emotions about the attitude object. For example: “I am scared of spiders”.  Behavioral (or cognitive) component: the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave. For example: “I will avoid spiders and scream if I see one”.  Cognitive component: this involves a person’s belief / knowledge about an attitude object. For example: “I believe spiders are dangerous”.
  9. 9. Attitude and behavior are two quite different things. Attitude is a person's inner thoughts and feelings, while behavior is usually an outward expression of attitude, but the two are not always related. For instance, psychopaths are people whose attitudes are composed of low morality. However, this does not mean that they always commit immoral acts. Psychopaths are usually intelligent, so they know that even though there will be no moral consequences for them, there will still be legal consequences to deal with. This knowledge, in addition to their attitude, governs their behavior. When a person's attitude and behavior differ, dissonance will likely result, and a change in attitude or behavior will be the probable outcome. ATTITUDE BEHAVIOUR
  10. 10. This model is known as the ABC model of attitudes. The three components are usually linked. However, there is evidence that the cognitive and affective components of behavior do not always match with behavior. They evaluative statements in an attitude are either favorable or unfavorable. They reflect how one feel about something. A person can have thousands of attitudes. But OB focuses on a limited number of job-related attitudes.  These include job satisfaction,  job involvement (the degree to which person identifies  with his or her job and actively participates in it)  And organizational commitment (an indicator of loyalty to, and, identification with the organization).
  11. 11. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE  How attitudes are formed? How do you develop your attitude? Essentially attitudes are the outward manifestation of your inner values and beliefs.  These develop over time. As you grow you watch the significant people around you behaving in a particular way; you are being told to cherish certain things over others and you learn from your teachers and peers and come to value certain thins over other, thus forming your value system. These in turn give rise to development of your attitudes.
  13. 13.  Attitudes help predict work behavior  The following example might help to illustrate it. After introducing a particular policy, it is found from an attitude survey, that the workers are not too happy about it.  During the subsequent week it is found that the attendance of the employees drops sharply from the previous standard. Here management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism.
  14. 14.  Attitudes help people to adapt to their work environment  An understanding of attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. If the management can successfully develop a- positive attitude among the employees, they will be better adjusted to their work
  15. 15. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE  According to Katz, attitudes serve four important functions from the viewpoint of organizational behavior. These are as follows.  The Adjustment Function. Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment. Well-treated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job, management and the organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. In other words, attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and form a basis for future behavior.  Ego-Defensive Function. Attitudes help people to retain their dignity and self- image. When a young faculty member who is full of fresh ideas and enthusiasm, joins the organization, the older members might feel somewhat threatened by him. But they tend to disapprove his creative ideas as ‘crazy’ and ‘impractical’ and dismiss him altogether.
  16. 16.  The Value-Expressive Function. Attitudes provide individuals with a basis for expressing their values. For example, a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work.  The Knowledge Function. Attitudes provide standards and frames of reference that allow people to understand, and perceive the world around him. If one has a strong negative attitude towards the management, whatever the management does, even employee welfare programmes can be perceived as something ‘bad’ and as actually against them.
  17. 17. CHANGING ATTITUDES  Employees’ attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so. For example, if employees believe that their employer does not look after their welfare, the management should try to change their attitude and help develop a more positive attitude in them.  However, the process of changing the attitude is not always easy. There are some barriers which have to be overcome if one strives to change somebody’s attitude. There are two major categories of barriers that come in the way of changing attitudes:
  18. 18.  There are two major categories of barriers that come in the way of changing attitudes:  Prior commitment when people feel a commitment towards a particular course of action that have already been agreed upon and thus it becomes difficult for them to change or accept the new ways of functioning.  Insufficient information also acts as a major barrier to change attitudes. Sometimes people simply see any reason to change their attitude due to unavailability of adequate information.
  19. 19. SOME OF THE POSSIBLE WAYS OF CHANGING ATTITUDES  Providing New Information. Sometimes a dramatic change in attitude is possible only by providing relevant and adequate information to the person concerned. Scanty and incomplete information can be a major reason for brewing negative feeling and attitudes.  Use of Fear. Attitudes can be changed through the use of fear. People might resort to change their work habit for the fear of fear of unpleasant consequences. However, the degree of the arousal of fear will have to be taken into consideration as well.
