Seams and stitches


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Classification of seams and types of Stitches. Pictorial examples

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Seams and stitches

  1. 1. Seams and Stitches A seam is defined as a line over which two or more fabrics are superimposed over each other. A seam may also contain the row or rows of stitching threads used to superimpose the fabrics. A stitch is how an interlacing threads move over and between the two or more superimposed fabrics, joining them. Stitch is also applied at the edges of the fabric to avoid unraveling of ends. Submitted by Kundan Ganvir Roll no. M/MFM/12/15 MFM 2nd Semester Seams and Stitches -Types and Classification
  2. 2. Seams- Classification Super-imposed seams Page no. 1 Lapped seams Page no. 2 Bound seams Page no. 3 Flat seams Page no. 4 Decorative seams Page no. 5 Edge neatening seams Page no. 6
  3. 3. Super-ImposedSeams Definition: A categoryof seams in which two or more piles of fabric are overlaid,one on the top of other with raw edgesaligned and sewn togetherat the designated distance from the raw edges,with one or more rows of stitch. Applications: Side seams of skirt, in seams of jeans, dress stacks, finishing belt ends, attaching elastic to waistline, ends of waist bands on jeans, collars or cuffs, seamedand stitched. 1 Super imposed seam on denim sides Super imposed seam on shirt sides
  4. 4. Lapped Seams Definition: A category of seams in which two or more piles of fabric are overlappedwith raw edges exposed or the seam allowance is folded under and stitched with one or more rows of stitching. Applications: Main seaming of denim jackets, jeans, and overalls.Fabrics that will not ravel, unlined garments, side seams of shirts, joining lace to another fabric, attaching patch pockets,decorativefinish 2 Lapped seam with single stitch line Lapped seam with double stitch line
  5. 5. Bound Seam Definition: A bound seam classis formedby sewing one piece of fabric or binding as it encompasses the edge of one or more piecesof fabric. Applications: Finishing necklines, sleeves hems, inside waistbands of trousers and pants, finishing seams on unlined jackets and coats, adding interest as a design or decorative detail, finishing raw edges, continuing the motif design of lace. 3 Bound seam with single stitch line Bound seam at neck line
  6. 6. Flat Seam Definition: A flat seamis constructedby having two pieces of fabric meet precisely at their edges. A cover stitch is used to sew the two piecesof fabric together.This stitch has multiple needlesandcreatesastitch perpendicular to the seam line. Applications: Close fitting garments where the seam allowance may put pressure on the body, high-stretch fabrics, athletic apparel, shape wear, undergarments, and swimwear. 4 Flat seam with single stitch line Flat seam on baseball ball
  7. 7. Decorative Seam Definition: This seam is made using machines with zigzag capability. The zigzag stitch length (coverage) must be adjusted to accommodate and prevent fabric from raveling. The more the fabric ravels,the closer together the stitches need to be (tighter or shorter stitch length). Applications: Adding a design detail, cording, piping, tucking, welting, box or inverted pleating, decorativestitching,etc. 5 Ornamental seam with beads between fabrics Decorative seam on hand bags
  8. 8. Edge NeateningSeam Definition: A category of seam constructed with one or two plies of fabric used to finish the edge of a garment or item. Thereare three finishing types within the classification. 1. Secures a folded edge to the shell fabric by stitching, either on the face or back. 2. Stitching is used at the edge or to cover the raw edges, and may or may not be folded. 3. Applies a binding on a single ply of a seam allowanceto finish raw edges. Applications: Bottomand side hems of shirts, trousers, raw edgesof apparels, etc. 6 Edge finishing on raw edges of trousers Edge neatening seam on handkerchief
  9. 9. Stitches- Classification Class 100 Chain Stitches Page no. 8 Class 200 Hand Stitches Page no. 9 Class 300 Lock Stitches Page no. 10 Class 400 Multi Thread Chain Stitches Page no. 11 Class 500 Over Edge Stitches Page no. 12 Class 600 Covering Chain Stitches Page no. 13 7
  10. 10. Class 100- Chain Stitches Chain stitchesare produced by one or more needle threadsand are characterized by interloping. Oneneedlethread ispassed through the fabric, form needle loop and is secured by the next loop formed by the same thread. Chain stitch is elastic and thicker than lockstitch and can easily be ravelled, Particular care isrequired to prevent runbackfromthe last stitch, Used for temporary stitching or for Blind stitching Applications: Hemming, Belt Loops, Padding Operations& Felling. Typesof Chain Stitches: Type 101, 103 and 104 Type 101- Formed with only one thread introduced fromone side of material only. Type 103- Formed with one thread and a curved needle which passes from left to right, entering and exiting from same side of material carrying a needle thread which is intercepted by a blind looper. 8
