1. Quality education is education thatworks for every child and enablesall children to achieve their full potential.The Child-Friendly Schools Manual was developed during three-and-a-half years of continuous work,involving UNICEF education staff and specialists from partner agencies working on quality education.It beneﬁts from ﬁeldwork in 155 countries and territories, evaluations carried out by the Regional Ofﬁcesand desk reviews conducted by headquarters in NewYork.We particularly acknowledge the contributionsof colleagues who participated in two CFS Writers’ Workshops held in Glen Cove, NewYork, in June 2005and August 2006.Project managers and ﬁnal writers: Cream Wright (lead writer), Changu Mannathoko and Maida Pasic.Edited, produced and distributed by UNICEF’s Division of Communication.
2. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALIntroductionReferencesChapter 1 – Purpose, scope and concept1.1 Background1.2 Purpose and scope1.3 Precursors of an evolving model1.4 Promise of a consolidated CFS modelChapter 2 – Dynamics of theory in practice2.1 Overview2.2 Implementation as an eclectic process2.3 Key principles, desired features andstandards2.4 Putting children ﬁrst2.5 Implementation of models in variouscountriesChapter 3 – Location, design and construction3.1 Introduction3.2 Pedagogy and design3.3 Locating schools or learning spaces3.4 Additional elements in design3.5 Factors inﬂuencing design3.6 Design with involvement of all3.7 Remaining challengesChapter 4 – School and community4.1 School-community links4.2 The school as a learning community4.3 The school in the community4.4 Reaching out to the community andbeyond4.5 Communities and child-friendlylearning spaces4.6 Policy implications4.7 Supervision and oversightChapter 5 – Schools as protective environments5.1 Introduction5.2 The right to learn in safe, healthyenvironments5.3 Children at special risk5.4 Assessing threats to health, safety andsecurity5.5 Reducing risks and increasingprotection5.6 School organization and management5.7 Child-friendly education in emergenciesChapter 6 – Learners, teachers and schoolmanagers6.1 School reform and learningachievement6.2 Preparing teachers6.3 School head as leader and mentor6.4 Organizing classrooms and learningspaces6.5 Pedagogic materials6.6 Learning and teaching methods6.7 CurriculumChapter 7 – Costs and beneﬁts7.1 ‘Costing’ the elements7.2 Estimating resource requirementsChapter 8 – Monitoring and evaluating8.1 Why monitor and evaluate?8.2 What needs to be monitored andevaluated?8.3 A focus on dynamic monitoring andevaluation8.4 The learner as the focus of monitoringand evaluation8.5 Monitoring and evaluation to supportCFS mainstreaming8.6 Monitoring and evaluation to supportinvestment8.7 An overview of experience with CFSmonitoring and evaluation8.8 Who should monitor and evaluate, andwhat are their potential roles?8.9 Other issues on monitoring andevaluation of CFS models8.10 The way forwardChapter 9 – Mainstreaming child-friendlyconcepts9.1 Understanding mainstreaming9.2 Simulation modelling andmainstreamingMANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
4. INTRODUCTION: WHY A CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL?4children around the world who donot attend school. But it is perhapseven more daunting to rectify thedeplorable conditions endured bymillions of children already in school,conditions that are antithetical tolearning, children’s well-being andtheir future livelihood.And children face negative conditionsnot only in school. The home andcommunity environment can alsopose challenges that make it difﬁcultfor children to enrol in school,attend regularly, complete the ﬁnalyear of the cycle or achieve theprescribed level of learning. Foodand water insecurity, undernutrition,parasitic infestations, unhygienicsurroundings, chronic poverty,household chores, harmful traditionalbeliefs and practices, domesticovercrowding, gender discrimination,HIV and AIDS, domestic violence,childcare deﬁciencies and theincreasing prevalence and severityof natural disasters related to climatechange are factors that can wreakhavoc with a child’s right to attendand complete school. Schoolsmust therefore focus on the wholechild, which means taking intoaccount conditions in the family orcommunity that might be hinderinghis or her educational progress.Fulﬁlling the education-relatedMillennium Development Goals(MDGs) requires not just getting allchildren into school, but makingsure that all schools work in the bestinterest of the children entrustedto them. This means providingsafe and protective schoolsthat are adequately staffed withtrained teachers, equipped withadequate resources and graced withappropriate conditions for learning.Recognizing that different childrenface different circumstances and havedifferent needs, such schools buildon the assets that children bring fromtheir homes and communities andalso compensate for shortcomingsin the home and communityenvironment. They enable childrento achieve, at a minimum, theknowledge and skills prescribedin the curriculum. They also helpthem develop the ability to thinkand reason, build self-respect andrespect for others, and reach their fullpotential as individuals, members oftheir communities and citizens of theworld. Child-friendly schools (CFS)embrace a multidimensional conceptof quality and address the total needsof the child as a learner.The case for a CFS manualVarious school models illustrate waysto improve the quality of education.However, it is the CFS modelsthat have emerged as the mostcomprehensive in their approachand the most widespread, both in thenumber of countries in which theyhave been put into practice and thegeographical distribution of thosecountries. Not surprisingly, CFSmodels vary from country to country.As the main proponent of theseCFS models, UNICEF has theresponsibility of providing a coherentaccount of them, summarizing theirmain features so as to create aprototype that can serve as the basisfor developing national capacitiesto design and implement CFS in awide range of countries. The sameprototype can also enable countriesto incorporate CFS standardsinto their educational plans and
5. 5CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALrealistically estimate the cost ofachieving basic education for allwith attention to quality standards.It is against this background thatUNICEF embarked on the preparationof this CFS manual, a practical guidethat aims to:(a) Provide an introduction tothe child-friendly concept, itsunderlying ideology and the keyprinciples from which the maincharacteristics of a child-friendlyschool can be derived in differentcontexts and circumstances.(b) Outline, with supportingarguments, the multiple ways inwhich CFS models consistentlycontribute to quality education ina wide range of national contexts.(c) Highlight the intrinsic value of CFSmodels for developing quality inany education system as:i. Flexible models that offer‘pathways’ to quality ratherthan prescribe blueprints thatshould be rigorously copied inall situations.ii. Heuristic models that offeropportunities to movetowards the quality standardsthrough a series of cumulativeimprovements rather thanimpose an overwhelming ‘one-off’ or ‘all-at-once’ approach.iii. Reforming models that requireserious reﬂection on basicprinciples and issues relatingto the whole child as a learnerand the conditions that make forsuccessful learning rather thanunreﬂectively apply a numberof technical inputs that areassumed to inﬂuence the qualityof education.(d) Provide practical guidance onthe design, construction andmaintenance of child-friendlyschools as safe, welcomingenvironments in which childrencan learn, emphasizing links withthe community, the inﬂuence ofpedagogic considerations, cost-effectiveness and sustainability.(e) Provide practical guidance on theoperation and management ofchild-friendly schools, elaboratingon the role of school heads,teachers, non-teaching staff, pupils,parents, communities and local andnational education authorities.(f) Provide practical guidance onclassroom processes in child-friendly schools, emphasizingsuch key features as:i. The role of teaching/learningaids and materials in creatinga stimulating environment thatis managed by the teacher andenriches the overall classroomexperience for the learner.ii. The interaction betweenteacher and learners, with theteacher as authority ﬁgure andfacilitator of learning and thelearner as active participantin a democratic process thatinvolves mutual respect.iii. The pedagogic process, whichis both structured enough tofacilitate measurable learningprogress and ﬂexible enoughto facilitate the use of a varietyof techniques for promotingachievement of learningoutcomes.(g) Highlight the importance ofcultivating a sense of communityin child-friendly schools by useof such features as:
7. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALAbdazi, H. (2007, October). Absenteeismand beyond: Instructional time loss andconsequences. World Bank Policy ResearchPaper No. 4376. Working Paper Series.Washington, DC: World Bank.Attig, G. & Hopkins, J. (2006). Assessingchild-friendly schools: A guide for programmanagers in East Asia and the Pacific.Bangkok: UNICEF East Asia and PacificRegional Office.Bernard, A. K. (1999). The child-friendlyschool: Concept and practice. Draft, preparedfor the Education Section. New York: UnitedNations Children’s Fund.Chabbott, C. (2004). UNICEF’s Child-friendlyschools framework: A desk review. New York:United Nations Children’s Fund.Dierkx, R. J. (Forthcoming). Micro-actionurban child-friendly planning and designguidelines for planners in Iran.Education for All: Is commitment enough?.(2003). Education International Report, No. 1.Brussels: Education International.Hulbert, A. (2007, April 1). Re-education. TheNew York Times Magazine, Section 6, 36–41.Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University.(n.d.). CHILD Project Update. Retrieved 23October 2008 fromhttp://www.inmu.mahidol.ac.th/CHILD/.International Rescue Committee. (2003).Classroom assistant professionaldevelopment training manual. Retrieved21 October 2008 from www.ineesite.org/tt_resource_kit/Classroom%20Assistant%20Professional%20Development%20Training%20Manual.doc.Letshabo, K. (2002). Technical evaluation ofbreakthrough to literacy in Uganda. Retrieved21 October 2008 from http://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/2002_Uganda_Literacy_rec_358398.pdf.Life Skills Development Foundation.(2000). ‘Child-Friendly’ community schoolsapproach for promoting health, psychologicaldevelopment, and resilience in children andyouth affected by AIDS. Chiang Mai, Thailand:The Life Skills Development Foundation.Little, A. (1995). Multigrade teaching: Areview of practice and research, serialNo. 12. London: Overseas DevelopmentAdministration.Lone, P. (1996). Comments: Keeping girls inschool. The Progress of Nations 1996. NewYork: United Nations Children’s Fund.Mwiria, K. (1990). Kenya’s harambeesecondary school movement: Thecontradictions of public policy. ComparativeEducation Review, 34(3), p. 350-368.Mercado, J. L. (2005, April). Grime, clothslippers and hope. Sun Star, MindanaoBulletin, Gold Star Daily, Scribe, VisayanDaily Star and other community newspapers.Visayas, Philippines.Miske, S. (2003). Proud pioneers: Improvingteaching and learning in Malawi throughcontinuous assessment. Washington, DC:American Institute for Research.Pinheiro, P. S. (2006, August 29). Report of theindependent expert for the United NationsStudy on violence against children. New York:United Nations.Pinheiro, P. S. (2006). World report on violenceagainst children. Geneva: United Nations.REFERENCES
8. REFERENCES8Portillo, Z. (1999, April 8). Latin Americagets poor marks. Retrieved 21 October 2008from http://www.converge.org.nz/lac/articles/news990408a.htm.Rodraksa, N. (2005, March). Batik painting inThailand: A life restored by art. Building backbetter: A 12-month update on UNICEF’s workto rebuild lives and restore hope since thetsunami. New York: United Nation’s Children’sFund.Rutther, M., Maughan, B., Mortimore, P., &Ouston, J., with Smith, A. (1979). Fifteenthousand hours: Secondary schools and theireffects on children. London: Open Books &Boston: Harvard University Press.UNESCO-UIS & UNICEF. (2005). Children outof school: Measuring exclusion from primaryeducation. Montreal: UNESCO Institute forStatistics.UNGEI. (n.d.). Nigeria: UNICEF and partnerscreate a model child-friendly school. NewYork: United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative.Retrieved 21 October 2008 from http://www.ungei.org/infobycountry/nigeria_321.html.UNICEF. (1999). The state of the world’s children2000. New York: United Nations Children’sFund.UNICEF. (2002). Child- and learning-friendly environment in primary schools inEthiopia: A documentation of the processes.Ethiopia: United Nations Children’sFund. Retrieved 21 October 2008 fromhttp://www.unicef.org/evaluation/files/ethiopia2002schoolclusterapproach.doc.UNICEF. (2002). Proyecto escuela amiga: Guíapara maestros y autoridades escolares. Mexico:United Nations Children’s Fund.UNICEF. (2002). Putting a face and a memoryto each student’s name: An interview with Mrs.Erlinda J. Valdez, Principal Francisco BenitezElementary School. Retrieved 21 October2008 from http://www.unicef.org/teachers/forum/0302.htm.UNICEF. (2004). Child friendly spaces/environments (CFS/E): An integrated servicesstrategy for emergencies and their aftermath.New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.UNICEF. (2007). Community contracts help buildchild-friendly schools in Madagascar. Retrieved21 October 2008 from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/madagascar_39221.html.UNICEF. (2008). A world fit for children. NewYork: United Nations Children’s Fund.UNICEF. (2008). The state of the world’s children2009. New York: United Nations Children’sFund.UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office.(2003). Inclusive education initiatives forChildren with Disabilities: Lessons from theEast Asia and Pacific region. Bangkok, Thailand:United Nations Children’s Fund.UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office.(2005). Assessing child-friendly schools: Aguide for programme managers in East Asiaand the Pacific (draft 5).World Food Programme & UNICEF. (2005).The Essential Package: Twelve interventions toimprove the health and nutrition of school-agechildren. Rome: WFP School Feeding Service.
9. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 1Purpose, scope and concept1.1 Background1.2 Purpose and scope1.3 Precursors of an evolving model1.4 Promise of a consolidated CFS model
10. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALSigniﬁcant progress has been madein the past decade towards fulﬁllingMillennium Development Goal 2(MDG 2) – universal access andcompletion of primary school by2015 – even though the relatedinterim target of MDG 3 – genderparity in primary and secondaryeducation by 2005 – was not achievedglobally. Many countries have scoredimpressive gains in both enrolmentand closing the gender gap ineducation.Recent data show a decrease in thenumber of children not enrolled inschool, from 94 million in 2002 to75 million in 2006. However, far toomany children who are enrolledstill fail to complete their education,dropping out due to poor schoolquality and other factors. At anygiven time, the number of childrenattending school is far less than thenumber enrolled, since dropping outof school is not immediately reﬂectedin enrolment data.An estimated 115 million primary-school-age children were notattending school in 2002 (UNESCO-UIS & UNICEF, 2005), and around 101million were not attending schoolin 2006 (UNICEF, forthcoming). Inaddition to poor education quality,such persistent challenges to schoolattendance as child labour, HIV andAIDS, civil conﬂict, natural disasters,chronic environmental degradationand deepening poverty continue tothreaten gains in school enrolment andcompletion rates in many countries.The challenge in education is notsimply to get children into school,but also to improve the overall qualityof schooling and address threatsto participation. If both quality andaccess are tackled, children who areenrolled in primary school are likelyto continue, complete the full cycle,achieve expected learning outcomesand successfully transition tosecondary school.There is an organic link betweenaccess and quality that makes thelatter an integral part of any strategyfor achieving the education MDGsand Education for All (EFA) goals.School quality must therefore be ofcentral interest to policymakers andpractitioners concerned with thelow primary education survival andcompletion rates in various regions ofthe world. In West and Central Africa,for instance, only 48.2 per cent of thechildren enrolled in the ﬁrst gradesurvive to the last grade of primaryschool. The comparable survival ratefor countries in Eastern and SouthernAfrica is 64.7 per cent.1.1 BACKGROUNDCHAPTER 1PURPOSE, SCOPE AND CONCEPT
11. CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE, SCOPE AND CONCEPT2These trends have given rise toconcerted efforts to tackle theissue of quality in basic educationworldwide, with such agencies asUNICEF intensifying their work toaddress education quality moresystematically. It is in this context thatUNICEF’s strategy and programminghave evolved over time, culminatingin child-friendly school (CFS) modelsas comprehensive ways of dealingwith all factors affecting quality.Like most reality-based innovations,the CFS models are not simplyan abstract concept or a rigidmethodological prescription. Theyrepresent pragmatic pathwaystowards quality in education thathave evolved (and are still evolving),from the principle of education asa human right to a child-centeredideology that regards the best interestof the child as paramount at alltimes. This makes the child centralto the educational process and themain beneﬁciary of key decisions ineducation. But it does not mean thatCFS models are inﬂexible ideologicalblueprints. Because they aregrounded in the reality of resourceconstraints and lack of capacity fordesigning and implementing idealsolutions (see Chapter 2), they adhereto the principle of ‘progressiverealization’ of children’s right toquality education.CFS advocates are willing tonegotiate priorities regarding whatis in the best interest of the child andmake trade-offs based on what isfeasible for schools and educationsystems to accomplish within a giventime frame, using available resourcesand capacities.1.2 PURPOSE AND SCOPEThe purpose of a CFS model isto move schools and educationsystems progressively towardsquality standards, addressing allelements that inﬂuence the well-being and rights of the child as alearner and the main beneﬁciaryof teaching, while improving otherschool functions in the process.Quality standards should make itpossible for all children to accessschool, survive from grade to gradeand complete the cycle on time; theyshould also provide an enrichededucational experience throughwhich students can thrive, developand achieve their full potential. Tothis end, CFS models are concernedwith harnessing the full involvementand support of all parties in aposition to facilitate children’s rightto a quality education. These parties,or ‘duty bearers’, include parents,communities, teachers, school heads,education planners and civil societygroups, as well as local and nationalgovernments and their externalpartners. Their involvement enablesschools and education systems toprovide the conditions and resourcesnecessary for achieving the qualitystandards CFS models envision.As for scope, CFS models embracea concept of quality that goes wellbeyond pedagogic excellence andperformance outcomes. The focusis on the needs of the child as a
13. CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE, SCOPE AND CONCEPT41.3 PRECURSORS OF AN EVOLVING MODELThe evolution of child-friendly schoolstravelled a practical as well as atheoretical track, and it is important tounderstand the combination of actionand reﬂection that has culminated inCFS models as the standard for qualityin UNICEF’s work in basic education.Like other agencies, UNICEF helpscountries improve the quality of theeducation they offer their children.Twenty years ago this assistanceinvolved mainly interventions relatedto pedagogic factors such as teachertraining, supply of text books andlearning materials, advocacy forpolicies on class size and teachingmethodology. This ‘single-factor’approach to school quality producedimprovements, but they werefrequently compromised by otherfactors in the education setting. Forinstance, teacher training might haveproduced gains, but a lack of textbooksand materials in schools oftenundermined these gains. Similarly,introduction of life skills content in thecurriculum, including good hygienepractices, was often compromisedbecause many schools did nothave an adequate water supply orenough toilets to produce meaningfulbehaviour change in learners.(b) How well they are received byschools and teachers prepared tomeet their needs and uphold theirrights;(c) How far their general healthand well-being are addressedas an integral part of promotinglearning;(d) How safe the schools are as placesfor learning and how completelythey provide an overall gender-sensitive environment that isconducive to learning;(e) The extent to which schools andteachers respect the rights ofchildren and operate in the bestinterest of the child;(f) The extent to which child-centredteaching methods are embracedas good practice and standardmethodology by teachers and theschool;(g) How far child participation isencouraged as standard practicein classroom interaction as wellas in the broader operation andmanagement of the school;(h) The extent to which effort andresources are invested in creatingstimulating classrooms thatsupport active learning for all;(i) The availability of adequateenvironmentally sustainablefacilities, services and suppliesthat support the needs of thewhole child and also of allchildren;(j) The use of pedagogy thatchallenges and dismantlesdiscrimination based on gender,ethnicity or social backgroundProponents of CFS maintain thatall of these factors, interacting ina dynamic and organic manner,constitute the ‘packaged solution’that can be conﬁdently describedas a ‘child-friendly school’.
