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4G Mobile Network & Applications
 

4G Mobile Network & Applications

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I use this presentation for opening 4G Mobile Technology seminar sessions. Usually it will be continued with 1 other presentation on LTE, 1 on WiMAX II, and 1 on applications.

I use this presentation for opening 4G Mobile Technology seminar sessions. Usually it will be continued with 1 other presentation on LTE, 1 on WiMAX II, and 1 on applications.

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    4G Mobile Network & Applications 4G Mobile Network & Applications Presentation Transcript

    • 4G Mobile Technologies
      An IEEE Comsoc Indonesia Chapter Lecture
    • @kuncoro
    • Mobile Communications
    • Critical Factors for Wireless Development
    • Web 2.0
    • Growth of Advanced Mobile Devices
    • Data Rate Requirements
      100
      INTERACTIVITY
      4G
      10
      EVDO
      STREAMING
      HSPA
      EVDO
      1
      EVDO
      MULTIMEDIA
      Peak data rate transmission (Mb/s)
      W-CDMA
      0.1
      MESSAGE
      CDMA-1X
      EDGE
      CDMA-2000
      0.01
      GPRS
      GSM
      0.001
    • Data Rate vs Mobility
      Fast
      LTE
      4G
      Medium
      Mobile
      WiMAX
      Slow
      3G
      2010
      Fixed WiMAX
      Movable
      WLAN
      Hiperlan /2
      Stationary
      2000
      0.1
      1
      10
      100
    • 4G Mobile Technology
    • GSM
      UMTS WCDMA
      GPRS
      EDGE
      HSDPA
      HSUPA
      EVDO EVDV
      IS-95
      CDMA
      1x
      WiMAX
    • 4G Objectives
    • 4G Approaches
    • All-IP Network
    • Application
      Network
      API
      Services
      Mobility Mgmt
      Resource Mgmt
      QoS Mgmt
      Convergence Sublayer
      2G
      3G
      WiMAX
      4G
      Physical
      Layered NGMN Architecture
    • Multiparty Conferencing
      Resource Sharing
      Virtual Collaboration
      Broadcasting
      Games
      ….
      Application
      Service
      SIP Applications Server
      Parlay / OSA
      ….
      SIP
      Diameter
      Session
      Control
      I-CSCF
      P-CSCF
      HSS
      S-CSCF
      MGCF
      SIP
      H.248
      MGW
      Access
      PSTN
      WiFi/WiMAX
      GPRS
      UMTS
    • AS
      S-CSCF
      HSS
      P-CSCF
      IMS
      IMS
      Lain
      I-CSCF
      GGSN
      IMS
      Lain
      IMS, Internet Multimedia Subsystem
      CSCF, Call Session Control Function
      (Serving, Proxy, Interrogating)
      GGSN, Gateway GPRS Support Node
      SGSN, Serving GPRS Support Node
      UTRAN, UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
      UMTS, Universal Mobile Telecom System
      HSS, Home Subscriber Server
      SGSN
      RNC
      UTRAN
      IMS
    • AAA
      PDG
      S-CSCF
      HSS
      WiMAX CSN
      P-CSCF
      IMS
      I-CSCF
      GGSN
      IMS
      Lain
      SGSN
      SFM
      SFA
      WiMAX ASN
      RNC
      IP ROUTER
      UTRAN
      ASN
      Lain
    • BGCF
      MGCF
      BGCF
      MGCF
      3GPP2
      PDF
      MGW
      MGW
      3GPP
      S-CSCF
      MRFC
      P-CSCF
      S-CSCF
      MRFC
      P-CSCF
      MS
      UE
      AS
      MRFP
      I-CSCF
      AAA
      AS
      MRFP
      HSS
      I-CSCF
      Data base
      SLF
      Position Server
      PDE
    • IMS: Enhanced
      Voice
      Charging Function
      Subscriber Profile Function
      SIP
      Video Phone
      CFCS
      Signalling Function
      Application Policy Function
      SIP
      HTTP
      RTSP
      RTSP signal proxy
      Video Streaming
      RTSP
      HTTP signal proxy
      HTTP
      TV
      QoS Policy & Media Function
      Media Transfer Function
      RTP
      HTTP
      Web
    • IPv6 Support
    • Cognitive Radio
    • Cognitive radio (CR), also related to software-defined radio (SDR), is a type of Radio in which communication systems are aware of their environment and internal state and can make decisions about their radio operating behavior based on that information and predefined objectives.
      Cognitive Radio
    • DSA & CR
    • IEEE 1900 is a suite to support cognitive radio (CR), dynamic spectrum access (DSA), and coexistence.
      Previous standards s.a. WiFi (802.11), Zigbee (802.15.4), and WiMAX (802.16) have included certain level of CR.
      CR will be related to dynamic spectrum access (DSA), which is the real-time adjustment of Spectrum Utilization in response to changing circumstances and objectives.
      The most interesting aspect is coexistence: resource selection to determine the type of wireless/mobile access.
      IEEE 1900
    • SCC41 Working Groups
    • Network Management
      Metropolitan
      Short-Range
      Cellular
      Network reconfiguration management
      WiMAX
      WiMAX II
      (806.16m)
      WiFi
      (802.11g)
      WiFi NG
      (802.11m)
      3G
      4G
      DSA-enabled
      Radios
      IEEE
      P1900.4
      P1900.4
      Terminal
      P1900.4
      Terminal
      Legacy
      terminal
      Terminal reconfiguration management
      Terminal reconfiguration management
      Multiplatform Portability
    • Access Scheme
    • New access schemes like Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), Interleaved FDMA and Multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems.
      WiMAX: OFDMA
