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What Is the Added Value of NegativeLinks in Online Social Networks?Jérôme Kunegis, Julia Preusse, Felix SchwagereitInstitu...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 2Social Networks: Ties between ...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 3Some People Dont Like Each Other
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 4Real Social Networks Contain N...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 5Online Social Networks Have Ma...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 6Where Are the Negative Ties?
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 7They Are on Slashdot.org79,120...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 8And Epinions.com131,828 users;...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 9What Is the Added Value of Neg...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 10Pro: More information about t...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 11Our IdeaIf negative links can...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 12Machine Learning TaskPrediction
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 13Related Problem: Prediction o...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 14Indicators for Link Predictio...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 15Centrality-based IndicatorsDe...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 16Neighborhood-based Indicators...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 17Link Prediction: Edge vs No E...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 18Our Task: Positive Edge vs Ne...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 19A Good and Simple Idea Which ...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 20Learning Feature Weights by R...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 21Measuring Prediction Accuracy...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 22Prediction Accuracy
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 23Lets Look at the DataSlashdot...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 24Combine PageRank and Cosine S...
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 25EvaluationAll >0.5
Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 26How Much Better Does It Get I...
http://konect.uni-koblenz.de/Add a (positive?) link to me on Twitter!@kunegisThank You!
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What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks?

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We investigate the "negative link" feature of social networks that
allows users to tag other users as foes or as distrusted
in addition to the usual friend and trusted links. To
answer the question whether negative links have an added value for an
online social network, we investigate the machine learning problem of
predicting the negative links of such a network using only the positive
links as a basis, with the idea that if this problem can be solved with
high accuracy, then the "negative link" feature is redundant. In
doing so, we also present a general methodology for assessing the added
value of any new link type in online social networks. Our evaluation is
performed on two social networks that allow negative links: The
technology news website Slashdot and the product review site Epinions.
In experiments with these two datasets, we come to the conclusion that a
combination of centrality-based and proximity-based link prediction
functions can be used to predict the negative edges in the networks we
analyse. We explain this result by an application of the models of
preferential attachment and balance theory to our learning problem, and
show that the "negative link" feature has a small but measurable added
value for these social networks.

Published in: Education, Technology, Spiritual
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Transcript of "What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks?"

  1. 1. What Is the Added Value of NegativeLinks in Online Social Networks?Jérôme Kunegis, Julia Preusse, Felix SchwagereitInstitute for Web Science and Technologies (WeST), University of Koblenz–LandauWe thank Paolo Massa for providing the Epinions dataset. The research leading to these results has received funding from theEuropean Communitys Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement n° 257859, ROBUST.
  2. 2. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 2Social Networks: Ties between People
  3. 3. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 3Some People Dont Like Each Other
  4. 4. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 4Real Social Networks Contain Negative Ties
  5. 5. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 5Online Social Networks Have Many Forms of Positive Links
  6. 6. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 6Where Are the Negative Ties?
  7. 7. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 7They Are on Slashdot.org79,120 users; 392,326 positive ties; 123,255 negative tieshttp://konect.uni-koblenz.de/test/networks/slashdot-zoo[1] J. Kunegis, A. Lommatzsch, C. Bauckhage. The Slashdot Zoo: Mining a SocialNetwork with Negative Edges. In Proc. WWW, pages 741– 750, 2009.
  8. 8. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 8And Epinions.com131,828 users; 717,667 positive ties; 123,705 negative tieshttp://konect.uni-koblenz.de/networks/epinions[2] P. Massa, P. Avesani. Controversial users demand local trust metrics: anexperimental study on epinions.com community. In Proc. AAAI, pages 121– 126, 2005.
  9. 9. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 9What Is the Added Value of Negative Links?Pro: More information about the communityCon: More negativity in the community
  10. 10. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 10Pro: More information about the communityReally?What Is the Added Value of Negative Links?
  11. 11. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 11Our IdeaIf negative links can be predicted from positive ones, thennegative links do notbring any addedvalue to the network
  12. 12. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 12Machine Learning TaskPrediction
  13. 13. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 13Related Problem: Prediction of Future Ties (Link Prediction)Prediction
  14. 14. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 14Indicators for Link Prediction?Neighborhood-basedCentrality-based➔Common neighbors➔Cosine similarity➔Jaccard coefficient➔Adamic–Adar➔Exponential/Neuman graph kernel➔Paths of length 3➔Degree➔PageRank
  15. 15. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 15Centrality-based IndicatorsDegreePageRanku vf(u, v) = d(u) d(v)f(u, v) = PR(u) PR(v)
  16. 16. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 16Neighborhood-based IndicatorsCommon neighborsJaccard indexCosine similarityABu vf(u, v) = |A Ո B|f(u, v) = |A Ո B| / |A U B|f(u, v) = |A Ո B| / sqrt(|A| |B|)
  17. 17. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 17Link Prediction: Edge vs No Edge?tieno tie
  18. 18. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 18Our Task: Positive Edge vs Negative Edge vs No Edge?pos. tieneg. tieno tie
  19. 19. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 19A Good and Simple Idea Which Does Not Work?
  20. 20. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 20Learning Feature Weights by RegressionDataset Degree PageRank CommonneighborsPaths oflength 3CosinesimilaritySlashdot 0.2502 0.2321 −0.5411 −0.4866 −3.9434Epinions −0.0105 0.8498 −0.8587 −0.3827 −5.0360Centrality-based Neighborhood-basedPreferentialattachmentholds fornegative edgesConflictis avoided
  21. 21. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 21Measuring Prediction Accuracy(1) Neg-tie vs Pos-tie + No-tie(2) Neg-tie vs No-tie(3) Neg-tie vs Pos-tie
  22. 22. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 22Prediction Accuracy
  23. 23. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 23Lets Look at the DataSlashdot Epinions
  24. 24. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 24Combine PageRank and Cosine Similarityf = ® ({ ) − ¯ log(cos)log(PR) if cos = 0min(log(PR)) otherwiseSlashdot Epinions
  25. 25. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 25EvaluationAll >0.5
  26. 26. Jérôme Kunegis et al. What Is the Added Value of Negative Links in Online Social Networks? 26How Much Better Does It Get If We Have Negative Links?The “enemy” functionadds 0.05 pointsof AUC to knowingnegative ties
  27. 27. http://konect.uni-koblenz.de/Add a (positive?) link to me on Twitter!@kunegisThank You!
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