14. 5CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALTABLE 1: EXAMPLES OFTHE LIMITATIONS OF SINGLE-FACTOR INTERVENTIONSSingle-factorapproachImprovements and gains Compromising factorsTeacherdevelopment• Number of qualified teachersincreased• Better informed teachers• Irrelevance of curriculum to localcontext• Lack of materials and learning/teaching aidsProvision oftextbooks• Individual study facilitated• Academic performance boosted• Not connected to teacher developmentand culturally irrelevant• Insufficient quantity of textbooksHygiene and lifeskills education• Awareness of health and hygieneraised in children• Children empowered to participate incaring for themselves and others• Acute lack of sanitary facilities• Acute lack of safe water for drinkingand hand washing• Quality of life skills education often notgender-responsive or age-appropriateSchoolenvironment andenvironmentaleducation• More schools provided with accessto water and sanitation• Renewable energy sources forelectricity found• Trees and gardens planted at schools• Lack of connection to curriculum• Facilities subject to vandalism andmisuse• Lack of capacity for facilitiesmaintenanceSchool asa communityoutreach• Partnerships with parent-teacherassociations and school governingboards forged• Young people’s organizations formed• Poor capacity development for parentsand community leaders• Restricted spaces for young people toparticipateBecause it is concerned with the wholechild and its intersectoral approachto programming for children, UNICEFworks to improve water supplyand gender-sensitive sanitationfacilities; promote good hygienepractices; address nutritional needsthrough school-based interventions;increase access to energy; andaddress challenges posed by climatechange through improvements indisaster risk reduction, preparednessand response capacity. UNICEFalso supports measures that helpreduce the negative impact ofchild labour, child trafﬁcking andgender-based violence. These areall child protection issues that haveserious implications for education.Measures taken in school, suchas providing water and sanitation,school meals and counselling, havebecome essential components ofoverall quality of education. Studieshave consistently shown that theyinﬂuence access, retention andcompletion. Links between waterand sanitation in schools and schoolaccess and retention rates are welldocumented, for instance, as are linksbetween school meals and accessand attendance among children indisadvantaged communities. Hindsightsuggests that UNICEF’s shift from asingle-factor approach to a packageapproach in promoting educationquality has been a signiﬁcant phase inthe evolution of CFS models.
15. CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE, SCOPE AND CONCEPT6Another important phase has beenthe shift from targeted to system-wideinterventions in education. Addressingthe needs of disadvantagedgroups often means that UNICEF’swork is directed towards speciﬁccommunities or population groups.Such interventions, typically designedas ‘projects’, tend to be relativelysmall-scale or localized and involveinnovative ‘problem-solving’strategies as well as persistentinvestment of effort and resources tomake them work for the populationthey aim to help. As a result, UNICEFhas been able to report improvementsin access, retention or learningachievement in its operational areas,which tend to perform better than thenational average for gains in suchquality indicators. Such narrowlyfocused interventions continue to benecessary in some circumstances, butthey are not the most efﬁcient way ofproviding quality basic education forall children.If education systems are fullyinclusive, quality education can beextended to all groups as a matter ofroutine. Bringing this about requiressystems-level interventions. Insteadof just ‘doing’ child-friendly schoolsin local communities, CFS models are‘sold’ as good practice for the entireeducation system. Shifting to systemsinterventions supports change acrossthe whole sector and helps countriesset standards for quality throughoutthe education system. This realizationhas pushed UNICEF to advocate thatcountries adopt child-friendly schoolsas a comprehensive quality modelin their national education plans andpriorities, which in turn has raisedthe issue of clarity, deﬁning whatCFS is and how countries can utilizesuch a model.Since there are examples of child-friendly schools in many countries,UNICEF country ofﬁces often engagein ‘show-and-tell’ about CFS models.Far more difﬁcult has been the effortto formulate a deﬁnitive package,clearly deﬁning and laying out keyparameters of child-friendly schoolsthat could be adopted as an integralpart of a national education plan. Thepackage should include cost detailsand variables that can be projectedin any simulation model used todecide on feasible priorities for agiven country.There are two further challenges.First, it is not enough to work withnational counterparts to make schoolschild-friendly. It is also necessaryto cultivate local capacity fordesigning, operating and managingchild-friendly schools as part of thenational education system. In Kenya,for example, when free primaryeducation was declared, UNICEFsuccessfully advocated for theinclusion of most of its child-friendlyinterventions and key strategies in thenew Education Sector Support Plan. Itthen became essential for UNICEF toshift from projects that make schoolschild-friendly towards helping to buildKenyan national capacity to reproducethe CFS model countrywide.Second, a systems approach impliesworking more closely with otherpartner agencies. In this regard,UNICEF engaged with other models,such as the Escuelas Nuevas thatoriginated from work on qualityeducation in Colombia, as well aswith other quality frameworksconcerned with parts of the picture,such as Focusing Resources onEffective School Health (FRESH),which deals mainly with the health
16. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALand nutrition aspects of CFS. Withdifferent models seeking to achievesimilar outcomes in education, quality,clarity and coherence have becomecritical for selling CFS models aspackages that countries can adoptin their national education plansand priorities.Parallel with these programmingchanges on the ground, UNICEF hasalso been investing in theoreticalreﬂection and concept-building relatedto child-friendly schools. The child-friendly school concept was ﬁrstused in a systematic way by UNICEF,Save the Children and the WorldHealth Organization in the mid-1990s,largely as the educational equivalentof the ‘baby-friendly hospitals’ thatcontributed to quality standards inhealth. With UNICEF’s inﬂuence, theconcept of child-friendly schools wassoon widened beyond health andnutrition issues to include concernswith broader elements of quality ineducation, such as gender sensitivity,inclusiveness and human rights.In 1995, UNICEF’s Innocenti ResearchCentre held a workshop on the theme‘What is a child-friendly school?’ thatresulted in an informal summaryoutlining 13 Characteristics of a Rights-Based School that are essential to theCFS concept. In subsequent workingpapers, CFS was presented as an‘umbrella’ under which the diverseactivities and goals of UNICEF’s workon schools might be consolidatedand rationalized. While these effortsdid not produce a formally accepteddeﬁnition of the CFS model, theidea of ‘13 deﬁning characteristics’gained currency and continues to bea reference point for the advocacyand implementation of child-friendlyschools.By early 2000, UNICEF was expandingthe deﬁnition of quality for keyelements of child-friendly schools. Bythe end of 2001, UNICEF emphasizeda comprehensive and complexquality package that was nuancedto ﬁt different country realities.This has given rise to variations onthe CFS theme within the agency.A global survey of the conceptand its application within UNICEFprogrammes reveals a mixed picture,making it difﬁcult to sell the conceptto countries or partner agenciesas a coherent model for quality ineducation. There has been a tendencyto overprescribe on child-friendlyschools and to underemphasizetraining and capacity for using theCFS model in education systems.Despite these difﬁculties, steadyprogress has been made with theCFS model, and the number ofcountries in which UNICEF is usingthe approach increased steadily, froman estimated 33 countries in 2004 to56 countries in 2007.The problem, however, is that theemerging CFS models present aconfusing picture. They tend to focuson ‘deﬁning characteristics’, but thenumber of characteristics variesfrom as few as 6 to as many as 16depending on the context. Thesemodels also attempt to deﬁne child-friendly schools in terms of ‘keycomponents’, including pedagogy,health, gender sensitivity, communityparticipation, inclusiveness andprotection. (See Chapter 2.)Following recent emergencies therehas been an increasing emphasis onthe architectural aspects – location,design and construction – of child-friendly schools. This emphasis reﬂectsnot only the need to provide physical
17. CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE, SCOPE AND CONCEPT8facilities, promote good pedagogyand gain cost-efﬁciency, but alsothe need to address environmentalissues, community participation,the safety of school locations andthe provision of ‘safe areas’ withinschools. Most recently, issues ofelectric power (including solar,wind and other alternative sources)and Internet connectivity are beingexplored as part of the focus of CFSmodels. It is likely that, as in theearlier case of water and sanitation,these elements will also become partof CFS models in some countries.An additional challenging dimensionto CFS models is the emergingquestion of when and where it isappropriate to introduce CFS models.A prime example was seen in Bam(Iran) after the 2003 earthquake.Here and in similar situations,UNICEF expanded the CFS conceptto encompass more holistic concernsrelating to child-centred homes,child-centred communities andchild-centred cities, taking up majorenvironment, health, protection andcivic issues as highlighted in theConvention on the Rights of the Child(CRC). This is signiﬁcant in that ithighlights the links between schoolsand communities in a novel senseand gives rise to several questions:Is it necessary to have a supportiveenvironment encompassing thehome, community, city and society atlarge for child-friendly schools to beviable? Is the process of establishingchild-friendly schools also an attemptto change standards and practicesin homes, communities, cities andsociety at large? Is it possible to ‘buildback better’ after natural disasters orcivil conﬂict by using child-friendlyschools as springboards for changein the wider society? Can risks ofchronic environmental degradationand sudden-onset disastersbe reduced through structuralimprovements, mapping andpreparedness activities? These arecritical questions for the CFS models,and they highlight links betweenhome, school and community ina way that goes well beyond theconventional sense.Schools can be designed, constructedand operated in any community.However, if the principles underlyingCFS models are taken seriously,questions arise about the type ofsetting in which schools of thisnature are feasible and within whichthey can thrive. In order to achieveits potential, a child-friendly schoolmay require a supportive social,cultural and political environment.It can be argued that such schoolsare more likely to be viable andsustainable in societies that are just,democratic, peaceful and tolerant.Embracing diversity throughtolerance, inclusiveness and fairnessis the starting point for recognizingand facilitating the right to qualityeducation for all children regardlessof their background. When thereis a social, cultural and politicalclimate open to child participationand respect for children’s rights fromthe level of the family up throughthe local community and into thewider society, it is more likely thannot that a country can develop apolicy framework, set national plansand priorities, and make the type ofbudget allocations that are supportiveof child-friendly schools.Proponents of child-friendly schoolssuggest that even in the poorestcommunities, if supportive elementsare present, it is possible to make
19. CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE, SCOPE AND CONCEPT10If the underlying ideology and keyprinciples that drive the deﬁningcharacteristics of child-friendlyschools in different contexts can beharnessed into a comprehensiveguideline with illustrative practicalexamples, the great promise of thisapproach to quality can be fullyrealized in the form of a consolidatedchild-friendly school model. As a toolfor planning quality basic educationin national systems, this modelwould greatly enhance the chancesof achieving the EFA goals and theeducation MDGs. A consolidatedCFS model also promises a moreparticipatory and comprehensiveapproach to planning for qualityeducation. For example:(a) Stronger links between schoolsand their communities willfacilitate the consultative process,a prerequisite for developingcredible education sector plansthat can attract external supportin line with the good governancerequirements of the MonterreyConsensus,1the Fast TrackInitiative and the UN Decadeof Education for SustainableDevelopment;(b) The same stronger links will makeit more likely that communitieswill identify with and besupportive of their schools,ultimately strengthening theprocess of providing quality basiceducation for all children;(c) A focus on the well-being of thewhole child, including attentionto the different needs of differentgroups according to such factorsas their gender, physical abilityand socio-economic status, willhelp address disparities thatstem from home and communitybackgrounds, creating a morelevel playing ﬁeld for all learnersto achieve their full potentialthrough education;(d) An emphasis on inclusivenesswill enable countries to tap andharness the full potential of theirhuman resources;(e) A more conducive learningenvironment will help minimizethe repetition and drop-out ratesthat also contribute to poorquality due to internal inefﬁciencywithin schools and educationsystems;(f) Child-centred pedagogy is morelikely to produce independentthinkers who can makeconstructive contributions toa participatory democracy andadapt to changing circumstances;(g) Child-centred pedagogy will alsoenable teachers to improve theirprofessional status as facilitatorsof learning, custodians ofchildren’s well-being while theyare in school and authority ﬁguresin the management of linksbetween the school andthe community;1.4 PROMISE OF A CONSOLIDATED CFS MODEL1The Monterrey Consensus is a compact between developing countries and major donor countriesthat commits the former to demonstrating political will and good governance in providing educationand other services to their population, while committing the latter to funding the ﬁnancing gapsthat prevent these services from reaching the population.
21. CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE, SCOPE AND CONCEPT12(b) Formally evaluate the impact ofchild-friendly schools in a widerange of country contexts;(c) Support national capacity-buildingfor the use of CFS models toimplement quality educationstandards by providing trainingexpertise and resources suchas this reference manual, thee-learning package and a handbookof case studies on child-friendlyschools;(d) Support national capacity toconduct rights-based causalityanalysis through consultationacross sectors to ensure optimalcooperation with health,environment, water, ﬁnance andother relevant ministries;(e) Support the establishment ofmonitoring and evaluationmechanisms that include gender-sensitive quality indicators to helpcountries track progress and makeadjustments in the way they useCFS models to improve quality intheir education systems;(f) Help leverage ﬁnancing forcountries that incorporate child-friendly school standards as part oftheir strategy for building quality intheir education systems;(g) ‘Accompany’ countries that arein the process of implementingCFS models by providing usefulguidelines and working closelywith their nationals to set up andoperate child-friendly schools indifferent communities.
22. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 2Dynamics of theory in practice2.1 Overview2.2 Implementation as an eclectic process2.3 Key principles, desired features and standards2.4 Putting children ﬁrst2.5 Implementation of models in various countries2.5.1 Broad overview of trends2.5.2 Speciﬁc country examples2.5.3 Child-friendly spaces in emergencies and their aftermath2.5.4 Child-friendly learning spaces outside school2.5.5 Linkages between child-friendly schools and early child development
23. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALThis chapter explores the variousoptions for implementing child-friendlyschool (CFS) models. These optionsdepend on the dynamic interactionbetween theory (including ideology,concepts and principles) and practice(or practicalities such as resources,capacities and opportunities). It is thisinteraction that determines the natureand features of child-friendly schools.The inﬂuence of theory is highlightedwhen concepts and principles areinterpreted in different contexts andby different practitioners to producea variety of institutions that areidentiﬁable as child-friendly schools.Even when institutions have beendestroyed in emergencies, conceptsand principles can be applied tocreate temporary shelters that arechild-friendly learning spaces. On theother hand, the inﬂuence of practice ismanifested in how available resources,existing capacity and opportunitiesfor change produce a variety of child-friendly school types. Both theoryand practice inﬂuence outcomes inthe implementation of CFS models.The types of schools that result fromthis interactive process share enoughsimilarities to be classiﬁed as child-friendly, yet they also exhibit importantdifferences that help explain thedynamic and ﬂexible nature ofCFS models.In essence, the CFS model is apathway to quality education ratherthan a rigid blueprint. The applicationof child-friendly school concepts andprinciples in different countries andthe impact of practical realities indetermining what is feasible in thesesituations has given rise to guidelinesfor implementing CFS models. Theseguidelines underscore the need forﬂexibility in implementing the modelswhile demonstrating the limits ofvariation. The main contentions to bediscussed in this chapter include:(a) Implementation is an eclecticprocess, since child-friendlyschools are created on the basisof key principles that ultimatelyshape their main features.True CFS design requires theapplication of principles, notprescribed characteristics.(b) The main features of a givenchild-friendly school result fromapplying certain principles to aparticular setting and context.There is no ﬁxed set of featuresthat must be in every child-friendlyschool.(c) When child-friendly schoolprinciples are applied consistentlyin different settings and contexts,similar, although not identical,characteristics ensue, which should2.1. OverviewCHAPTER 2DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE2.1 OVERVIEW
24. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE2not be mistaken for the products ofa rigid recipe or blueprint.(d) Some characteristics, such aschild participation in the learningprocess, may be intuitivelyrecommended for child-friendlyschools, since they can beconsidered the inevitable, logicaloutcomes of applying CFSprinciples to almost any setting orcontext.(e) Making schools child-friendly isnot an ‘all-or-nothing’ process. Itcan begin with one principle andphase in others over time in astrategic sequence that ﬁts localrealities, promoting a ‘progressiverealization’ of the CFS model.(f) The key principles that drive thechild-friendly school process are sointerrelated that interpreting andimplementing any one principleinvariably sets off a chain reactionthat leads to related principles.(g) The role of teachers and schoolheads is so central to the CFSmodel that their training canusually be a good starting pointfor making schools child-friendly.Teachers and school heads do notsimply work in these schools, theymake schools child friendly andmaintain schools’ child-friendlynature.(h) Important synergies are gainedby linking key elements of thechild-friendly school model. Forinstance, connecting teachertraining to the preparationand provision of appropriatepedagogic materials makes theimplementation of quality learningin the classroom more efﬁcient.(i) There are cost savings to begained through economies ofscale, as implementation of child-friendly school models shifts fromsingle-school pilots to clusters ofschools to district-wide, province-wide and ﬁnally sector-widecoverage.(j) When the implementation processis driven by key principles ratherthan a ﬁxed set of characteristics,it is possible to create child-friendly schools in a wide variety ofcontexts and circumstances.(k) Adherence to a ﬁxed set ofcharacteristics can producesuperﬁcial models of child-friendlyschools that create confusion,invite scepticism and trivialize theconcept itself.(l) The complexity of applying child-friendly school principles todifferent contexts means that asefforts move from individual pilotsand demonstration models to largenumbers of schools and eventuallyto entire school systems, eachsetting yields valuable lessons.(m) A major challenge for large-scale implementation acrossthe education sector is a lackof standards, guidelines andspeciﬁcations to be used inincorporating key elements ofchild-friendly schools in processesthat are essential to a sector-wideinvestment approach, such asscenario-setting, projecting andcosting.(n) For the child-friendly model tobe taken seriously as an area fornational investment in qualityeducation, CFS programmingrequires a logical, consistentapproach that can be applied indifferent settings.
