Seams and Stitches
A seam is defined as a line over which two or
more fabrics are superimposed over each
other. A seam may also contain the row or
rows of stitching threads used to
superimpose the fabrics.
A stitch is how an interlacing threads move
over and between the two or more
superimposed fabrics, joining them. Stitch is
also applied at the edges of the fabric to
avoid unraveling of ends.
Roll no. M/MFM/12/15
MFM 2nd Semester
A categoryof seams in which two or
more piles of fabric are overlaid,one on
the top of other with raw edgesaligned
and sewn togetherat the designated
distance from the raw edges,with one
or more rows of stitch.
Side seams of skirt, in seams of jeans,
dress stacks, finishing belt ends,
attaching elastic to waistline, ends of
waist bands on jeans, collars or cuffs,
Super imposed seam on denim sides
Super imposed seam on shirt sides
A category of seams in which two or
more piles of fabric are overlappedwith
raw edges exposed or the seam
allowance is folded under and stitched
with one or more rows of stitching.
Main seaming of denim jackets, jeans,
and overalls.Fabrics that will not ravel,
unlined garments, side seams of shirts,
joining lace to another fabric, attaching
Lapped seam with single stitch line
Lapped seam with double stitch line
A bound seam classis formedby sewing
one piece of fabric or binding as it
encompasses the edge of one or more
Finishing necklines, sleeves hems, inside
waistbands of trousers and pants,
finishing seams on unlined jackets and
coats, adding interest as a design or
decorative detail, finishing raw edges,
continuing the motif design of lace.
Bound seam with single stitch line
Bound seam at neck line
A flat seamis constructedby having two
pieces of fabric meet precisely at their
edges. A cover stitch is used to sew the
two piecesof fabric together.This stitch
has multiple needlesandcreatesastitch
perpendicular to the seam line.
Close fitting garments where the seam
allowance may put pressure on the
body, high-stretch fabrics, athletic
apparel, shape wear, undergarments,
Flat seam with single stitch line
Flat seam on baseball ball
This seam is made using machines with
zigzag capability. The zigzag stitch
length (coverage) must be adjusted to
accommodate and prevent fabric from
raveling. The more the fabric ravels,the
closer together the stitches need to be
(tighter or shorter stitch length).
Adding a design detail, cording, piping,
tucking, welting, box or inverted
Ornamental seam with beads
Decorative seam on hand bags
A category of seam constructed with one or two
plies of fabric used to finish the edge of a
garment or item. Thereare three finishing types
within the classification.
1. Secures a folded edge to the shell fabric by
stitching, either on the face or back.
2. Stitching is used at the edge or to cover the
raw edges, and may or may not be folded.
3. Applies a binding on a single ply of a seam
allowanceto finish raw edges.
Bottomand side hems of shirts, trousers, raw
edgesof apparels, etc.
Edge finishing on raw edges of
Edge neatening seam on
Page no. 8
Page no. 9
Page no. 10
Multi Thread Chain Stitches
Page no. 11
Over Edge Stitches
Page no. 12
Covering Chain Stitches
Page no. 13
Class 100- Chain Stitches
Chain stitchesare produced by one or more needle
threadsand are characterized by interloping.
Oneneedlethread ispassed through the fabric, form
needle loop and is secured by the next loop formed by
the same thread.
Chain stitch is elastic and thicker than lockstitch and
can easily be ravelled,
Particular care isrequired to prevent runbackfromthe
Used for temporary stitching or for Blind stitching
Hemming, Belt Loops, Padding Operations& Felling.
Typesof Chain Stitches:
Type 101, 103 and 104
Formed with only one thread introduced
fromone side of material only.
Formed with one thread and a curved
needle which passes from left to right,
entering and exiting from same side of
material carrying a needle thread which is
intercepted by a blind looper.
Class 200- Hand Stitches
This type is originated fromhand stitches. It is
produced froma single thread. Thisthread is
passed through the fabricfromone side to
another and the stitch is secured by the single line
of thread passing in and out of the garment.
Stitching of costly dresses, jackets, sample
Typesof Hand Stitches:
Running Basting: Temporary and decorative
Back stitch: Used whenever strength is
Diagonal Basting: Useful for slippery fabrics.
Buttonhole stitch: Decorative of functional
depending onclosenessof stitch.
Class 300- Lock Stitches
This type of stitches is produced with two or more
groups of threads. Here the two threadsare joined by
interlacing. Loopsof one group are passed through the
material and are secured by the thread of second
as bobbin thread. This stitch has enough strength and
same appearance onboth sides.
Underwear, most typesof apparels, decorative
Typesof Lock Stitches:
Type 301, 304, 308 and 309
Two threads, one needle and other bobbin
thread. Loop of needle thread passesthrough
material and interlaced with bobbinthread.
The constructionis similar to type 301, but the
needle bar moves as the material is fed giving
a zigzag stitch.
Double step zigzag lockstitch.
Class 400-Multi thread
This class is formed with two or more groups of
threads. Loops of one group of thread are passed
through the material and are secured by
interlacing and interloping with loops of another
group. Here on group is called needle thread and
another group looper thread.It hasanappearance
of lock stitch on the top but has a double chain
effect formedby a looper thread onthe under-side.
Used for setting elasticin waist bands, decorative
stitching on belts.
Typesof Multithread chain stitches:
Type 401, 404 and 406.
Loops of needle thread are passed through
materials and interlaced with loops of
bobbinthread. These interloping are drawn
up against underside of material.
Zigzag chain stitch, construction is same as
type 401, but needle bed moves as material
Two needle threads interlace with one
bobbin tread, which are then drawn up
underside of material.
Class 500-Over-edge chain
The stitch type in this class is formed with one or more
groups of threads. Here at least one group of thread
passes around the edge of material. So no thread from
the fabric can come out. The most frequently used
stitch of this type have one or two needle threadsand
one or two looper threads and thus forms a narrow
band of stitching along the edge of the fabric.
Edge neatening of knitted fabrics, where extensibility
of stitchesin important. Polo tees, sportswear,dance
Typesof Over Edge chain Stitches:
Type 503, 504, 512.
Two threads, needle thread passesthrough
material and is brought to edge where it is
interlaced with bobbinthreads. Edge of fabric
Three threads, one needle and two lower
bobbin threads. Needle thread interloopswith
one bobbinthread, thenthefirst bobbinthread
loop is interlaced with second bobbinthread.
Four thread over edge chain stitch.
Class 600-Over-edge chain
This type of stitches is generally produced with three
groups of threads. Threads of two groups can be seen
from either side. The first group of thread is called
third is called bottomcover thread. The stitchesof this
class are very complex and up to 9 threadscanbe used
in producing these stitches.
Knits, Lingerie, binding elastics, decoration, etc.
Typesof Over-Edge Chain Stitches:
Type 602, 605, 607
Formed with four threads, two needlethreads,
one bobbinand one cover threads. Needle
threadsare passed through loopsof covering
threadsonmaterial surface and interlace
with bobbinthread at underside of material.
Five threads, three needle, one covering and
one bobbin threads. Construction is same as
Six threads, four needle threads, one covering
thread and one bobbin thread. Construction is
same as 602 and 605.