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  • 1. JAINISM
    Jainism is a Religion and a Way of Life
  • 2. Vegetarianism
    Animal Compassion
    For thousands of years,
    Jains have been practicing
    vegetarianism
  • 3. Meditation
    For thousands of years,
    Jains have been practicing
    Meditation and Yoga
    Meditation & Yoga
  • 4. For thousands of years,
    Jains have been practicing
    Equality
    Equality
  • 5. Environmentalism
    For thousands of years,
    Jains have been
    Environmentalist
  • 6. Anekantvad
    For thousands of years,
    Jains have been practicing
    Non-Absolutism
    (Respect other views)
    (Truth has many perspectives)
  • 7. ORIGINS
    Not known
    Possibly rooted in indigenous Indic culture before Aryan and Vedic age
    7
  • 8. JAINS AND VEDAS
    Changes in Vedic traditions could be due to contacts with ancient Jaina traditions
    Not part of early Vedic traditions
    8
  • 9. TIRTHANKARA
    There are 24 Tirthankaras in Jainism
    According to Jain philosophy, all Tirthankaras were born as human beings but they have attained a state of perfection or enlightenment through meditation and self realization.
    Each was born at a time when humanity needed a new vision of religion
    9
  • 10. Tirthankaras
    Tirthankaras are also known as Jinas
    Jina = one who has conquered inner passions like desire and hatred.
    10
  • 11. MAHAVIRA
    • 24th and last Tirthankara
    • 12. Contemporary of the Buddha
    • 13. Born 599 BCE
    • 14. Kundagrama
  • BACKGROUND
    At age 30, Mahavira renounced all his wealth, property, wife, family, pleasures
    Fasted 2 days without water
    Took off clothes except for a cloth around his shoulder
    Tore out hair in 5 handfuls
    Vowed to neglect his body and suffer all pain
    Eventually gave up his cloth too (gave it to someone else who needed it)
    12
  • 15. MAHAVIRA
    AT 28, became a follower of Parsva
    13
  • 16. PARSVA
    • 23rd Tirthankara
    • 17. 9th C, BC
  • MAHAVIRA
    Achieved kevala (one who has the knowledge to achieve liberation
    Thus in lifetime recognized as Tirthankara
    Next 30 years, leader of community of disciples
    Monks, nuns, laypeople
    15
  • 18. JINA/TIRTHANKARA
    ‘ford builder’ – shows the way across the ocean of suffering
    NOT divine incarnations
    NOT ‘founders’ of religions
    Ordinary humans who have purified themselves
    Thus ‘teachers’ rather than gods or ‘god-men’
    Perfect human beings
    16
  • 19. SCHISMS
    Digambaras (sky clad)
    Total nudity
    Follow Mahavira’s example
    Clinging to clothing, even a loin cloth, is a form of attachment
    17
  • 20. Jain Monastics: Digambara(“sky clad male monks”)
    Given up all belongings
    Live alone or in smallgroups in the forests
    Teach Jainism
    Spend 3 months during rainy season in one location (to minimize killing insects on the ground from excessive walking)
  • 21. SCHISMS
    Svetambaras (white clad)
    Protest that external signs (i.e., clothing) are insignificant
    View Mahavira’s decision as an option but not a requirement
    19
  • 22. Jain Monastics: Two major sects
    Svetambara (“white clad”)
    Wear white robes
    Live in community
    Admit both men and women
    Some wear face masks to protect minute life forms from harm
  • 23. OTHER DIFFERENCES:
    Position of women:
    Svetambaras: women capable of becoming Tirthankaras
    (19th Tirthankara, Malli, was a woman)
    Women orders
    Digambaras: women must first be reborn as men
    No women orders
    21
  • 24. What is Jainism?
    A Philosophy of living.
    A
    Jains are followers of JINA,
    The conqueror of inner enemies.
    These inner enemies(Kashay)are
    anger (Krodh),
    greed (lobh),
    ego (man)
    Deceit (mayam)
  • 25. Inner enemies (Kashay) arise out of attachment(rag)-
    leading to greed and pride and aversion(dvesh):
    leading to deceit and anger.
  • 26. Jainism is a religion of self-help: with out any outside agency - even god coming to the rescue of the soul.
    The soul is its own destroyer or liberator.
  • 27. What is Jain Activity?
    Any activity of body or Mind that helps us
    Develop disinterest in satisfying the desires of our five senses (control over passions)
    2. Eliminate anger, ego, deceit, greed (Kashay) within our selves
    3. Develop a vision to look for only good in others and completely ignore bad in others.
    -Acharya Haribhadrasuriji (700-770AD
  • 28. THE ULTIMATE GOAL
    To free our soul from its bondage of Karma
    Through
    Samyak Darshan (Rational prception)
    Samyak Gnyan (Rational Knowledge)
    Samyak Charitra (Rational Conduct)
  • 29. Unique Teachings of Jainism
    • God is not a Creator, Preserver or Destroyer of the Universe
    • 30. Every living being has a potential to become God
    • 31. Path of liberation is to follow rational perception, rational Knowledge and rational conduct
    • 32. Conquer your desire by your own effort to attain liberation
  • Unique Teachings of Jainism
    • Proper knowledge of universal substances and fundamental Tattvas are essential for rational perception, knowledge and conduct
    • 33. Self purification, penance, austerity and meditation are essential for rational conduct
  • JAINA METAPHYSICS
    Pluralistic
    Relativistic
    Pluralistic (Anakandavada)
    Doctrine of Manifoldness of reality
    • Matter and sprit are separate
    • 34. There are innumerable atoms and souls
    • 35. Each possesses innumerable qualities.
  • Relativistic (Syadvada)
    1.Sapta Bangi Nyaya (Theory of relativity of knowledge)
    • Syat asti (May be it is- Relatively a thing is real)
    • 36. Syat nasti (May be it is not – Relatively a thing is unreal)
    • 37. Syat asti nasti (May be it is and it is not – Relatively a thing
    is both real and unreal)
    • Syat avaktavyah (May be it is indescribable – Relatively
    a thing is indescribable)
    • Syat asti ca avaktavyah (May be it is not and is indescribable-
    Relatively a thing is real and is indescribable)
    • Syat asti nasti ca avaktavyah (May be it is not and is
    indescribable – Relatively a thing is unreal and is indescribable)
    • Syat asti ca nasti ca avaktavyah (May be it s , is not and is
    indescribable-Relatively a thing is real unreal and indescribable)
  • 38. Anekantavad and Syadvad
    • Reality (object) has many facets. It has many qualities and properties. This is known as Anekant or multifacetedness
    • 39. The method or language of expressing this multifacetedness is called Syadvad
  • Anekantvad
    • It is a doctrine of multifacetedness of reality
    • 40. It is a philosophy or doctrine of non-absolutism
    • 41. It explains reality metaphysically
  • Syadvad
    • It is a theory of conditional predication
    • 42. It is a theory of relativity of propositions or judgments
    • 43. It explains reality epistemologically
    • 44. It is a method of expressing multifacetedness of objects by using the qualifies ‘Syad’