25. 3CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL2.2 IMPLEMENTATION AS AN ECLECTIC PROCESSIn 2003, a review of global effortsto implement child-friendly schoolsfound that a wide range of conceptualinterpretations had been applied,resulting in a variety of manifestationsof child-friendly schools in differentcountries (Chabbott, 2004). This lackof coherence was attributable to thetendency to deﬁne child-friendlyschools in terms of prescribed featuresor characteristics, which did notnecessarily translate well from countryto country. The review found thatchild-friendly schools were deﬁned interms of anywhere from 6 to 12 ‘ﬁxed’characteristics. Most characteristicsappeared desirable, although it isunclear where these characteristicsoriginated.The Convention on the Rights of theChild (CRC) was often cited to supportthese prescribed characteristics. TheCRC was an ideological framework forchild-friendly schools, but in deﬁningthe child-friendly school concept the‘real’ linkages to the core principles ofthe CRC were not clearly established.It was therefore not evident whethersuch prescribed characteristics area ﬁnite set or an expandable list,nor, if expandable, how additionalcharacteristics for child-friendlyschools would be generated. Thismade it difﬁcult to treat child-friendlyschools as a coherent model thatcould be implemented in a logical,consistent, predictable manner indifferent contexts.This fundamental weakness canbe addressed by means of a soundprocess for designing child-friendlyschools based on key principles withclear origins that can be interpretedand applied in a variety of contextsto identify appropriate featuresor characteristics of child-friendlyschools. Once these features havebeen determined, they can be usedto develop CFS standards in a givendistrict, province or country. In additionto being a more coherent, predictableand logical model, this approachpromotes a democratic process ofdialogue and consultation in theinterpretation of leading principles andthe setting of standards. It discouragesmechanical application of a given setof ﬁxed characteristics.In practice, it is also possible for CFSdesign and implementation to beginwith a speciﬁc key characteristic orfeature and shift progressively toachieving the model that is ideal forthat particular context. In this sense,implementation of the CFS model is aneclectic process, which becomes moregrounded, logical and predictableby using standards to mainstreamthe model into national planningprocesses.Efforts to implement child-friendlyschools in different countries haveundergone two distinct phases.There was an early phase duringwhich efforts were not intended tocreate child-friendly schools but weredesigned to improve some aspectof schooling. These efforts usuallypredate the adoption of the child-friendly school concept by UNICEF andfocused more on seizing opportunitiesfor change than on building a ﬁxedset of characteristics. Over time, thechanged schools that resulted cameto be described ex post facto as child-friendly schools.
26. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE4In the later phase, after adoption ofthe CFS model by UNICEF, effortswere deliberately meant to makeschools child-friendly. Nevertheless,the design and implementation ofchild-friendly schools has been aneclectic and sometimes superﬁcialprocess in both phases: What getsdone ﬁrst and how things proceedtend to be determined by suchpracticalities as what is attractive toor accepted by the national and localeducation authorities.In Bangladesh, for example, theIntensive District Approach toEducation for All (IDEAL) project didnot begin with efforts to implement acertain number of CFS characteristics.It was a reform designed to improvethe quality of learning as integral toexpanding access for achieving theEducation for All (EFA) goals. IDEALbegan in 1996 by experimentingwith multiple ways of teaching andlearning, sensitizing teachers to thedifferent ways in which children learnand helping them adapt their teachingstyles accordingly. This invariablybecame a starting point for greaterchild-centredness (a CFS principle)in schools and classrooms. Overtime, there appears to have been achain reaction through which IDEALgenerated new features as part of theprocess of strengthening quality. Theseincluded safe learning environments,community involvement in schoolplanning and management, andassessment of learning achievement.As a result, IDEAL’s structure andprocess of education reform creatednew characteristics that allowed theproject’s schools to be classiﬁed aschild-friendly schools.Similarly, the Programme for theAdvancement of Girls’ Education(PAGE) in Zambia did not begin withthe intention of creating child-friendlyschools but with the intent to helpprovide quality education for girlsthat would promote gender parityand empowerment. A multisectoralapproach to dismantling the manybarriers that prevent girls fromaccessing and performing in schoolsevolved. This entailed a variety ofinterventions – developing communitycapacity, providing learning andteaching materials, creating single-sex classrooms in math and science– designed to improve the learningenvironment for girls and resulted inthese schools being classiﬁed as child-friendly.In Egypt, community schools wereinspired by Colombia’s EscuelasNuevas model and predate the CFSframework in UNICEF. Here too theinitial intent was not to create child-friendly schools. Rather, the focuswas on cultivating strong localcommunity engagement in education(a CFS principle) in order to providequality learning opportunities forchildren who did not have access tomainstream schools. Subsequently,these community schools generatedadditional features, such as stimulatingclassroom environments and learnerparticipation, that have brought themcloser to classiﬁcation as child-friendlyschools.Similar efforts to provide qualitylearning opportunities fordisadvantaged populations in Westand Central Africa began in the mid-1990s with integrated approaches tostrengthen community involvement.These reforms predated the launch ofthe CFS model by UNICEF. However,by 2001, 7 of the 24 countries in theregion were engaged in reforms
28. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE6measures on improved learning,better all-round development andother outcomes associated withchild-friendly schools. However, lessrigorous evidence, such as viewsexpressed by teachers and parentsand observations linked to the ‘beforeand after’ realities, suggest at least aninitial upsurge in quality of education.It appears that most children thrive aslearners in these new environments,and many teachers who work in themexpress a new sense of professionalpride in what they do as facilitatorsof learning. These impressionisticconclusions need to be quantitativelyevaluated.Despite such positive signs, effortsto mainstream child-friendly schoolsinto national plans and priorities incountries such as Ethiopia and Kenyahave been only partially successful.Even when governments have agreedin principle to adopt child-friendlyschools as a model for improving thequality of education, they have failedto include adequate programmingtools for setting scenarios, makingprojections and costing optionsfor incorporating child-friendlyschools into the education planningprocess. This results from becomingbogged down on a ﬁxed set of CFScharacteristics rather than focusingon key principles that can promote aplanning dialogue around the desiredaspects of child-friendly schools. Sucha dialogue is vital in determiningthe key features of child-friendlyschools for a country and for settingnational standards that can be used asvariables in national education sectorplanning.The lack of a consistent, logicalapproach for incorporating CFSfeatures and standards into educationsector planning has produced patchyresults almost everywhere the attemptto mainstream child-friendly schools inthe education system has been made.In Azerbaijan, for instance, theGovernment has selected some of theprescribed CFS characteristics andrejected others. UNICEF continuesto advocate for the acceptance andfuller implementation of child-friendlyschool characteristics, because todo otherwise would mean that child-friendly schools could become a menuof features from which governmentsselect rather than a model based onkey principles relating to what is in thebest interest of children regarding theirright to quality basic education.A similar challenge exists in othercountries where advocates continueto press governments to accept andimplement the full set of prescribedcharacteristics for child-friendlyschools. Some progress is being madein these countries, resulting in seriousgovernment efforts to implementsome CFS elements in variouscategories of schools. The hope is thatif governments can be persuaded toadopt a CFS policy, this patchwork ofCFS elements will spread to as manyschools as possible. The reality is thateven with powerful advocacy andgovernments’ willingness to adoptsuch a policy, the major challengeof adequate planning tools formainstreaming the CFS model intothe education sector planning processremains.This challenge is most evident in EastAsia and the Paciﬁc. Since UNICEFﬁrst introduced the concept in the late1990s, countries in the region havetaken the lead in demonstrating thebeneﬁts of CFS models and adopting
29. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALCFS policy. In Thailand, for example,the Child-Friendly School Initiativehelps schools and communitiescreate partnerships to help track andensure children’s school participation,learning and well-being. UNICEF hasprovided technical support to helpthe Government develop standardarchitectural designs based on CFSprinciples that are expected to be usedto construct new schools and renovateexisting ones as part of the drive toimplement a CFS policy in Thailand.These measures will undoubtedlyproduce beneﬁts for quality educationin that country and enhance the use ofCFS models to provide quality basiceducation for children elsewhere.These developments, however, fallshort of systematic mainstreaming ofchild-friendly schools into an educationsystem. There needs to be a moreholistic approach in which speciﬁcCFS principles are used to decide onkey elements and standards for child-friendly schools in a given country andon the extent to which these featureswill be adapted to different parts ofthe country or at different stages ofthe national implementation process.These features and standards can thenbe included in education planningmodels as an integral part of themany variables used in the nationaleducation sector planning process.Two developments in 2007 holdpromise that child-friendly schoolscan be successfully mainstreamed ineducation systems. In China, majoradvancements towards mainstreamingCFS as a model for implementing theGovernment’s policy of nine yearsof compulsory basic education andwhat is termed the ‘whole child’education policy have followed thesuccessful piloting of CFS models byUNICEF in selected schools in someof the country’s most disadvantagedprovinces. The Ministry of Educationhas set up high-level policy andtechnical teams to work on principles,features and standards for child-friendly schools in China, and theresults of their work will be used ina pilot exercise to mainstream child-friendly schools in the educationplanning process of selected provinces.It will then be rolled out to otherprovinces throughout the country.UNICEF is committed to providingguidance and technical support to theGovernment in this important area.The second development with regardto incorporating CFS elements intoeducation sector planning modelsand processes has been at the globallevel. In joint support to countriesdeveloping credible plans for achievingthe education MDGs and the EFAgoals, three United Nations agencies– the United Nations DevelopmentProgramme (UNDP), United NationsEducational, Scientiﬁc and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO) and UNICEF– have decided to modify anexisting education simulation modeland commit to a single educationsimulation model (EPSSim) tosupport education sector planningin developing countries. UNICEF hasworked with UNESCO to incorporateCFS elements into this model, ensuringthat CFS principles are a visible part ofpolicy dialogue and that CFS elementsare considered in scenario-settingduring the planning process. Theexistence of a single model also meansthat CFS standards can be part of theplanning process and that selected CFSelements included in a sector plan canbe properly analysed in terms of costsover the plan period.(See Chapter 7.)
30. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE8KEY PRINCIPLESDerived from CRCand interpreted inline with nationalplans and prioritiesto generate majordesired features4132GAP ANALYSISTo reveal areas inwhich schools donot meet CRC-inspired goal forall children to havea quality educationDESIRED FEATURESGenerated fromthe interpretationof key principlesand reviewedagainst realityCFS STANDARDSBased on reviewof desired featuresand the reality ofavailable resourcesand expertise overa given time frame2.3 KEY PRINCIPLES, DESIRED FEATURESAND STANDARDSKey principles based on theConvention on the Rights ofthe Child (CRC) can be used togenerate the desired features, orcharacteristics, of child-friendlyschools in particular settings.These in turn can be reviewedagainst the reality of availableresources over a given timeframe to arrive at a set of feasiblestandards for the design andimplementation of child-friendlyschools in a given country. (SeeDiagram.) This approach makes iteasier to incorporate child-friendlyschools into national planningprocesses and investment plans ina consistent and reliable way.Consideration of the CFS modelbegins with generic key principlesthat are subject to interpretation.It is generally agreed that the CFSconcept as introduced in the 1990swas inspired by the principles ofchild rights as expressed in theCRC. As the ideological foundationof child-friendly schools, the CRCgives rise to the generic or keyprinciples that drive the process ofmaking schools child-friendly.
31. 9CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALThe application of the CRC toeducation provides us with a rights-based approach, stressing that allchildren have a right to education –they are rights holders. Education isnot a privilege that society grants tochildren; it is a duty that society fulﬁlstowards all children. One of the mostself-evident principles generatedby the rights-based ideology isinclusiveness, which requires schoolsto be open and welcoming to allchildren without exception. Theschool does not just passively receivechildren who seek schooling butactively seeks out all eligible childrenfor enrolment. Beyond enrolment, italso helps children stay in school andattend regularly. This means that fair,transparent and non-discriminatoryrules for accessing school arenecessary but not sufﬁcient. Theremust also be strategies and measuresin place to tackle the barriers thatprevent children from taking theopportunities to participate ineducation.Factors that keep children out ofschool include household poverty,ethnicity or minority status, orphanstatus, gender, remote rural location,need to work and early childhoodillness caused by exposure tounsafe and unhealthy environmentalconditions (such as contaminatedwater and indoor air pollution).Other exclusionary factors can befostered within the school itself.Marginalization by teachers who failto engage students in the learningand teaching process, do not speaktheir language, do not believe theyare capable of learning or do not havethe pedagogic skills to handle thediversity these children bring to theclassroom prevent them from havinga quality learning experience.In some cases, the physical designand infrastructure of a school mayexclude children. The design mayinadvertently obstruct access andparticipation for children withdisabilities, or the lack of separatetoilet facilities may dissuade girls’participation. The way in which aschool is managed or its prevailingambience also may discourage somechildren from participating in theeducation process. When bullyingis part of the school culture, forinstance, or certain populations areroutinely demeaned or stigmatizedby school practices, some pupils willdrop out.A child-friendly school is not justa child-welcoming school but alsoa child-seeking school. It worksto attract and retain children fromdifferent backgrounds, respectsdiversity and ensures non-discrimination. Some innovationsthat have helped make schools moreinclusive are:(a) Local school mapping andcommunity monitoring systemsto help track enrolment andidentify children who are out ofschool;(b) Satellite schools that ensureyounger children in remotecommunities can go to schoolclose to home until they are oldenough to attend existing primaryschools farther away;(c) Community schools that provideeducation opportunities forchildren who do not have accessto the existing standard schools;(d) Mother tongue instruction in theearly grades and multilingual/multicultural education designed
32. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE10to ease the transition from hometo school and render educationmore relevant to minoritypopulations;(e) Non-formal educationprogrammes that are equivalentto the formal system but haveﬂexible schedules to cater tothe learning needs of childrenengaged in daily or seasonalincome-generating activities(working children);(f) Special efforts to combatexclusion and stigmatization ofchildren affected by HIV and AIDS;(g) Safe spaces to facilitate children’sright to education in emergencysituations;(h) Promoting birth registration andstrengthening community-basedearly learning opportunities thathelp meet the legal requirementsfor enrolment and better preparechildren from disadvantagedpopulations for schooling (schoolreadiness);(i) Building partnerships througha mix of education and non-education partners who canpromote the principle of inclusion.Efforts to put the CFS principle ofinclusiveness into practice lead toclear observations. First, becausechild-friendly school implementationis an eclectic process, it can beginwith any key CRC principle. Yetimplementation of any one principlequickly generates a chain reaction,leading to other principles andfactors that are important for child-friendly schools. This explainswhy programmes that began byimplementing one key quality issueinvariably generated further concernsthat brought in new principles,leading inexorably towards child-friendly school status. Second,through discussion of inclusivenessit is possible to choose the mostappropriate measure to solve theproblem of a particular situation.Applying different solutions willmean that schools end up withdifferent features, yet they are alladdressing the issue of inclusiveness.The principle of inclusivenesseffectively enables the progressiontowards child-friendly school statusby leading to the implementationof measures that promote accessand retention of children from awide diversity of backgrounds. So,is it enough just to get all children inschool? What if children are enrolledin squalid ‘boot camps’ or rotelearning centres that pass for schools– has their right to education beenfulﬁlled or violated?The rights-based approach stressesthat as rights holders, children shouldhave a say in the form and substanceof their education, as shouldthose who facilitate their rights.This is the principle of democraticparticipation, through which children,parents, communities, employers,political leaders and others have arole in determining the structure,content and process of education.It is only through such democraticparticipation that child-friendlyschools can claim to be fulﬁllingchildren’s right to education. Thisis simply a reafﬁrmation of goodcurriculum design principles,which promote ‘negotiation’of the curriculum by differentstakeholders, including children.However, there are importantcaveats in applying this principle
34. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE12is to translate vision, aspiration andexpectation into a viable curriculumthat can be interpreted andimplemented in schools. Part of thisrole involves safeguarding standardsregarding forms of knowledge andwhat constitutes education. Forinstance, witchcraft and magic arenot normally accepted as formsof knowledge for educationalpurposes. Similarly, exclusive useof rote learning and memorizationdoes not count as education.Just as importantly, enforcing aparticular political ideology orreligious viewpoint to the exclusionof other possibilities amounts toindoctrination rather than education.These are matters that must besafeguarded by professionals whowork on curriculum.Discussing a key principle likedemocratic participation brings upissues of the school’s accountabilityto various stakeholders. Thisdiscussion can be a springboard forexamining links between schoolsand their communities on the onehand and links between schoolsand central or local policymakersand administrators on the other.Whatever the starting point, there isalways a sense in which other keyareas of concern will be brought intothe discussion, to be given attentionas part of the process of makingschools child-friendly.Having all children in schooland establishing the democraticparticipation of key stakeholdersin negotiating curriculum content,structure and method wouldrepresent good progress towardsfulﬁlling children’s right to a qualityeducation. However, the participationof the adult stakeholders, many withpowerful voices, could easily drownout the voices of children. This iswhy the CRC, with its rights-basedapproach to education, emphasizesthe importance of safeguardingthe interests of the child by makingsuch interests central to all decision-making in education. This is thechild-centred principle (See 2.4),perhaps the most important principlegenerated from the CRC and itsrights-based ideology. It needs to beapplied with caution, because theissue of what is in the best interestof the child can be contentious. Whodecides what is in the best interest ofthe child? Is it the same as the bestinterest of all children, and if not,which child’s interest should be givenpriority? Does it mean that childrenrule and whatever they want theyshould get?These and other controversiesare part of the discussion of thisprinciple, and it can be argued thateven children themselves may notalways know what is in their bestinterest, especially at a young age.They need to take certain judgementsand decisions on trust from parents,teachers and others who have anobligation as well as the authorityto safeguard their welfare. Even so,it is always important to promotechild participation as one of thefeatures of the child-centred principleand to include children’s viewsin the process of negotiating thecurriculum and other aspects of achild-friendly school. For example,young children can express theirviews through drawing and playinggames relating to CFS components.It is also possible to obtain the viewsof children by engaging them inopen discussion on such issues asdiscipline.
36. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE14environment should place childrenat the centre as active agents of theirown learning process, allowing themto develop to their full potential withappropriate guidance and an informedfreedom of choice.For children to develop their fullpotential, schools must providelearning opportunities that helpdevelop children’s abilities to thinkand reason, build up their self-respectand respect for others, and thinkahead and plan their future. Sadly, theenvironment in which many childrendevelop is not always conducive toeven basic learning, let alone skillsacquisition. Too often, it is a harsh,uncaring environment that can bedetrimental to the emotional, socialand physical health and well-being ofthe child.Whether a school or an informallearning space, environment plays asigniﬁcant role in the development ofchildren’s potential. It is in recognitionof the importance of the environmentthat delegates to the World EducationForum, held in Dakar in 2000, pledgedto “create safe, healthy, inclusiveand equitably resourced educationalenvironments conducive to excellencein learning.”The environment for learning is acritical feature of child-friendly schoolTEACHING AND LEARNING: ANUNBREAKABLE BOND“In general, the heart of thematter in education is theinteraction between the studentand the teacher. It is in thisprocess that quality education iscreated.”(Education International,2003) This is the reason the DakarFramework for Action refersspeciﬁcally to the need for “well-trained teachers and active learningtechniques” in order to achievequality learning outcomes. To beeffective, teaching and learningmust include a variety of interactivemethodologies, looking also at thedifferent learning styles of girlsand boys, to create stimulating,participatory and child-friendlylearning environments. This isparticularly true when addressingsuch sensitive issues as HIV andAIDS and reproductive health.The role of teachers is to facilitateparticipatory learning rather thanconduct lectures in a didactic style,and it can only be accomplished iftheir crucial role and status are fullyrecognized, if they are supportedthrough quality pre- and in-service training to reach sustainedtransformation in the classroomand if they are involved at allstages of educational planning –deﬁning policies and programmes,choosing methods and modes ofdelivery and evaluating results.Learningto beLearning tolive togetherLearningto doLearningto know
37. 15CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALmodels. But it is also importantfrom a child-centred perspectiveto consider what children bringto this environment and how thisenvironment should cater to otheraspects of a child’s well-being in orderto support learning. In other words,while excellence in learning throughactive participation is the ultimategoal, consideration of the wholechild and his or her well-being is alsocrucial. Many children start schoolpoorly prepared for learning becausethey have not had appropriate earlychild development (ECD) care andsupport. Also, for children who aremalnourished or infested with wormsor suffering from repeated bouts ofmalaria or other illnesses, learning willbe difﬁcult.The environment in a child-friendlyschool must respond to thesechallenges, many of which can bemet by applying the principle of childcentredness through:Starting with the child. Considereach child holistically and coherently,embracing the particular characteristicsevery child contributes to the richdiversity of the school. Every child’sdevelopmental and learning needsshould be considered throughout thelife cycle, and every child’s ability,health and nutritional status, as wellas any discriminatory pressure theymay be subjected to because oftheir gender, race, ethnicity or otherfactor, should be acknowledged.This approach enables all children toaccess, participate in and proﬁt fullyfrom learning opportunities. Additionalefforts and resources are required toallow child-friendly schools to takesuch a holistic and coherent approachfrom early child development to basicprimary education and beyond, butthey are cost-effective in that theyensure that investments in such areasas teacher training or provision oftextbooks are not undermined by alack of attention to other crucial areasrequired for the child to take advantageof what is offered. Child-friendlyapproaches may appear to cost morein the short term, but they are muchmore efﬁcient investments in the longterm because they provide savings byaddressing problems of low or delayedenrolment, increased absenteeism,repetition and dropout due to suchissues as basic health, nutrition andsafety.Healthy for children. Schools alonecannot guarantee children’s health,but they should not make their healthworse. Unsanitary and unsafe learningenvironments result in injury andillness. Girls abandoning or beingwithdrawn from schools that fail toprovide separate toilets is just oneexample of how environmental factorscan undermine student participationin education. Providing safe waterand appropriate sanitation facilitiesare basic ﬁrst steps in the creationof a healthy, child-friendly learningenvironment. Other importantelements include establishing andenforcing rules to make the learningenvironment free from drugs,alcohol and tobacco, eliminatingexposure to hazardous materials,providing sufﬁcient numbers ofergonomically designed benchesand chairs and adequate lighting,allowing opportunities for physicalexercise and recreation, and ensuringthat ﬁrst-aid equipment is properlymaintained and readily available. Sucha healthy environment provides anappropriate venue for school feedingand other health-related interventionslike deworming, micronutrientsupplementation and malariaprevention.
38. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE16Safe for children. The physicallearning environment must be ableto accommodate all children in thecommunity in safe locations withaccess to energy for school electricity,an especially important considerationin rural locations that are off thegrid. The environment needs to bedesigned to meet the basic needs ofchildren. Schools need to provideaccess to clean water for drinking andhand washing and take gender intoaccount by providing separate andprivate restrooms for boys and girlsand, if applicable, secure dormitoryaccommodations. Schools mustidentify and eliminate causes of injuryin school buildings and on schoolgrounds, ensure that emergencyresponse equipment is properlymaintained and readily available,establish emergency procedures andpractise emergency response. Child-friendliness can be further promotedthrough children’s involvement inactivities that make the school cleaner,prettier and more environmentallysustainable, including plantingvegetable gardens, trees or ﬂowers,painting walls or removing debris fromschool grounds.Protective of children. When theschool environment is perceivedas unwelcoming or threatening,attendance suffers. In general, a child-friendly, protective environment isnot only conducive to learning, butalso to play and healthy interaction.Harassment and antisocial behaviourcannot be allowed; abuse, bullyingor sexual exploitation must beconfronted. Child protection andsafety in homes has a direct impacton children’s capacity to attend classand to learn, and children must alsofeel safe as they travel from theirhomes to school. Interventions toaddress these situations includetraining teachers and parents innon-violent discipline, as well asestablishing and enforcing codes ofconduct that protect children fromsexual harassment, abuse, violence,bullying, physical punishment, stigmaand discrimination. Special attentionshould be given to orphans andchildren made vulnerable by HIV andAIDS. In situations with high levels ofviolence, counselling and mediationprogrammes and persons should beidentiﬁed.Work can be richly rewarding forthose charged with the responsibilityof implementing a CFS policy in theeducation system. The main purposeof such work should be not only toincrease the learning effectiveness,efﬁciency and reach of educationsystems but more fundamentally toenable all children to realize theirright to learn. It should also be aboutexpanding the focus of attentionbeyond formal schooling into broaderenvironments and spaces where allsorts of learning takes place, especiallyin times of crisis. Ideally, it is alsoabout making connections betweenthe school, the home and the widerenvironment through a holistic, child-centred approach.But to date, UNICEF and its nationalpartners have not fully utilized thisideal approach. A mixed pictureemerges from efforts to implement andmainstream child-friendly schools. Onthe one hand, there is little doubt thatmany of these efforts have improvedthe quality of education and helpedset new standards for the well-beingof children in schools. On the other,it is also clear that the process andoutcome of implementing CFS modelshave been patchy in most places, farfrom being mainstreamed in educationsystems.
40. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE182.5.1 Broad overview of trendsIn a number of countries in Centraland Eastern Europe and theCommonwealth of Independent States,the concept of Global Education hasbeen integrated into the CFS approach,preschool activities have beenemphasized in some programmes,and community-based educationmanagement information systemshave been utilized to locate andreach disadvantaged and excludedchildren. Global Education is alsopromoted in the Middle East andNorth Africa as a means of improvingquality and incorporating key CFSelements such as child rights,children’s participation in democraticprocesses and interactive learning.The community school model pilotedin Egypt and extended to a numberof other countries incorporates allmajor components of child-friendlyschools, with a special emphasis ongender equity, teaching processes andcommunity participation.In India, in the aftermath of the Gujaratearthquake, the CFS concept has beenapplied in emergencies as a frameworkfor the reconstruction and restorationof primary education. In Afghanistan,reopened schools are used to deliver awide range of services, and communitysupport and involvement has beencritical. And in Latin America and theCaribbean, where inclusive qualityeducation for all is a key goal, theCFS framework has been used ina number of countries – Bolivia,Colombia, Guyana, Honduras andNicaragua – sometimes building onor associating with earlier initiativessuch as the Escuelas Nuevas, whichbegan in Colombia and spread to othercountries in the region.The East Asia and the Paciﬁc regionhas been developing and applyingthe CFS framework since it was ﬁrstintroduced in the 1990s, producingvarious manifestations. In Indonesia,for example, training in what thecountry calls Active, Joyful andEffective Learning is a principal activity.In the Philippines, schools are part ofa wider framework of child-friendlyfamilies, communities, provinces andthe country as a whole.In Eastern and Southern Africa,national standards exist to promotechild-friendly and gender-sensitiveschool environments in a numberof countries. And schools that arehealthy, safe and protective are lookedto as means of support for childrenand families affected by HIV and AIDS.In both African regions, child-friendlyand girl-friendly initiatives are clearlylinked. In West Africa, girl-friendlyschool models have been implementedin Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gambia,Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,Mauritania, Nigeria and Senegal, anda child-friendly/girl-friendly schoolmanual has been developed.2.5.2 Speciﬁc country examplesMalawi: Intersectoral partnershipsfor child-friendly schoolsThe Malawian child-friendly schoolmodel stresses the importance ofintersectoral partnerships. UNICEFand the World Food Programme workin partnership with the Government,2.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF MODELSIN VARIOUS COUNTRIES
41. 19CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALnon-governmental organizations andother civil society organizations toprovide quality primary education.The collaboration encompassesteacher training on child-friendlymethods, school feeding for bothboys and girls attending primary dayschools, and take-home rations forgirls and orphans. Schools are alsoprovided with furniture, teachingmaterials and water and sanitationfacilities, along with life skills training,deworming services and micronutrientsupplementation.Nigeria: Gender components ofchild-friendly schools within diverserealitiesThe Child-Friendly School Initiativewas launched in Nigeria in 2002,with the goal of creating 600 child-friendly schools by 2007. Initial CFSinterventions were planned for thesix northern states where the overalllevel of enrolment is lowest and thegender gap highest. While genderequity was a key dimension in theCFS model from the outset, greatersuccess was achieved in the overallenrolment rate in child-friendly schoolsthan in reducing the gender gap.From 2002 to 2004, the African Girls’Education Initiative (AGEI) focusedon interventions to attract and retaingirls in school, addressing structuralconstraints at the policy level, notleast the shortage of female teachersin rural schools in the north, wherethey are particularly needed as rolemodels. Lessons learned from AGEIwere scaled up with the launch of anational Strategy for the Accelerationof Girls’ Education in Nigeria (SAGEN),the development of a common strategyto support girls’ education (SAGEN+)and the launch of a US$48 million Girls’Education Project (GEP), a Governmentof Nigeria-United Kingdom Departmentfor International Development-UNICEFpartnership.Prospects for closing the gendergap now appear to be improved, asthe GEP has leveraged increasedcomplementary funds from the sixselected states. However, seriousconcerns remain about the overallquality of schooling in Nigeria, withthe question ‘What about the boys?’being increasingly raised and agrowing reverse gender gap in thesouth in favour of girls. To addressthis imbalance, the focus in the southis on overall school quality and abroader approach to gender. CFSprinciples remain at the core of theNigeria-UNICEF country programme,with different emphases in differentgeographical and cultural areascoupled with a diversiﬁed resourcemobilization strategy to enablescaling up on quality Education for Allnationally and girls’ education in thenorth.The Philippines: Multiplecomponents of child-friendly schoolsEffectiveness.Child-friendly schools in the Philippinesaim to enhance school effectivenessthrough capacity-building activitiesthat enable teachers and school headsto have a better understanding ofchild development, which is critical ifthey are to apply appropriate teachingpractices and foster more meaningfulrelationships with students andtheir families.Protection.Child-friendly schools have succeededin transforming the norm in classroomdiscipline from one that condonesverbal and physical abuse to one thatcalls for a ‘shoutless and stickless’
43. 21CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALphysical and emotional security,social and cognitive development,and health and nutritional status. Atthe operational level, child-friendlyschools and environments attempt tointegrate primary and fundamentalhealth, primary education, childcareand psychosocial development servicesinto a protective environment that isboth family-focused and community-based. Centres set up as part of theCFS/E approach provide a safe, caringspace where children can engage instructured recreational and educationalactivities and have access to basicprimary health and nutrition services.The centres have programmes gearedto preschool children, primary-school-age children, youth and parents.Minimum standards have beenestablished to ensure that sufﬁcientspace and equipment are provided.In the face of a global environmentaltered by climate change,desertiﬁcation and the degradation ofnatural resources, as well as conﬂictsituations and their devastation, rapidrestoration of learning in emergencysituations and their aftermath is crucial.Education interventions aim to establishsafe environments for learning,recreation and psychosocial support;play a dual role in rehabilitation,or restoring a sense of normalcyand healing in children’s lives, andprevention; and contribute to values ofpeace, tolerance and respect for humanrights. Safe learning spaces establishedin emergency situations also offer agathering place for children and theirfamilies where other programmaticservices can be implemented. Suchlearning spaces need to becomeprotected environments where pupilsand teachers have the opportunityto build resilience, heal and engagein self-expression. Play, sports,storytelling and other recreationalactivities are critical elements.Child-friendly spaces/environmentshave been established in a numberof countries affected by armedconﬂict or natural disasters. Firstlaunched in Kosovo in 2000, the child-friendly spaces initiative providedbasic services to large numbers ofKosovan refugee children and women.Preventive maternal-child health andpsychosocial services, pre- and primaryschool education, and recreationwere provided within one identiﬁablesite, which also served as a space forthe protection of children and theircaregivers. Since then, the concept hasbeen adapted to respond to emergencyconditions in Angola, Colombia, ElSalvador, Liberia, Timor-Leste, Turkeyand the North Caucasus region.Albania: The CFS/E initiative wasdesigned as an innovative community-oriented, integrated services strategyin response to the inﬂux of Kosovanrefugees. It incorporated educational,recreational, health and psychosocialfacilities – normally in tents – runby non-governmental organizationpartners and child professionals fromwithin the refugee community. Lessonslearned have served as the basisfor the development of subsequentapproaches in other contextsNorth Caucasus: An assessmentof the education system in the city ofGrozny revealed that up to one thirdof school buildings were destroyedin the Chechen conﬂicts. Childrenattended classes in alternativepremises, normally without the mostbasic equipment, and in the absence ofelectricity and functioning stoves thesituation for preschool age children waseven worse. The child-friendly school/environment approach integrated activelearning and recreation with elementsrelated to child protection, child rights,mine awareness, psychosocial and
44. CHAPTER 2: DYNAMICS OF THEORY IN PRACTICE22healing activities, and HIV and AIDS,addressing both camp-based schoolsand mainstream schools that had largedisplaced populations. The approachhelped re-centre the educationstrategy around child protectionactivities that moved families andcommunities from emergencies intoreconstruction. Special efforts alsofocused on preschool populations inwell-organized centres with indoorand outdoor playing spaces andequipment.Gujarat: In the aftermath of themassive earthquake that struck in 2001,a major effort was made to get childrenback into school as quickly as possibleso as to reinstitute learning and re-establish some normalcy in their lives.Multiple stakeholders were enlisted inthis effort, including non-governmentalorganizations that mobilizedcommunities to create tent schools.The child-friendly spaces strategyhelped provide a haven for childrenand ensured that they were able toresume normal activities. Nearly 2,300schools were established in temporaryshelters, facilitating access for nearly400,000 children across 17 worst-affected blocks and preventing theloss of an academic year. Moreover,psychosocial interventions in primaryschools proved so successful that theGovernment decided to include themas part of pre-service teacher training.School reconstruction emphasizedsafety standards and equity, withquality improvement a key aim.2.5.4 Child-friendly learningspaces outside schoolThe promotion of other child-friendlylearning spaces, environments andopportunities goes beyond a responseduring emergency and crisis situations.These efforts should be an overallstrategy to expand all children’sand adolescents’ right to learningand participation outside the schoolenvironment, taking advantage of allpossible opportunities available tochildren and youth. These spaces orenvironments should be seen as a‘critical reinforcement’ to the formallearning process while expandingopportunities to strengthen additionallife skills building and participatoryinitiatives.Other opportunities include sports andrecreational activities, journalism (printand radio), school tutoring, debateclubs, health education, job-skillstraining and community activities.These are often undertaken afterschool, during vacation periods or aspart of weekend initiatives and canexpand the notion of child-friendlylearning spaces.2.5.5 Linkages between child-friendly schools and early childdevelopmentBuilding on the life cycle perspectiveand recognizing the importance of theearly years, child-friendly approachesshould extend to the preschool yearsas a way to enhance the scope, equityand quality of early interventions.This in turn contributes to improveddevelopmental readiness amongchildren, timely entry into school andbetter learning outcomes. Moreover,child-friendly approaches in both earlychild development and lower primarygrades can ease the transition fromhome to school and help build linkagesbetween families, community-basedservice providers, and teachers andother school ofﬁcials.