      LTE: OFDMA (downlink), IFDMA (uplink)
      The other important advantage of the above is that they require less complexity for equalization at the receiver. This is an added advantage especially in the MIMO environments since the spatial multiplexing transmission of MIMO systems inherently requires high complexity equalization at the receiver.
      In addition to improvements in these multiplexing systems, improved modulation techniques are being used. Whereas earlier standards largely used PSK, more efficient systems such as 64QAM are being proposed for use with the LTE
      Access Scheme
    • Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing
      FDM in which sub-channels overlap without interfering
      OFDM
      Single Carrier Transmission
      (WCDMA etc)
      5 MHz
      Subcarriers
      Orthogonal Frequency
      Division Multiplexing
      e.g. 5 MHz
    • Adaptable to severe channel conditions without complex equalization.
      Robust against narrow-band co-channel interference.
      Robust against intersymbol interference (ISI) and fading caused by multipath propagation.
      High spectral efficiency.
      Efficient implementation using FFT
      Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors.
      Facilitates Single Frequency Networks (SFNs), i.e. transmitter macrodiversity.
      OFDM Advantages
    • TDMA/FDMA operation = OFDMA
      Frequency sub-channels are composed of multiple, non-adjacent carriers
      OFDMA: Combining TDMA and FDMA
    • Multipath – The Challenge
    • OFDM modulates in parallel multiple narrow band sub-carriers
      Multipath duration becomes short relative to symbol duration
      Pilot and guard sub-carriers are also inserted
      Multipath – The Solution
    • The sub-carriers are converted by IFFT to a time domain signal
      A guard interval (cyclic prefix) is added to collect multipath
      A long guard interval (GI) reduces efficiency but enhances multipath handling capability
      Multipath – The Solution
    • Narrowband Interference Rejection
      Easy to Avoid/Reject Narrowband Dominant Interference .
      Less Interfered Part of the Carrier Can Still Be Used .
      Interference Rejection/Avoidance
    • Using shaping on the signal peaks
      Limiting the PAPR to a constant value by vector reduction
      PAPR Reduction
    • Rectangular Spectrum Shape (Brick Wall)
      Small Frequency Guard band
      Spectrum Properties
    • Spectrum Properties
    • In OFDM, channel impairment are solved in the same way Group Delays are solved, by Channel estimation
      Group Delay
    • Phase Noise Effects
      Phase Noise Effect on S.C
      Phase Noise Effect on OFDM
    • Duplexing
      FDD
      duplex
      separation
      t
      f
      TDD
      guard period
      t
      f
    • FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) uses one frequency for the downlink, and a second frequency for the uplink.
      TDD (Time Division Duplexing) uses the same frequency for the downlink and the uplink.
      In both configuration the access method is OFDMA/TDMA .
      Duplexing (cont’d)
    • Spatial Multiplexing
    • Multiple antenna technologies are emerging to achieve high rate, high reliability, and long range communications.
      Spatial multiplexing gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. It involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. Independent streams can then be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. This increases the data rate into multiple folds with the number equal to minimum of the number of transmit and receive antennas. This is called MIMO (as a branch of intelligent antenna).
      Spatial Multiplexing
    • MIMO System
      Tx
      Rx
      y=Hx+n
    • MIMI Schemes
    • MIMO Techniques Comparison
    • MIMO Capabilities
    • Adaptive MIMO
    • Space Time Coding
      A space–time code (STC) is a method employed to improve the reliability of data transmission in wireless communication systems using multiple transmit antennas. STCs rely on transmitting multiple, redundant copies of a data stream to the receiver in the hope that at least some of them may survive the physical path between transmission and reception in a good enough state to allow reliable decoding.
    • Space Time Coding
      IFFT
      Filter
      DAC
      RF
      Tx Diversity Encoder
      IFFT Input Packing
      Subcarrier Modulation
      IFFT
      Filter
      DAC
      RF
      Diversity Combiner
      Sub channel Demod
      Decoder
      RF
      ADC
      Filter
      FFT
    • Schedules & Candidates
    • ITU 4G Schedule
    • LTE & WiMAX II Terminologies
    • Context-AwareMobile Applications
    • Location (micro)
      Geo location
      Available network
      User activity
      Features on device
      Speed & direction
      Favourite places
      Battery power
      QoC
    • User-Context
      User:
      • Interest
      • Device
      • Time
      • Location
      Admin
      Service
      Networks
      Personalised
      Services
    • User layer
      (anywhere, anytime)
      Personal
      Service
      Platform
      User experience management
      Service
      Discovery
      Service
      Composition
      Pervasiveness
      Context Management
      Conventional
      Service
      Platform
      e-Services
      2G
      3G
      LTE
      WiMAX
      Network access
    • Thank You
    • Kuncoro Wastuwibowo