  20. 20.  Resolving Discrepancies: Whenever “people face “a dilemma or conflicting situation they feel confused in choosing a particular course of action.  Like in the case where one is to choose from” between two alternative courses of action, it is often become difficult for him to decide which is right for him. Even when he chooses one over the other, he might still feel confused. If some one helps him in pointing out the positive points in favor of the chosen course of action, he person might resolve the his dilemma.
  21. 21.  Influence of friends and peers A very effective way of changing one’s attitude is through his friends and colleagues. Their opinion and recommendation for something often proves to be more important. If for example, they are all praise for a particular policy introduced in the work place, chances are high that an individual will slowly accept that even when he had initial reservations for that.  Co-opting. If you want to change the attitude of some body who belongs to a different group, it is often becomes very effective if you can include him in your own group. Like in the case of the union leader who are all the time vehemently against any management decision, can be the person who takes active initiative in implementing a new policy when he had participated in that decision making process himself.
  22. 22. JOB ATTITUDES AND ACTUAL BEHAVIOR  The belief, attitude, intention sequence is presumably followed by actual behavior.  This traditional model suggests that behaviors (including job performance) are largely influenced by job attitudes. (e.g., absenteeism)  Recently, this traditional model has been questioned as being too simple and some more comprehensive alternatives have been developed.
  23. 23. THE THEORY OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Desire to reduce dissonance • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance
  27. 27. MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES  Job Satisfaction  Job Involvement  Psychological Empowerment  Organizational Commitment  Affective commitment  Continuance commitment  Normative commitment  Perceived Organizational Support (POS)  Employee Engagement
  28. 28. WHAT IS JOB SATISFACTION?  A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs.  Two aspects of satisfaction.  Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job:  The work itself  Compensation  Career opportunities
  29. 29. HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION  Based in history of Job Satisfaction  Formal research began in mid-1930’s  1932 I/O textbooks had no mention of job satisfaction or organizational commitment  By 1972 over 3000 articles published specifically exploring worker attitudes  Why interest developed  Methodological breakthroughs  Survey methods  Statistical techniques
  30. 30. MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION  Single Global Rating Method  Only a few general questions  Remarkably accurate  Summation Score Method  Identifies key elements in the job and asks for specific feeling about them
  31. 31. WHAT CAUSES JOB SATISFACTION?  The Work Itself – the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction  Pay – not correlated after individual reaches a level of comfortable living  Advancement  Supervision  Coworkers
  32. 32. THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE  Satisfaction and Productivity  Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive.  Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.  Satisfaction and Absenteeism  Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.  Satisfaction and Turnover  Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.  Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers.
  34. 34. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR (OCB)  Voluntary, informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness.  Job satisfaction is strongly related to OCB.  The different forms of OCB:  Helping behaviour and offering assistance.  Conscientiousness to the details of work.  Being a good sport.  Courtesy and cooperation.
  35. 35. SUMMARY  Attitudes have traditionally been described as a process in which we logically calculate our feelings toward the attitude object based on an analysis of our beliefs. Thus, beliefs predict feelings, which predict behavioral intentions, which predict behavior. But this traditional perspective overlooks the role of emotions, which have an important influence on attitudes and behavior  Behavior sometimes influences our subsequent attitudes through cognitive dissonance. People also have personality traits which affect their emotions and attitudes.  Belief + Value = Attitude > Behavior.
  36. 36.  A good “fit” between the values of employees and their supervisors and organization enhances job attitudes and behaviours.  Job Satisfaction  Affects many behaviors that are not directly related to performance (e.g., absenteeism, OCBs)  Fostering commitment is important  Continuance commitment lower performance, while affective commitment increases performance
  37. 37. REFERENCES  Attitudes Influence on Behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved from boundless - Better than your assigned text books: behavior/drivers-of-behavior/attitudes-influence-on-behavior/  Luthans, F. (2008). Organizational Behavior. Mc Graw Hill International Edition.  ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR – ATTITUDE. (n.d.). Retrieved from attitude/.  What Are Attitudes? (n.d.). Retrieved from Pearson Education : cw/index.html
  38. 38.  WORKPLACE EMOTIONS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://highered.mcgraw-  (n.d.). Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction. Retrieved from  Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction: - lecture%202%20values,%20attitude%20and%20job%20satisfaction. pdf  McLeod, S. A. (2009). Attitudes and Behavior - Simply Psychology. Retrieved from  Hogg, M., & Vaughan, G. (2005). Social Psychology (4th edition). London: Prentice-Hall .