45. 23CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALEARLYCHILDHOODYEARSCHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS AND LEARNING SPACESHome setting Community setting School setting System/policy0–3 Caring (health, nutrition,hygiene, water,sanitation), stimulating,interactive, gender-sensitive; availability ofappropriate play andreading materials. Smoke-free indoor environment.Health, hygiene, nutrition,water, sanitation, socialwelfare services. Accessto energy for cooking,community gardensfor food. Parentingprogrammes.Child-to-childprogrammes teachingschoolchildren how tocare for and play withtheir young siblings.Basic servicessystem andpoliciesthat supportfamilies andcommunities.3–5 Caring (health, nutrition,hygiene, water,sanitation), stimulating,interactive, gender-sensitive; availability ofappropriate play andreading materials. Smoke-free indoor environment.Community-based qualitychildcare centres.Early learning in safe,protective, stimulatingsettings. Access toenergy for cooking,community gardens forfood.Supports earlylearning programmesin the community byproviding professionalguidance, trainingand criteria. Safe,healthy environmentwith access to water,sanitation, food,energy.Basic servicesfor promotingand maintainingcommunity-based early childdevelopmentcentres.5–6 Caring (health, nutrition,hygiene, water,sanitation), stimulating,interactive, gender-sensitive, promotingchild’s developmentalpreparedness for school;availability of play andreading materials. Smoke-free indoor environment.Safe, protective centre-based group learningopportunities. Prepareschildren for schooling.Ensures that childrenare free from disease,undernutrition, abuse andexploitation.Supports or providesgroup learningspaces. Collaborateswith community andparents to createquality early learningcentres. Safe, healthyenvironment withaccess to water,sanitation, food,energy.Establishesand maintainsgroup learningopportunitiesfor children tostart schoolphysically,emotionally,cognitivelyready.6–8 Caring (health, nutrition,hygiene, water,sanitation), stimulating,interactive, gender-sensitive.Encourages learning;collaborates withteachers; participates inschool events; availabilityof play and readingmaterials. Free of labourthat prevents child fromattending school. Smoke-free indoor environment.Proximity providessafe route to school.Protective; ensures thatchildren are physically,emotionally, cognitivelyready for school and thatall attend. After-schoolprogrammes for childrenat risk of dropping out,faltering, repeating.Engages children inenvironmental activities.Ready to receivethe child andattend to individualneeds. Ensures thatchild is physically,emotionally,cognitively ready forschool. Partners withparents to preparechildren for smoothtransition to school.Relevant curriculum,teaching and learningprocesses.–TABLE 2.1
47. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 3Location, design and construction3.1 Introduction3.1.1 General approach and key considerations3.1.2 Basic elements for a good school3.1.3 Additional elements for a child-friendly school3.2 Pedagogy and design3.2.1 Classrooms3.2.2 Facilities3.2.3 Outdoor spaces3.3 Locating schools or learning spaces3.3.1 School size and location3.3.2 Mobility3.3.3 Assessment of topographical risk3.4 Additional elements in design3.4.1 Clustering3.4.2 Dwellings3.4.3 Landscaping3.4.4 Hygiene, sanitation, water3.4.5 Early childcare facilities3.4.6 Emergency situations3.5 Factors inﬂuencing design3.5.1 Gender3.5.2 Access for the disabled3.5.3 Climate3.5.4 Cost of infrastructure3.6 Design with involvement of all3.6.1 Users3.6.2 Gender needs3.6.3 Partners3.7 Remaining challenges3.7.1 Low cost3.7.2 Multidisciplinary teams3.7.3 Provision of land for schools3.7.4 Schools in general community improvement projects3.7.5 Coordination
48. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALChild-friendly schools are notarchitectural phantoms from astrange place. They are schools withattributes typically associated withgood schools in many countries.However, they have additionalelements that complement andreinforce the principles and practicesof the child-friendly approachto education.This chapter examines the planningand design of new spaces andenvironments for child-friendlyschools and sets out quality planningstandards for improving existingschools and temporary structuresused as schools. It focuses on location,design, construction, operation andmaintenance of new child-friendlyschools and the important factorsfor renovating and adjusting existingschools to make them child-friendly.The approach centres on the child,the main user of these learningspaces and environments, withthe understanding that familyand community participation isfundamental for best results. In thisregard, the main objectives in child-friendly school planning are:• Attract students (increase access);• Improve attendance rates;• Improve retention and completionrates;• Improve learning achievement;Construction projects provide ample ways to play a strong role inthe overall plan: ensuring community participation in the process;ensuring adherence to child-friendly principles in building design andconstruction; and ensuring that the end results contribute to realizinggoals for children and women. [Education agencies] that decide toengage in construction, therefore, must go beyond the mere ‘bricksand mortar’ aspects, and also take into account ‘software’ aspects inthe planning. These include the maintenance and use of facilities, thequality of services, how the community is mobilized, the extent andnature of community participation. All of these should be determinantsof success for [agency-assisted] construction projects. In short,whether or not to engage in construction is a programmatic decision.Extract adapted from Construction Guidance Note (Draft),UNICEF, Programme Division, October 20063.1 INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER 3LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
49. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION2• Provide safe, inclusive, welcomingenvironments for all children;• Provide enabling learningenvironments, includingaccommodating children withphysical and mental/learningdisabilities;• Build a sense of community withinthe school (institutional ethos);• Involve parents and the community(support and participation);• Cultivate harmony between theschool and its community;• Harmonize buildings, schoolgrounds and environment aschildren interact with them.3.1.1 General approach and keyconsiderationsA structure for learning (school) andits immediate environment (schoolgrounds) must offer basic minimumstandards to encourage and facilitatethe main objectives of a child-friendlyschool. These have much in commonwith any good school; therefore thechild-friendly school needs to beconceived as an improvement onthe basics of existing good schools.A child-friendly school also mustrespond to the environmental andcultural context of its location. Auniversal, standardized approachdoes not respond to the uniquecharacteristics of a place and cultureand could result in detachment andalienation of the community.School marks an important earlymilestone in the child’s lifelongjourney of intellectual andpsychosocial development. Therefore,an understanding of the child’s ownculture and environment should haveprominence in design considerationsfor a child-friendly school. This willhelp reinforce the child’s self-identityand promote a sense of belonging to aplace and group.When their architecture is a reﬂectionof the community, culture, naturalenvironment and the family,schools are more than just shells orphysical structures. When a schoolis envisioned and created with thechild at its centre and supported bythe family and the community, thephysical structures become interactiveplaces to learn and teach – placeswhere teachers facilitate and managethe learning process and studentslearn and explore new possibilitiesthat match their abilities and potential.The school becomes an integrated,holistic system that retro feeds itselffrom the surrounding elements, givingit an identity. It is this dimension thatpromotes community ownership ofschools and gives schools a sense ofbelonging to the communities theyserve. This dimension is one of themost essential considerations for thedesign of child-friendly schools.Schools must be anchored in thereality of their location in terms ofculture, environment and links tofamilies and the community. But if thatwere all, schools would be parochialplaces antithetical to learning thatis grounded in the total heritage ofhuman knowledge. Schools are notsimply a means of learning about localreality; they are also the gateways tothe legacy of human endeavours andpossibilities.School architecture should promoteharmony with local reality whilealso incorporating the best externalinﬂuences. A remote, rural school,
50. 3CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALfor instance, should conform toits environment but also takeadvantage of such innovations asmodern hygiene practices, populargames and sports, and technology.Similarly, a school can reﬂect the localauthoritative hierarchy and a cultureof respect for elders, while alsopromoting such values as children’sparticipation in their learning processand giving them a voice in theschool as a whole. The architectureof the child-friendly school canpromote both harmony with thelocal environment and openness tothe beneﬁts of external inﬂuences.This is an important challenge inthe architecture and design of anygood school, particularly so for child-friendly schools.3.1.2 Basic elements fora good schoolThe basic planning and designrequirements that make for a goodschool are the foundation on whichfurther elements can be added to turnthem into child-friendly schools. Thechallenge in many countries goesbeyond simply designing and buildingnew schools that are child friendly torenovating and converting existingschools into child-friendly schools.The extent of this latter challengedepends on what already exists andwhether they are actually ‘good’schools. Table 3.1 summarizes basicplanning and design standards relatedto a good school.3.1.3 Additional elements fora child-friendly schoolTheoretical considerations andpractical experience have generatedadditional elements that make thedifference between a ‘good’ schooland a ‘child-friendly’ school. Manymajor catastrophes have providedopportunities to create new schoolsystems based on CFS principles fromthe ashes of old school systems.In Bam (Iran), for example, thecommunity, families and studentsworked together on a school designproject to ‘build back better’ after the2001 earthquake. In examples fromAfrican countries, new approacheswere implemented not only to designschools but also to achieve activecommunity participation in thecreation, design and constructionof an environmentally sound child-friendly school.The possibilities for design ofchild-friendly schools vary amongcountries and areas. In some cases,there will be extensive parent andcommunity involvement in all aspectsof location, design, construction andmaintenance; the focus could be onusing local building materials andthe skills of community artisans.In other cases, the issue might beconforming to sophisticated buildingcodes and materials standards as wellas providing for high-level technicalsupervision of building contractors.In all cases, the issue is to apply CFSprinciples in order to create a child-friendly school. (See Table 3.2.)There are three elements in childdevelopment that are essential forchild-friendly school design – safety,health and nutrition. These three mustbe adequately addressed if the schoolis to become an inclusive, holisticlearning landscape that provides asafe, enabling learning environmentwhere children can thrive.
51. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION4TABLE 3.1: BASIC PLANNING AND DESIGN STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL FACILITIESStructure The building is to be structurally stable, weatherproof according to local environmental conditions,climatically comfortable, easily exited in case of emergency and well integrated with the environmentaland cultural context.AdministrativeofficesSeparate space for faculty/administrative personnel gives privacy to students and teachers andmaximizes the use of classroom space, enabling staff to work separately from students. Proximitybetween classrooms and administrative offices is recommended to monitor students’ activities andcreate ‘safety through transparency’.Safe water Fresh potable water should be available to students within the school. Proper plumbing infrastructureallows for the distribution of safe water. If such a setup is not possible, a borehole/well should beincluded in the school compound. This can be augmented with a rainwater catchment system in theroof as appropriate.HygienefacilitiesA separate space should be provided with water and soap or other cleaning agent for children to washtheir hands.Toilets/latrines Separate toilets or latrines should be available for girls and boys. Privacy, cleanliness and safety aremajor considerations when planning location and design of facilities.Light, air, sun,dust, glare,reflection,humidity, noiseand odourClassrooms need good fresh-air circulation to avoid heat and excessive humidity. To ensure adequatedaylight, a minimum of 20 per cent of the classroom floor area should be window area. Electricityor another means of power is needed to provide light and to operate equipment. Classrooms mustbe sufficiently shaded from direct sunlight, glare (direct light) and reflection (indirect light). Schoolsshould not be located close to sources of excessive noise (traffic, railways, industries, informal sectoractivities) or excessive pollution or odours (waste belts, abattoirs). When this is not possible, designmeasures should be used to minimize the impact of these problems.Colour Materials and finishes should be the light, natural colours of the materials themselves, selected inharmony with warm natural hues as accents (reds, oranges, maroons, ochres and linen/khaki/off-whites) dictated by local, cultural preferences. For example, timber may be finished using clear varnishto preserve the natural beauty and warmth of the material. Or brighter accents can be used for playcorners, decks, corridors and furniture. Learning spaces should be light and relaxed in colour, notgloomy, dull or dark.Power(electric oralternative)The school should have a power source to provide light, connectivity for communication equipment(computers, radios, television) and other appliances (refrigerators, stoves). Alternative sources ofenergy (solar, wind and biogas) can be integrated into the design of schools where appropriate.SafetyprovisionsFire prevention and emergency evacuation plans must be part of the design process and built into theschool programme. Combustible materials should not be used for structural purposes unless treatedto resist fire. Construction materials should be free of components or elements that can be hazardousto children. When construction is finished, school sites should be free of all fluid, solid and gaseouswastes. Schools should not be located close to industrial or other hazards.HealthprovisionsAt a minimum, schools should have a first-aid kit or medicine cabinet for basic emergencies oraccidents. Proximity to a clinic enables health personnel to visit the school periodically and permitschildren to be taken to the clinic for treatment of health problems. This proximity is accomplished inmany developing countries through clustering the main social service facilities in the same location.Library A designated space where books and learning resources are available in a proper reading environmentis central to learning and teaching activities. The library or resource room needs to be strategicallylocated within the school for easy access, but away from noisy areas for a greater degree of quiet.Landscaping School grounds form an integrated, holistic unity with school buildings and their users, but inconventional school planning they are often neglected. Trees are vital for filtering sun, dust and noiseand for beautifying the school. Indigenous trees, shrubs and flowers should be planted in the schoolcompound along with edible plants meant to teach children food production and conservation. Treesalso have a softening and calming effect on the learning environment and its users. Planning the schoollandscaping is a good way to involve children in the realization of a child-friendly school.
52. 5CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALTABLE 3.2: ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS FOR A CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLFlexiblespacesFlexible spaces increase child participation in class and allow teachers to provide a more dynamicenvironment for learning and teaching. Such spaces provide opportunities for group activities, areasfor manual projects and easy access to open spaces. Individual classrooms or other facilities thatcreate outdoor space between structures give students a chance to be in open areas when in transitbetween classes. Classrooms should be accessible for all children; ramps and wide doorways shouldbe provided for less mobile children.School libraryand resourceroomIn child-friendly schools, the library and resource room is likely to have some connection to the localcommunity. Where it is feasible and in line with school practice, these facilities should be located anddesigned so they are accessible to the community. In other cases, skilled and knowledgeable personsin the community may be considered resources for learning about local culture, history and handicrafts.Bathrooms Teachers need to have separate facilities for men and women. For pupils, designated separatebathrooms for boys and girls within or close to the classrooms are the most practical and safestarrangement. These facilities can also be designed and located so that they are shared among clustersof classrooms to protect younger children.Relaxationrooms close tolearning areasAt the nursery and lower-elementary level, rooms where children can relax are appropriate in thedesign of child-friendly schools. In general, homelike elements next to learning spaces provide afriendly, inviting atmosphere for this age group.IndividualspacesAlong with flexible learning spaces for large and small groups (project-based learning/teamwork),individual learning spaces should also be provided, since individual children have their own learningstyles and some will need space to be on their own at times to study or reflect.Open spaces Easy access to open spaces from classrooms allows children to be in close contact with theirenvironment and to engage in physical activities. Open spaces can be designed as play yardsfor sports, school gardens and orchards, decks or verandas for outdoor learning activities, openperformance spaces, wide corridors and courtyards, trellises, canopies, shaded pavilions, niches,alcoves, play lofts and enclosed backyards. In typical child-friendly schools, the community wouldbe allowed to use some of these spaces after school hours for town meetings, local gatherings andother events.Kitchen Space for school meal preparation should be designed and provided with equipment and furniture thatensure food is kept fresh and away from flies and other pests that undermine food quality.Clinic Where there is a campus or cluster of social services, having the school near a clinic provides studentswith general health services and allows for the care of children in need of permanent monitoringof health conditions. Such a health facility would normally serve the entire community, either afterschool or by providing separate access for school and community patients. This basic link provides aconnection between school, community and the family, revolving around the child’s well-being.Protective The protective element of child-friendly school design has two main aspects:• To counteract bullying and abuse, teachers and parents must be trained in non-violent, child-baseddiscipline strategies and interventions. This means no beatings, canings or other humiliating formsof punishment. Designing classrooms and other spaces so that activities are readily visible from theoutside can deter child abuse.• Depending on location and context, the enclosure and boundaries of schools can vary in form andfunction. The goal is to find a balance where a fence can provide protection to the child from outsideelements (such as traffic, animals), can define boundaries to keep children within the school and canalso serve to section off an area for gardening and orchards.
54. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALto exercise leadership roles, criticalelements of a child-friendly school.Improved school facilities and up-to-date technology are widely recognizedto enhance learning, boost students’and teachers’ morale, increasemotivation, modernize educationalmethods (interactive self-learning) andenable teachers to focus on facilitatinglearning rather than on confrontingproblems caused by dated systems.However, these facilities and moderntechnology can only bring aboutimprovements if there is also qualityteaching, effective management and anencouraging environment for childrento engage with such technology. In thisregard, experience with child-friendlyschools has highlighted the importanceof buildings that encourage ﬂexible,participatory approaches and enableinnovative learning and teachingmethodologies through multipleopportunities for learning, both indoorsand outdoors.3.2.1 Classrooms• Size and space: Classrooms canvary in size and serve differentfunctions, with children movingfrom one to another for differentpurposes. Instead of being single-purpose spaces, they can allow for anumber of different activities, suchas reading, research, group work andart. Direct access to the outdoors fromthe classroom enables children tomake better use of the outdoors as alearning resource, but there shouldbe one or more intermediate spaces(e.g., corridors) that link the outdoorswith the indoor learning environment.In that way, there will be a range oflearning spaces gradually changingin character – and multiple learningopportunities.• Safety: Transparency in schooldesign, so people can look insidethe classroom and other schoolunits, can protect children fromabuse by teachers or older students,particularly during after-school hours.(See Chapter 5.)• Mobile furniture: In child-friendlyschools, mobile furniture replacesbenches or desks that may havebeen bolted to the ﬂoor. The designerneeds to consider the children’s agegroup, so chairs and desks ﬁt thestudents’ sizes comfortably. Whenseats are movable, children can workalone or in groups. Chairs or stoolsare easier to move around thanbenches.• Children’s home base: Storagefacilities in or near the classroom forchildren’s class projects, artwork, bagsand coats are necessary. Studentsneed to have private, lockable storageareas to keep their belongings – evenif just a tiny space.• National and international standards:Classrooms need blackboardsand, in the lowest grades, child-height rails for hanging students’work and posters. The range andexpense of these vary widely. It isbest to utilize local material andcommunity maintenance. Nationaland international standards exist andshould be followed. A blackboardand teacher’s desk in front of theclassroom encourages a focus on theteacher as the resource for learning.If the teacher can move about, givingassistance to groups or individualstudents, children will be moreactively involved.Before design begins, it is importantto know a country’s existing buildingregulations. In some countries, thegovernment may not have highly
55. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION8deﬁned regulations, or the regulationsin use may not reﬂect current qualitystandards to protect against potentialdisasters, such as ﬂoods, hurricanesand earthquakes, or against hazardousconditions or toxic building materialsand ﬁnishes. In that case, the plannershould recommend the adoptionof international standards for givenhazardous proﬁles. Often a countryadopts well-accepted building codesthat may neither conform to theinternational codes nor be adequatelyenforced. The project must adopt on-the-ground standards and practicesand ensure that the codes areenforced.A child-friendly school should beinnovative enough to offer ministriesand communities a new opportunityto improve education quality. Butinnovations in space, form and shape,construction methods and buildingmaterials are sometimes resisted bythe people completing the work. Theresistance may be from contractorsand materials suppliers who areunfamiliar with a technique or have notpreviously worked with the material,or it may originate in the Ministry ofEducation, the school’s hierarchy or theconstruction inspection agencies.This resistance can be a particularlyserious issue if the ministry’s pre-existing schools have recently failedduring a natural disaster. Thesecatastrophes can reveal that theschool board and local contractorsdid not comply with proper qualityprecautions, constituting a possiblecase of fraud. In such a superchargedatmosphere, the presentation ofinnovative designs to an embattledministry and construction industry maybe undermined by negative publicity.These situations call for careful, patientpresentations as well as relationshipsbuilt on trust. Innovations need to havetangible value. A full-scale model fortesting or certiﬁcation of quality bya well-respected institution may beneeded to gain local approval, whichis a crucial ﬁrst step. Without thisapproval, construction will likely bedelayed because of the community’smisgivings about quality and risks.These delays can be costly, candamage the contractor’s relationshipsand create negative impressionswith funding partners. For thisreason, the ﬁnal architectural design,technical working drawings andconstruction details, which includeall innovative design decisions, mustbe reviewed and ofﬁcially approvedbefore contracts are approved andconstruction begins.3.2.2 Facilities• Toilets, water for hand washing anddrinking: Children and teachers needgender-separated toilets and waterfor hand washing and consumption.School toilets that provide privacyand facilitate menstrual hygiene(personal hygiene rooms) must beat a safe location and maintainedin a non-discriminatory way. Foradolescent girls and female teachers,washing places must be providedwith enough water and privacy towash and dry cloths and rags usedduring menstruation. Mechanismsto provide or replace cloths, pads orsanitary products for menstruation atschool are also helpful.• Water recycling: Water used forhand washing should be recycledand used to water the orchards andvegetable gardens. Human andanimal waste could be utilized in theproduction of compost. The type ofsolutions should correspond to localconditions and be accepted by thecommunities.
56. 9CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL• Hygienic area for food vendors andschool kitchen: Food and nutritionare integral elements in educationalprogrammes and in many ways asimportant as the school pedagogy.A separate area for a kitchen and thestorage of food should be plannedfrom the beginning. Bringing foodand drink from outside the premisesshould be discouraged, because foodbrought from home or sold at kiosks/shops may not have been preparedhygienically or preserved accordingto acceptable health standards.• Storage of medicine: A designatedspace should be set aside to properlystore medicine. A refrigerated spacemay be required depending on thetypes of medications.• Health clinic: A doctor’s ofﬁceintegrated with the school layoutcan function as a school clinic andcommunity health centre. Likenutritional status, children’s health iscrucial to the learning process.• IT centre and library: An informationtechnology centre should beequipped with computers, Internetconnection and anything else thatwould allow students and thecommunity to beneﬁt from access tothe World Wide Web.• Laboratory: A separate classroomor an area within the classroomcan serve as a basic laboratory forthe study of natural sciences. Coreareas for a small science cluster(physics/biology/chemistry) forboth lower and upper primary andsecondary schools should includesuch elements as teacher space,display space, charts, an emergencyshower, outside biology court(potted plants, ﬂowers, animals),storage space for equipment, well-ventilated storage space for toxicand acidic waste, a preparation roomfor lab experiments, and clean-upspace with sink and water taps. Thelab needs adequate natural crossventilation and solar shading.3.2.3 Outdoor spaces• Recreational space: Ideally, everyschoolyard should contain enoughspace for locally popular sports,games and extra-curricular activities(drama, singing, dancing) and forschool eco-gardens, orchards andfarms/woodlots. Children shouldbe involved in laying out thegames area since they understandthe requirements. When spaceconstraints make organized sportsimpossible, it is important to tryto ﬁnd alternative spaces withinthe community. Often the spaceavailable at the school site is limited,and administrators may be driven tomaximize the classroom space at theexpense of adequate open spaces forchildren to play. The designer andproject team need to be sensitiveto these competing priorities,yet emphasize the importance ofrecreation in the overall performanceof the school. Sometimes the child-friendly school replaces damagedor destroyed classrooms. In theseinstances, the designer and projectteam need to balance the urgencyof returning children to class withthe need to remove waste andcreate spaces for recreation. Asmall budget for waste removal,land clearance and landscaping bythe local community can reap largerewards. The school does not consistof buildings alone, but also of theschool grounds, which for muchof the year are just as important tolearning as the buildings themselves.• School grounds and food production:Children can be encouraged to helpraise vegetables, fruits, domesticanimals and ﬁsh, and the school
57. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION103.3.1 School size and locationThe size of schools, where they areplaced and the way they are arrangedinﬂuence learning and how childrenrelate to one another, adults andthe community. Studies show thatchildren prefer variety, ﬂexibility andease of maintenance in schools andlearning spaces. In addition, childrenoften state a preference for greenspaces that include ﬂowers, shrubsand trees – the latter as ﬁlters of sun,dust and noise and for shaded outdoorlunches, outdoor learning and beauty.Traditional school planning rarelyconsiders these issues in the planningand design phases.Schools and school grounds shouldbe an integral part of the learningprocess. Buildings are not merely3.3 LOCATING SCHOOLS OR LEARNING SPACESgrounds can be used to help themlearn effective methods of foodproduction and conservation(making jams, chutneys, etc.). Whenchoosing the foods to produce, itis important to create a culturallyrelevant experience. The productionshould be done in close consultationwith the community. This will helpavoid the potential to exploit childrenfor school income-generatingactivities. Apart from the potentialfor food production, indigenousshrubs, plants and trees on theschool grounds create learningopportunities and beautify theenvironment.• Fencing: Planning should take intoconsideration the need for and typeof fencing around a school. Often inrural settings, the school will need tobe physically separated from the restof the community in order to createa child-friendly space and maintainthat space differently from the restof the environment. The fence andgates are also important to protectthe property during non-schoolhours. In the case of school gardens,the fence protects the garden frompilferage and animal pests.• Multifunction open-air stage: Whenpossible, an outdoor stage can serveas a classroom and performancespace for certain classes or schoolactivities. Such a space can alsofunction as a meeting place forcommunity activities after schoolhours since schools are sometimesthe only places for communitiesto gather. Events may includegraduation, opening of the schoolyear and important holidays thatparents, teachers and studentscelebrate at school.Most child-friendly schools/spacesare in tropical (warm/humid) or arid(dry/hot) environments. Here, theuse of outdoor spaces for teaching iscommon and should be included inthe design. Often the school year willinclude several months during whichstudy within walled classrooms isimpractical because of high humidityor stiﬂing heat. The same school year,however, will have months when usingenclosed classrooms is necessary. Inthese cases, the design should includeverandas or covered shade enclosuresthat enable the teacher and students tomove easily from enclosed rooms toopen spaces.
58. 11CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALshelters; they also serve as toolsfor learning and teaching. The sizeof each school and the layout andorganization of the learning spacesand environments should be based onphysical and curricular needs. Aboveall, spaces should be well deﬁned, wellproportioned, ﬁt for multiple learningactivities and integrated with outdoorspaces and environments.Decisions about school locationsmust involve community members,including students, teachers andcommunity leaders, along withgovernment representatives fromwater and sanitation, health, parksand recreation, and social welfare.Locations should protect childrenfrom safety, health and environmentalhazards, such as ﬂooding, excessivenoise, odour, dust, waste belts,fuel depots, small- and large-scaleindustries, trafﬁc, crime and vandalism.A central location also promotes asense of ownership among childrenand community members.The school should ideally be withinwalking distance for all children. Whenchildren need to use transportation toget to school, the cost increases andpoor children are likely to be excluded.Distance is also a major factor in girls’attendance. In an effort to enrol morechildren, the government of UttarPradesh, India, adopted a walkingdistance of 1.5 kilometres as the normfor schools in the plains and1 kilometre in mountainous areas. Astudy in Egypt (Lone, 1996) showed30 per cent enrolment for girls whenschools were 3 or more kilometresfrom the children’s homes and morethan 70 per cent when they were within1 kilometre of home.The location of child-friendly schoolsis important for the safe and properfunctioning of facilities. The schoolshould be located where people live,either in the village or settlement itserves or close to it. This will makeinteraction between school personnel,children and parents easier andDIAGRAM 1: SPATIAL ARRANGEMENTC1C2OST/AGC3C ClassroomT/A Teachers/administration+ Intermediate spacesG GardenOS Open stageChildCommunitySchoolFamily
59. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION12provide a greater chance to fosterteamwork. Child-friendly schools/spaces must signal that teachingand learning are valued by thecommunity.3.3.2 MobilitySchools do not have to be permanentstructures. They can follow childrenin mobile communities. New schoolscan be designed to be quicklydismantled and moved with nomadicfamilies to new locations.The telecommunicationrevolution has spread globally,and countries with rich access totelecommunications have seen arapid growth in virtual learningcommunities. Distance learningand cyber-schools and spaces areproviding teachers and childrenin remote areas with access toresources previously unavailable.In Sierra Leone, for instance,teachers use the Internet torequest assessment materials frominternational colleagues.3.3.3 Assessment oftopographical riskLand conditions (such as bearingcapacity, landslide risk, slope ofterrain), water levels, the amountand intensity of annual rainfall andthe potential impact of local windson school structures should becarefully evaluated prior to selectingthe location. A thorough study ofmicroclimatic conditions (bioclimaticanalysis) is fundamental tounderstanding the environment andthe basis for good tropical design thataddresses children’s and teachers’comfort. Anti-seismic design in areasprone to earthquakes and hurricane-proof design in areas with extremewinds, tsunamis and natural disastersmust also be weighed.DIAGRAM 2A: FOOTING FORTIMBER POSTNOTE: The softer the ground, the deeperthe post should be placed to withstandwind and movement.
60. 13CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALMOBILE SCHOOL IN NAMIBIAThe Norwegian Association of Namibia(NAMAS) runs an educational programmefor the semi-nomadic Himba people inNorthern Namibia. The school consists ofan administrative centre and 30 mobileclassroom tents. Originally, the tentswere of poor quality – they were toodark and too hot, and they underminedstudents’ and teachers’ productivity.Additionally, maintenance costs werehigh. NAMAS replaced the old tents withNorwegian tents consisting of a heavy-duty aluminium frame and a roof andwall covering of long-lasting sun- andheat-reﬂecting polyester with a 25-yearlifespan. The resulting structure wasboth child-friendly and teacher-friendly.Additionally, because these tents do nothave mid poles, they can be used forpermanent housing. With constructiontime about 3.5 hours and dismantlingabout an hour, the classroom can beeasily transported.Washer20cmWood plateConcrete blockcore at everyanchor locationAnchor bolts inconcrete floorslab, 20 cm deepDIAGRAM 2B: CONCRETE FOOTINGDETAILS3.4.1 ClusteringClustering small buildings aroundgathering areas can effectively createvariety and levels of intimacy inlearning spaces, where rooms canmove from public to semi-privatespaces or from group to individualspaces.3.4.2 DwellingsIn certain settings, teachers’ housesof adequate quality, function and sizemay be offered, depending on policyand resources. The importance ofproviding teacher housing should notbe ignored, because it may enhancethe sense of ownership and socialcontrol. Additionally, it can ensurethat the teaching staff are availableon school premises at all times, whichis especially important during therainy season when many roads areinaccessible in some areas.3.4.3 LandscapingOf the many costs of building a child-friendly school, landscaping is likelyto be among the lowest, yet it has oneof the greatest inﬂuences on school3.4 ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS IN DESIGN
61. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION14aesthetics. While most agree that‘good’ landscaping is of high value, theactual design, plant selection, gardenpreparation and maintenance are notsimple or straightforward. In India, forinstance, the rebuilding period afterthe Gujarat emergency in 2001 wasthe ﬁrst time that local agriculturalinstitutions were consulted for designguidance, and the community wasinvolved with plant stock selection,planting and maintenance. Generally,the plant stock should be local andknown to the community. This isanother opportunity to enhance asense of community ownership.Creative landscaping has a relativelylow cost but a high impact on theappearance of the ﬁnal child-friendlyschool.3.4.4 Hygiene, sanitation, waterIt seems obvious that facilities forchildren require different dimensionsthan those for adults. Nevertheless,‘adult-size’ designs are too oftenused for schools, and even wherethese are adapted, the changes areusually minimal. Important details areoverlooked, and the fact that childrenhave different physical abilities thanadults tends to be ignored. In thedesign of child-friendly schools,child-sized adaptations of toilet seats,urinals, taps, doorknobs, locks andhandrails are crucial. Equally importantis adapting to physical abilities byconsidering the weight of doors andtoilet covers, the strength needed toopen taps and fetch water. In schoolswith a large age spread in the studentbody, separate facilities for youngerchildren, older children and teachersare recommended. When the samefacilities are used by different agegroups, special provisions can bemade to allow smaller children tomake use of the facilities, such as astep in front of the toilet seat or anadditional seat cover with a smallerhole.Additionally, special adaptationsfor disabled schoolchildren mustbe incorporated into the design andthe location of water and sanitationSTANDARDS USED INTHE SWASTHH1PROJECT, JHARKHAND (INDIA)ELEMENT STANDARD/NORMCompound wall The compound wall mustcover the school area and bestrong enough to keep outintrusions or threats (e.g., fromcattle).Toilet Two toilets separated bygender and two urinals per250 children.Safe drinkingwaterThree litres per child per day.Facilities forhand washingSpecific area with water andsoap. Recycling water shouldbe part of the overall design.Play area A clear, level area for sportsthat can accommodate at leastone class per session. Sportsequipment is recommended.Gardens A designated area for plants,fruits and vegetables. Theharvest will be used for themidday meal. Children shouldparticipate in the maintenanceand recording of vegetableyield to promote a sense ofownership.GarbagedisposalA designated area for garbagedisposal and a compostsystem; dustbins and broomsare needed. Children mustparticipate in cleaning andmaintaining the classroom.1SWASTHH stands for School Water andSanitation towards Health and Hygiene.