  11. 11. Class 200- Hand Stitches This type is originated fromhand stitches. It is produced froma single thread. Thisthread is passed through the fabricfromone side to another and the stitch is secured by the single line of thread passing in and out of the garment. Applications: Stitching of costly dresses, jackets, sample garments, etc Typesof Hand Stitches: Running Basting: Temporary and decorative purposes. Back stitch: Used whenever strength is important. Diagonal Basting: Useful for slippery fabrics. Buttonhole stitch: Decorative of functional depending onclosenessof stitch. 9
  12. 12. Class 300- Lock Stitches This type of stitches is produced with two or more groups of threads. Here the two threadsare joined by interlacing. Loopsof one group are passed through the material and are secured by the thread of second group.Onegroupisreferredasneedlethreadandother as bobbin thread. This stitch has enough strength and same appearance onboth sides. Applications: Underwear, most typesof apparels, decorative purposes. Typesof Lock Stitches: Type 301, 304, 308 and 309 Type 301- Two threads, one needle and other bobbin thread. Loop of needle thread passesthrough material and interlaced with bobbinthread. Type 304- The constructionis similar to type 301, but the needle bar moves as the material is fed giving a zigzag stitch. Type 308- Double step zigzag lockstitch. 10
  13. 13. Class 400-Multi thread chain stitch This class is formed with two or more groups of threads. Loops of one group of thread are passed through the material and are secured by interlacing and interloping with loops of another group. Here on group is called needle thread and another group looper thread.It hasanappearance of lock stitch on the top but has a double chain effect formedby a looper thread onthe under-side. Applications: Used for setting elasticin waist bands, decorative stitching on belts. Typesof Multithread chain stitches: Type 401, 404 and 406. Type 401- Loops of needle thread are passed through materials and interlaced with loops of bobbinthread. These interloping are drawn up against underside of material. Type 402- Zigzag chain stitch, construction is same as type 401, but needle bed moves as material is fed. Type 406- Two needle threads interlace with one bobbin tread, which are then drawn up underside of material. 11
  14. 14. Class 500-Over-edge chain stitch The stitch type in this class is formed with one or more groups of threads. Here at least one group of thread passes around the edge of material. So no thread from the fabric can come out. The most frequently used stitch of this type have one or two needle threadsand one or two looper threads and thus forms a narrow band of stitching along the edge of the fabric. Applications: Edge neatening of knitted fabrics, where extensibility of stitchesin important. Polo tees, sportswear,dance wear garments. Typesof Over Edge chain Stitches: Type 503, 504, 512. Type 503- Two threads, needle thread passesthrough material and is brought to edge where it is interlaced with bobbinthreads. Edge of fabric is sealed. Type 504- Three threads, one needle and two lower bobbin threads. Needle thread interloopswith one bobbinthread, thenthefirst bobbinthread loop is interlaced with second bobbinthread. Type 504- Four thread over edge chain stitch. 12
  15. 15. Class 600-Over-edge chain stitch This type of stitches is generally produced with three groups of threads. Threads of two groups can be seen from either side. The first group of thread is called needlethread,secondiscalledtopcoverthreadandthe third is called bottomcover thread. The stitchesof this class are very complex and up to 9 threadscanbe used in producing these stitches. Applications: Knits, Lingerie, binding elastics, decoration, etc. Typesof Over-Edge Chain Stitches: Type 602, 605, 607 Type 602- Formed with four threads, two needlethreads, one bobbinand one cover threads. Needle threadsare passed through loopsof covering threadsonmaterial surface and interlace with bobbinthread at underside of material. Type 605- Five threads, three needle, one covering and one bobbin threads. Construction is same as type 602. Type 607- Six threads, four needle threads, one covering thread and one bobbin thread. Construction is same as 602 and 605. 13