62. 15CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALfacilities. Too often, the needs ofchildren with disabilities are ignoredor simply forgotten.When dealing with hygiene, sanitationand water, it is also important thatthe facilities be accessible, whichwill encourage hygienic behaviourand reduce the spread of diseases atschool. Too often being ‘hygienic’ isso complex, because of bad design,that many children fail to practisegood hygiene. Therefore, water andsanitation facilities should be simpleand easy to use.Construction needs that will ensureample, accessible water and sanitationcapacity should be calculated not juston the basis of the total number ofstudents, but also on other factors,such as the school timetable, ratioof girls to boys, projected growthof the school population and otherdevelopments. For instance, in earlychildhood centres and lower primaryschools (up to age 8 or 9) sharingof toilets by boys and girls may bepossible.Natural lighting and ventilation oftoilets are important for cleanlinessand removal of bad odours. Thereshould be enough light to inspectfor cleanliness; therefore, the useof natural light is recommended, incombination with light colours for theinterior. To ensure proper ventilation,at least two openings are needed.Young children appreciate smallopenings at eye level. An opening inthe door allows a teacher to movethe latch from the outside if a childaccidentally gets locked in.Finding the right location requireslooking at different practical,environmental and cultural aspects. Insome Islamic countries, for instance,women are not to be seen whenentering a toilet. At the same time,young women are afraid of beingharassed or assaulted in secludedareas. This requires balancing differentconsiderations, setting priorities andparticipatory decision-making. Designcan become difﬁcult when theseaspects conﬂict and different usershave different preferences. Even awell-designed facility risks not beingused if its location has been poorlyconsidered.3.4.5 Early childcare facilitiesA key component of the continuumbetween child-friendly schools andlocal communities is linking the careof younger children who are not yetin school with these schools. Whenearly childcare is located withinor near the school, older childrenwho are attending school can leavetheir younger siblings at the centre.This frees older siblings to attendschool and ensures that the youngerchildren are not brought into alreadyovercrowded ﬁrst-year classrooms.In emergencies, these centres canprovide parents and siblings withan opportunity to be involved inactivities outside the crisis, reducingtheir depression and despair. Becauseyoung children provide moments ofpleasure and joy that bring back asense of normalcy, they are a sourceof healing for many families.Essential considerations in creatingearly childcare facilities include:Separate facilities: Early childcarecentres need not be ofﬁcial buildings,but should be dedicated, protectedspaces. They need plenty of light andair, and should include smaller-sizedtoilets, a cooking space and storagefor supplies and materials. They need
63. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION16to be free of hazardous objects andprotected from the elements.Caregivers based on ratio and age:Supervision is critical for keepingchildren safe and engaged in age-appropriate activities. The ratio ofchildren to caregiver depends on theirage, the facility and the country’sresources. However, there should beno more than 20 children per caregiverin the 4- to 6-year-old range, 10 percaregiver for the 2- to 3-year-old rangeand 4 per caregiver for infants.Space: A childcare centre needs to besufﬁciently large to give each childspace to move and explore. Childrenin these age ranges do not have tobe seated in chairs, but could insteadhave mats to sit on, materials to learnfrom and room to play on their ownor in small groups. An early learningenvironment involves a combinationof teacher-directed and child-directedactivities.Research has shown that well-functioning early childhoodcentres are not just scaled-downelementary schools or simplyopen play spaces. Early childhoodcentres must incorporate speciﬁcdesign elements to achieve a safe,enjoyable developmental andlearning environment. For instance,the centres should allow from 4.5 to5.5 square metres of space per child,with a minimum of 3.8 metres perchild. A larger classroom improvesprogrammatic ﬂexibility, providesspace so children can engage inconcurrent quiet and active play, anddecreases aggressive behaviour.Classrooms need to be spatiallydifferentiated. Activity areas can beseparated by physical objects likemovable partitions, open shelves,cabinets and plants; or by visual signssuch as different ﬂooring materials,wall textures or colours; or by changesin lights or ceiling or ﬂoor height. Suchseparate, well-deﬁned boundariessupport social interaction, encourageexploratory behaviour and preventinterruption of ongoing play. Ingeneral, the classroom should have atleast four distinct activity zones:• Gross motor skill zone. Toddlersand preschool-age children needspace where they can dance, climb,jump and move things about. Thearea should be large enough toaccommodate structures, such as aslide or tunnel, and open enough toallow for riding and push-and-pulltoys.• Dramatic-play zone. Make-believeand imagination are important forpre-kindergarteners. Providingprops, such as kitchen appliances,living room furniture or a theatrearea, encourages such play. Whilethe dramatic-play zone should beadjacent to the gross motor skill zoneto allow for easy movement betweenthe two, a clear division between thespaces should be visible to promotea sense of semi-private space.• Arts and crafts zone. This is the ‘wet’area of the room, where children canexperiment with sand, water, paint,paste and other messy materials.The arts and crafts zone should benext to a water source, such as a sinkand gooseneck faucet, and have awashable ﬂoor. Good lighting is alsoimportant.• Quiet zone. Young children needpersonal space that permitsinteraction with an adult caregiverand provides an area for solitaryplay, looking at books or simplyresting. The quiet zone should havecarpeting, comfortable chairs and
64. 17CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALpillows, a low bookshelf for booksand stuffed toys, and a space (out ofreach of toddlers) for objects such asplants or an aquarium.Safety: With young children, safety isa major concern. A group that includesolder children (6 years old and above)needs to be carefully managed or theyoung children will be overshadowedand left out. Teachers and caregiversmust be sure that children do not havesharp objects to play with, that thereare no dangerous places nearby andthat there are no contaminants in thearea. Food needs to be served directlyafter cooking, not kept for long periodsof time.3.4.6 Emergency situationsIn the past, UNICEF built schoolsor advocated school designs inemergency-prone areas that did notalways withstand calamity: Schoolsoften collapsed following earthquakesor ﬂoods, and those that did survivefailed to provide adequate shelter.UNICEF now advocates a range ofinnovative designs based on ‘disasterrisk reduction’ for child-friendlyenvironments, while at the sametime respecting existing customsand practices. In the Philippines,for instance, schools rebuilt aftertyphoons now have more durabledesign and construction elements.These schools have also beendesigned to provide temporaryshelter for adults in an emergency,while allowing for school activities tocontinue at certain times of the day.While radical innovation may berejected by local communities orgovernments, lockstep adherenceto existing designs that no longerwork is counter to creating schoolsthat can endure emergencies. SinceUNICEF inputs are generally a smallportion of the total rehabilitation andreconstruction effort, the agencyshould strive to offer practical,affordable and innovative designs foreducational facilities that governmentsand communities will want to adopton a national scale.Schools as emergency shelters:Sometimes child-friendly schoolsmust go beyond education, acting asshelters or gathering places duringemergencies. This is particularlycommon in hurricane-, earthquake-and ﬂood-prone locations. Schoolsare often the strongest buildingsin the community, and they can bedesigned to accommodate multiplefunctions, serving as shelters andclassrooms at the same time. It iscrucial to understand the importanceof establishing a minimum set ofstandards for schools, especiallywhen their main educational functioncan be affected by other events andsituations.The dual-function model can reducethe amount of time children are forcedto be out of school. Many childrenspend months, even years, out ofschool when their classrooms arebeing used as shelters. Regardlessof whether an emergency situationexists, all designs should considerthe speciﬁc emergency proﬁle ofa given locale. Some locations areﬂood prone, others susceptible todrought, earthquakes or hurricanes;still others have been engaged inlong-term civil or military conﬂict.Many locations have multiple-risk proﬁles, and a design that isgood for some conditions may bedisastrous if used in the presenceof others – for example, using
65. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION18lightweight prefab materials made forearthquake conditions in a high-windzone. During the process of deﬁningthe hazard proﬁle, it is important todeﬁne these conditions in such a waythat they can be fully and objectivelyevaluated by architects, suppliersand contractors. If the hazard proﬁleis particularly high risk, then thedesigns will need to be independentlyevaluated for compliance with theproﬁle. In the case of post-emergencyreconstruction, construction designsshould be professionally reviewed byindependent, qualiﬁed institutions toconﬁrm their safety. These evaluationsDIAGRAM 3:TYPICAL CLASSROOM CROSS SECTIONGable wallsConcrete floor 80 mm + 30 mm sand/cement finishBlackboard2,100 mm x 1,200 mm6,500 mm at centreSelected fill in two layers of 150 mm each; for blackcotton (expansive) soil, compressed sand bed.123 456789101314151211+ 2,600 mm1,450 mm0 mm*-250 mm-600 mm**1. Galvanized corrugated steel sheets andridge, gauge 28.02. IPE 140 beam truss (slope 22 degrees) withZ-beam purlins3. Overhang, 900 mm4. Truss and column are bolted with M12 bolts5. Wall plate, UPE 1406. Steel louvre windows, 2,020x2,020 mm(including frame), pivotal at 300 mm fromtop7. Light well, 600x1,900 mm, provides lightwhen louvres are closed8. Steel pipe, 20 mm9. Column, steel pipe 125 mm or IPE 140anchored to foundation10. Stabilized block bench or ﬁred brick withhardwood top, up to 450 mm11. Tie beam, UPE 14012. Ramp13. Anti-termite barrier14. Large stone foundation with mortar mix 1:4,or stabilized soil block up to 250 mm aboveﬁeld15. Drainage, cement tile, 600x600x50 mm, withgravel, 1,200 width, 300 mm depth* Finished ﬂoor** Depth depends on depth of hard coreKEY:
66. 19CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALMALAWI: PERMANENT SCHOOL IN MPHUNGASchools in Malawi are usually constructed from locally burned bricks,corrugated sheets and wooden beams supporting roofs of corrugated sheets.Such construction leads to environmental problems. The technology used forburning bricks is primitive, causing over-consumption of wood and increaseddeforestation. Roof beams, even if treated, are soon damaged by termites.Classrooms are too hot, with temperatures reaching 40 degrees Celsius. They aresuitable neither as learning spaces for children nor as working places for teachers.Education quality is deteriorating.UNICEF, in collaboration with Norwegian Authorities, chose an innovativetechnology based on the use of heavy-duty aluminium structure as a load-bearing construction for roofs and walls. Local grass was used for thatched roofsand walls were made of cement-reinforced mud blocks. Such a combination oftraditional and modern materials resulted in well-functioning educational facilities,respecting the Malawian building tradition. Nine classrooms, nine dwellingsfor teachers, a health clinic, a doctors’ ofﬁce and voluntary testing centre, andkitchens for school feeding were built, as well as latrines and water points.Construction of one classroom unit of 50 square metres cost about US$4,700. Theproject resulted in a cool, well-ventilated and properly lit child-friendly school.are available from numerousengineering universities. Meetingthe hazard proﬁle is an importantbenchmark with the government andlocal communities and can assure thatthe child-friendly school will survive thehazards it faces.Campuses and compounds: The needfor complex, integrated services forchildren in emergencies has given riseto new ways of thinking about security,schooling and even housing. Innovativedesigns, often building upon localknowledge and skills, place services forchildren at the centre of the communitywithin protective circles.In Malawi, for instance, the complexproblems created by HIV and AIDSrequired innovative solutions. Thus,schools and recreation spaces wereplaced in the same compound asmedical services, and housing forteachers and orphans with HIV orAIDS was situated close to the schoolcampus. Vegetable gardens and treeswere planted nearby. In the campusmodel, the perimeter is open. Spacesare designed to be highly visible sothat community members can takeresponsibility for each other’s security.The campus boundaries are additionallysecured by fencing and a guard.The central focus on children’s returnto normal routines such as schoolingalso encourages adults to look beyondthe tragedies of the moment to theprotection of their children. Thereis an urgent need to integrate thegovernment’s emergency preparednesswith child policies. For example, child-friendly safe learning spaces can morphinto child-friendly schools and child-friendly communities. Early childcarecentres and nurseries can sprout withinthe same school grounds as the child-
67. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION20ZAMBIA: EDUSPORT SCHOOLThe Kicking AIDS Out (KAO) centre in a rural district north of Lusakawas initiated by the EduSport Foundation, a Zambian non-governmentalorganization, in June 2005. The EduSport Foundation promotes educationthrough sport, especially football, as a tool through which physical activities,information and education can contribute to HIV and AIDS prevention,particularly among children and young people in rural areas.The ﬁrst stage of the KAO centre consists of four classrooms and a teacher’shouse, totalling 220 square metres. The centre will provide education,dormitories for orphans without relatives, management, health serviceswith a voluntary testing centre, water and sanitation, and food and medicinestorage. The innovative approach focuses on food production and skillstraining meant to provide not only nutrition for students, but also a sourceof income to cover operational costs. Sports grounds are an important partof the project. The EduSport Foundation plans to establish 10 similar centresthroughout Zambia.The local community was involved in the project and responsible forimplementing its ﬁrst stage. The construction took about four weeks. Localmaterials, such as grass for thatching and mud blocks for walls, were used.The load-bearing structures for walls and roofs are aluminium; the ﬂoorsare concrete slab. The construction cost of a classroom (50 square metres)was US$4,700. The centre, to be developed in stages and in accordance withfunding, is a child-friendly school model, offering safe care to orphans. Thecommunity will be responsible for the centre’s operation with support fromthe EduSport Foundation.friendly school. Safe learning spacescan reduce the costs of providingthe next generation with access toneeded knowledge and skills.The child-friendly strategy hasbeen developing through local andinternational partnerships duringemergencies over the past decade.Built on a human-rights approachthat afﬁrms the value of individualchildren’s lives, the child-friendlyapproach expands existing supportnetworks and resources for children– families, neighbours, governmentsand donors. It places a high value onthe quality of the relationships withinthese social networks.Emergency and educationprofessionals have learned thatthe most important resource forthe protection of children and of anation’s human infrastructure is thecommitment that adults bring tothe process. Parents in relocationcamps are often the ﬁrst to starttheir own schools and learningspaces to help restore a sense ofnormalcy, before government orinternational aid arrives. Aid agenciesand governments can often workmore rapidly and effectively ifthey build on local knowledge andrelationships instead of importingmore generic programmes packagedinternationally.
69. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION22INDIA: AFTER THE EARTHQUAKEA massive earthquake struck the Indian state of Gujarat on 26 January2001. The earthquake registered 7.9 on the Richter scale, according to theUnited States Geological Survey, killing at least 17,000 people and leavingmore than 700,000 homeless. Early estimates valued the total damage atapproximately US$1.2 billion. More than 12,000 schools, 800 anganwadis(early childcare centres) and many health institutions were severelydamaged.In addition to physical and material damage, the earthquake’s devastationdirectly affected nearly 3 million children and 2.5 million women. As manyas 1,000 students were killed in the city of Bhuj alone. An estimated 200,000children enrolled in the schools in Kutch district were affected, and nearly800 schools were damaged. According to the Indian Ofﬁce for Disasters, thesituation called for community-based care for the entire region, especially forthe vulnerable.The Gujarat earthquake occurred in a region where the frequency andintensity of earthquakes were well documented (Zone V on the national andinternational measurement scales), as were risks for cyclonic winds up to 150kph, drought and ﬂash ﬂooding. It was important to know these risks beforeundertaking the reconstruction process, because such risks dramaticallyaffect design requirements and the cost and complexity of construction.For example, many sites in the Gujarat reconstruction required high plinthconstruction due to ﬂash ﬂooding. Also, it should not be assumed that theparticular emergency condition being addressed presents the most difﬁcultdesign or engineering challenge: In Gujarat, the additional strength neededto comply with Zone V earthquake resistance was not as difﬁcult or as costlyas compliance with the wind-load factors required for cyclonic winds up to150kph.UNICEF supported the construction of the schools, using the occasion as anopportunity to demonstrate the concept of child-friendly spaces. The ﬁrstbuildings were designed to be cyclone and earthquake resistant, highlightingthe importance of safe, secure learning environments. Equity issues werealso important. Some of the new features introduced included ramps forthe physically challenged, separate toilets for boys and girls, drinking-waterfacilities, fencing, and school furniture for students and teachers. Childrenwere engaged in planting trees and growing school gardens whereverpossible. Schools were also used to demonstrate water conservation.All told, 169 schools, consisting of 610 classrooms, were built using child-friendly learning space designs. The new infrastructure showed a positiveimpact on both enrolment and attendance. The review team identiﬁed theseschools as useful models to demonstrate child-friendly spaces with separatetoilets for boys and girls, school gardens, play areas and potable water.
70. 23CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL3.5.1 GenderJust as it is in other parts of society,gender discrimination is pervasivein schools and learning spaces. Inmany cases, discrimination is relatedto cultural beliefs and traditions.Sometimes it is caused by failureto recognize problems and needs.Although it has been stated thatadolescent girls drop out of schoolbecause they lack separate facilities,so far, none of these claims have beensupported by studies or quantitativeevidence. What has been shown is thatinappropriate provisions for schoolhygiene, sanitation and water do affectadolescent schoolgirls’ absenteeism(a ﬁrst step towards dropping out ofschool) and their sustained interest inschooling.3.5.2 Access for the disabledFor the approximately one in ﬁve ofthe world’s poorest people who aredisabled, access to basic services is adaily struggle. The concept of accessfor the disabled is often unknown inrural or poor urban school/learningspace settings. Wheelchair accessramps in a child-friendly school maybe the ﬁrst acknowledgement of theexistence of disabled children in thecommunity and of their right to attendschool. With only small adjustments(for example, a ramp) schools can bemade accessible for these children.There also should be wider doors(1,000 millimetres) and adequatecorridor space in which to manoeuvrea wheelchair; plinths or doorstepsobstructing entrance to classroomsand ofﬁces should be avoided.Obstructions should also be eliminatedfrom the school grounds. The sportsand extra-curricular areas, shadedoutdoor lunch and learning spacesand school gardens should be madehandicapped-accessible. Circulationpaths and routes must be accessibleto everyone, and their surfaces shouldbe maintained regularly, especiallyduring the rainy season. The designneeds to follow established norms foraccessibility while being sensitive tooverall aesthetics, all of which usuallyadds a small amount to the ﬁnal cost.Design considerations are not enough,however: Teachers and other schoolpersonnel must be reminded of theirresponsibilities to disabled children.3.5.3 ClimateAnalysis of the microclimatic aspectsof a site will inﬂuence the design(form, shape, mass, colours, order), theorientation of buildings and the choiceof building technologies, constructiondetails and materials for the school,and the layout and organization of thelearning spaces.A study in Bam (Iran), for instance,found that its harsh bioclimaticconditions – a dry-hot zone withregular strong, dust-laden windsand temperatures reaching up to 50degrees Celsius – called for speciﬁcdesign guidelines for child-friendlyenvironments that included orientingbuildings along the east-west axis,heavy external and internal walls,use of water and plants to producehumidity, utilization of north winds forair circulation and cooling in summer,and use of verandas, porches, trellises,3.5 FACTORS INFLUENCING DESIGN
71. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION24and trees to produce comfortable,shaded places for children.3.5.4 Cost of infrastructurePutting non-governmentalorganizations or village educationcommittees in charge of schoolconstruction promotes communityparticipation and also reduces cost.Reliance on ‘community contributionof labour for construction’ shifts thesocial cost to communities and reducesthe ﬁnancial outlays of donor andgovernment. But reducing costs doesnot necessarily translate into goodresults. In Sierra Leone, for instance,the costs of a child-friendly pavilionloft classroom were extensivelyreduced due to the large community-input component. The cost went fromaround US$10,000 or US$12,000 for aconventional classroom of 54 squaremetres to an average of US$5,000for the child-friendly classroom ofan average 100 square metres oflearning space including play/learningStairsRampToiletsGardenBio-fenceOutlookdeckVerandaDIAGRAM 5:Plan 1: Existing classroomPlan 2: Improved classroomBASIC IMPROVEMENTS• Easy exit provided by the seconddoor• Better cross ventilation by addingwindows and wall openings• Deck for outdoor activities• Garden• Separate toilets for boys and girls• Multi-activity classroom• Veranda for shaded area
72. 25CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALGENDER-SENSITIVE SCHOOL DESIGNSeveral factors need to be taken into consideration in designing schools thataddress girls’ needs.During menstruation, most low-income women in developing countries usecloth or rags to absorb blood, materials that can cause bad odours and aresubject to leaking. In some cultures and among the very poor, women mightuse no means at all to absorb menstrual blood. Spending long hours at schoolwithout being able to wash properly can be an inconvenience to menstruatingwomen and cause them embarrassment. Both schoolgirls and female teacherswill opt to stay away from school on those days, resulting in absenteeism for10 per cent to 20 per cent of school time. Consequently, girls fall behind inlearning, which may very well be the ﬁrst step towards dropping out.Children begin to become aware of their development and physical changesat prepubescence (age 10 to 12). This awareness creates a need for gender-related privacy, which becomes particularly acute when toilet use andmenstruation are concerned. If no privacy is provided, children will choose tolook for an informal private place or wait until after school hours. In situationswhen they need to go to the toilet frequently, such as during episodes ofdiarrhoea, they prefer not to attend school rather than use facilities whereothers who see their ‘embarrassing’ condition may tease them.decks and loft (micro-library). But thebuildings were never ﬁnished – a starkreminder that shifting social cost doesnot necessarily reduce or eliminatethe cost. It further underscores theimportance of overall management.No matter how well a school isdesigned and built, it will not functionsmoothly if it is not well managed andmaintained.Planning must also adequately budgetfor the cost of maintenance. Once thechild-friendly school is completed, itsregular cleaning and maintenance caninvolve children. Sweeping, yard workand other chores can be part of thedaily schedule and can involve evenyoung children. When the school hasactive relationships with parents andother community members, manyof the larger maintenance and repairtasks, such as repainting, can be doneby adults with help from the children.Allocation of funds for the ongoingupkeep of the school should bedecided by the democratically electedschool board.Construction budget: Schoolconstruction costs should normallybe determined by the basic standardsfor the design, labour costs and thecost of materials for the child-friendlyschool (Dierkx, 2003). But these costfactors can vary greatly dependingon circumstances. The abundanceof and access to local materials andlocal building skills can encouragestrong community involvement if theculture of community participation iswell rooted. On the other hand, thereality of poor infrastructure (roads,communication), lack of security,
75. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION28DESIGNDesigning a school goes beyond planning a building with four walls, windowsand a door. A school must be adapted to the speciﬁc conditions of the localcommunity and the geographical characteristics of the site; it must be concernedwith the local economy and projections of demographic growth.Primary schools in Myanmar, which have ﬁve grades, use a multigrade systemwithin the classroom. A school may have one big classroom for all ﬁve gradesand only three teachers, all conducting classes simultaneously. When buildingnew classrooms, the challenge in Myanmar was to provide separate spacesfor the students while minimizing the walking distance for teachers betweenclassrooms. Five separate classrooms were not feasible, and one classroom wasinadequate.The new classroom design provides two separate spaces with a ‘nucleus’ toaccommodate two teachers. (See diagram below.) For now, one teacher cansupervise two grades with separate entrances and a reading corner, allowing forreduced noise levels. A primary school could have three of these structures withthree teachers. If the Government increases faculty hiring, the schools wouldbe ready to receive two more teachers and achieve the optimum ratio of oneteacher per grade.CASE STUDY 3BooksNucleusClassroomClassroomVerandaVerandaStairsStairsBooks264 square feet264 square feet
76. 29CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL3.6.1 UsersActive involvement of users is essentialin all phases of the design process. Inmost countries, standardized designsfor schools reduce costs and controlquality. Using them can be a goodsolution, but applying a standard designtoo rigidly can actually drive up costs.In general, when properly coachedand guided, potential users are able toassess their existing practices and ﬁndsolutions for their own needs. Theirinvolvement during the design stagewill lead to better solutions and increaseacceptance of these solutions.3.6.2 Gender needsBesides having different physicalneeds than boys and men, womenand girls may have different roles insociety and thus different points ofview and knowledge. When womenand girls are not adequately involved inschool planning, design, construction,operation and maintenance, theiropinions and needs may not beidentiﬁed and included. Girls and boys,female and male teachers, and mothersand fathers must be equally representedduring decision-making activities. Theschool environment is a model of thecommunity as a whole and is thereforethe place where children learn aboutgender roles and cooperation betweenwomen and men.3.6.3 PartnersThe child-friendly school project teammust meet multiple expectations,including those of the donor, partner,government counterpart, ministryof education, representatives of theconstruction trades and communityleaders. Community expectations arelikely to be the least articulated in theplanning and discussions that lead toa ﬁnal design. This can result in criticalerrors.Consulting by convenience mayoverlook design needs. Child-friendlyschool/spaces may be built wherethere are no pre-existing schoolsor where previous schools havehad restricted enrolments that havedenied entry to minority subgroups.It is therefore essential for the projectteam to know the full complementof communities being served and,to the extent possible, address theirexpectations of their new school. Thisis a time-consuming step that is easilyoverlooked in the rush to show progressto donors and governments. It is a step,however, that can make the differencebetween community ownership withexcellent outcomes and completerejection of a costly investment.The CFS ideal is to see that all childrenare equitably offered high-qualityeducation. This cannot be accomplishedsimply by completing smart-lookingnew schools. The slow process ofmeeting and understanding communityissues is a wise investment, one thatreaps other beneﬁts. As a school site isapproaching completion, for instance,the risks of theft and vandalismdramatically increase. Providing 24-hour security to multiple remote sitesis generally impossible, but if the localcommunity has been consulted and isin agreement with the project, it mayprovide site protection gratis.3.6 DESIGN WITH INVOLVEMENT OF ALL
77. CHAPTER 3: LOCATION, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION30SCHOOLS WITH A TWIST:TAKING COMMUNITY SCHOOLSTO CHILDREN IN RURAL SIERRALEONEIn Sierra Leone, an estimated 375,000school-age children, mostly girls, livein poor, remote communities with noaccess to educational facilities. Thecountry’s brutal civil war destroyedmuch of the education infrastructure.Moreover, the end of the war sparkedsuch a surge in school enrolment,especially among over age children,that there is no room for youngerones.To address the needs of youngerchildren who cannot walk longdistances, a strategy was developedto take schools to children in theirown communities over a four-yearperiod. A partnership – composed ofUNICEF; the Ministry of Education,Science and Technology; the GlobalMovement for Children coalition inSierra Leone (GMC-Sierra Leone);and the communities themselves– agreed to support low-cost, child-friendly school facilities that wouldquickly get rural children into school.The ﬁrst phase established 410community schools designed forgrades 1 to 3. These children wouldthen be mainstreamed into largerprimary schools as they grew olderand could walk longer distances.UNICEF supported the design ofan elegant facility – a simple one-classroom, integrated, multipurposepavilion that incorporates variousactivities from formal learning forchildren and adults to communitytheatre. It features two activity decksand a loft that serves as an ofﬁce andmicro library. Once all materials areon site, it takes seven to eight weeksto construct one school at a cost ofjust over US$5,000. Each entity in thepartnership makes a contribution:Communities provide manual labourand local materials (sand, stonesand bush sticks); parents ensure thatchildren enrol and attend school;the education ministry recruits andpays teachers; and GMC coalitionmembers pay for skilled labourand mobilize communities. UNICEFprovides the overall coordination,contributes construction materials,trains teachers and supplieseducational materials.The community school initiative isan innovative, low-cost, sustainableapproach to education that makesuse of a broad partnership and high-level community involvement. “Thisis a new thing that has come to ourcommunity,” said Chief Sullay Turay,the head of Rorinka community,Bombali District. “Our little childrencan now attend school withoutwaiting until they are 10 years old tobe able to walk to the nearest school.Indeed, this is development.”This initiative has proved thatpartnerships do work and that evenpoor communities can be effectivelyengaged in developing educationopportunities for their children. Inpost-conﬂict countries like SierraLeone, taking affordable andsustainable schools to children isone step in helping the country meetits commitment to the MillenniumDevelopment Goal of having allchildren complete a full course ofprimary education by 2015.Source: UNICEF Country OfﬁceSierra Leone 2005 Annual Report.
78. 31CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL3.7.1 Low costNew materials and technologiescombined with appropriate traditionaltechnologies often are the bestarchitectural and technical solutionsfor school construction given thelocal climate, culture and socio-economic circumstances. Technologychoices made by governmentalpolicymakers and decision makersare often based on their perceptionof ‘what development is and whatit is not’. However, they often lackknowledge of the immediate andlonger-term implications of a speciﬁc‘technology package’ choice. Forexample, a high-tech solution impliesbuilding materials and methods thatare usually not found nearby andare often costly. It also implies thatforeign expertise and contractorsmust be hired, which adds tothe costs. It usually means thatmaintenance or ‘spare parts’ are notknown or not easily available, andthat further drives up costs. Often ablend of technologies, selected bythe child-friendly school team andthe ministerial school planning unit,offers the most effective solution.This blend will vary according to thecountry and the speciﬁc case, and willbe one of the most inﬂuential factorsin the ﬁnal cost.3.7.2 Multidisciplinary teamsThe child-friendly schools programmemust explore the formation ofmultidisciplinary, self-reliant teamsthat could be deployed on shortnotice and cover the whole breadth ofthe sector-wide education approach(SWAP). In emergency educationprogramming, such as after atsunami or earthquake, a three-trackmodality could be followed, each witha speciﬁc timeline:1. Rapid multidisciplinary responseteam – short cycle, from threeweeks to three months, withvarious experts from education,health, child protection, waterand sanitation, environmentalplanning and communityplanning, as well as an economist,architect, engineer or logisticsexpert;2. Midterm multidisciplinaryresponse team – longerterm, from 3 to 24 months,with experts drawn from UNagencies to enhance inter-agencycooperation;3. Long-term implementation – after24 months, elements of child-friendly schools that are to besustained in post-emergencyprogramming can be integratedinto programmes.The multidisciplinary teams ensurethat planning, development andimplementation of child-friendlyschool interventions are holisticand harmonize educational, social,cultural, economical, technological,safety, health and environmentalaspects.3.7.3 Provision of land forschoolsIn areas where there has never beena school, it will be difﬁcult to obtaina centrally located plot of land thatallows for the common location3.7 REMAINING CHALLENGES
80. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 4School and community4.1 School-community links4.2 The school as a learning community4.2.1 Role of the school head4.2.2 Role of the teacher4.3 The school in the community4.3.1 Role of school heads and teachers together4.3.2 Role of families and caregivers4.3.3 Role of education bodies and other local authorities4.4 Reaching out to the community and beyond4.5 Communities and child-friendly learning spaces4.5.1 Organizing learning opportunities4.6 Policy implications4.7 Supervision and oversight
81. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALHow child-friendly schools are linkedto their communities is critical. Schoolsare communities unto themselves andchild-friendly schools in particularpromote a strong sense of community.But schools do not exist in isolation.They reside within the communitiesthey serve and must cultivaterelationships with them. In addition tothe immediate community, usually ageographical catchment area, schoolsalso can have links with a more diffusecommunity, such as former studentsand alumni associations, youth groupssuch as the Boy Scouts and GirlGuides, faith-based organizationsor language groups associatedwith the school.The links between schools and theircommunities can vary in pattern andintensity. At one extreme are schoolsthat simply have a physical presence.They are not linked with, dependent onor accountable to their communitiesin any serious sense. Other schools,especially child-friendly schools, areorganically linked in multiple ways. Itis essential to understand the basis ofthis rich linkage.In emergency situations where schoolshave been destroyed, communitylinks can be major factors in restoringnormalcy and rebuilding education.These relationships are bridges thatcan help communities create safe,Ambohitnibe, Madagascar, 26 March 2007 – In the middle of anisolated community, an hour’s walk from the nearest road, there is aprimary school that is setting the standard for child-friendly educationin Madagascar.In the past ﬁve years, enrolment at the Ambohitnibe School has gonefrom 155 to 207, graduation rates have almost doubled and drop-out rates have been reduced sharply. The reason for this success? Acontract signed between parents, teachers, school administrators, localcommunity members and students to keep children in a quality school.Since the contract was signed, parents committed to their children’seducation have renovated the school building, opened up a canteen,constructed solar panels for hot water and provided learning tools tohelp students with arithmetic. Soon, the parents will begin work on alibrary and football ﬁeld.Source: <www.unicef.org/infobycountry/madagascar_39221.html>4.1 SCHOOL-COMMUNITY LINKSCHAPTER 4SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY
82. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY2child-friendly learning spaces duringemergencies, and the creation of suchspaces helps communities recovermore quickly from catastrophe.What follows is an analysis of theinteractive nature of the school as acommunity and its linkage to the largercommunity around it. The analysishighlights ways in which schools canreach out to their communities anddraw them into their world.Learning does not begin when childrenwalk through the school doors nordoes it end when they exit for theday. It takes place all the time andeverywhere, throughout life. There isa pedagogic dimension to the linksbetween schools and homes andlocalities. Children bring to schooltheir family and community beliefs,practices, knowledge, expectationsand behaviours. Similarly, when theyreturn from school they bring backto their homes and communitiesnew forms of knowledge, practices,behaviours, attitudes and skills.Children are engaged in a continuous,dynamic process of bridging the worldof school and the world of home andcommunity. They learn from bothworlds, facilitated by teachers, familymembers, neighbors and others.Linking schools and communities iswidely recognized as good pedagogicpractice.There is an economic dimension tothese links as well. A wide range ofcosts is involved in the provisionand uptake of education, and thesecosts are borne by various parties.Unit cost (per pupil) is based on theamortized cost of facilities, furnitureand equipment, teachers’ salaries,operational overheads, learning andteaching supplies, transport, schoolfees, uniforms and other services,such as school meals. There are alsoopportunity costs to families, becausechildren are not available to performhousehold chores or engage inincome-generating activities.Viable school ﬁnancing depends on thelinks between schools and homes andcommunities to determine how thesecosts are shared. At one extreme,as is the case with self-help schools,all costs may be borne by homesand communities. (See Box, page3.) Sometimes governments supportcommunity efforts by ﬁnancingteachers’ salaries. At still other times,governments, central or local, bearall the costs, with opportunity costsborne by homes. School ofﬁcialstap into these different fundingsources in order to operate viable,sustainable education programmes,and in the course of operations, theymay seek supplementary fundingfrom governments or levy additionalcharges on pupils’ families orcommunities to meet additional costs.In all cases, viable, sustainable schoolﬁnancing depends on a healthy linkbetween schools and the communitiesthat they serve.A third sense in which schools arelinked to homes and communities isthe sociopolitical or developmentaldimension. In highly centralizedpolitical systems, government controlof schools is usually strong, withminimum community involvementbeyond contributing local resources.Schools serve primarily to achievenational development goals, suchas cultivating human resourcesfor economic growth, modernizingsociety or instituting culturalchange. Teachers and schoolauthorities are accountable toa central ministry rather than totheir communities.
85. 5CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALTABLE 4.1: BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OFTHE SCHOOL AS A LEARNING COMMUNITYCharacteristics Outline of basic characteristicsLocation speciﬁc There is a specifically prescribed place or location (school) in which the learning/teaching process is designated to occur.Time bound Learners and teachers assemble at the location at designated times and stay forprescribed time periods (day/term/year) for learning to take place.Time structured School day is structured into periods in which different subjects or curriculum areasare covered. School year is structured into terms, with a prescribed number of weeks.LearnerstructuredLearners are usually grouped by age (cohorts) and channelled into levels, classes orgrades that correspond to age and the prescribed learning for that age group.ProgrammestructuredPrescribed learning is structured into subjects or disciplines that are taught separatelyand that together constitute a programme for a given grade, level or education cycle.PrescribedlearningCurriculum reflects national goals and priorities, possibly open to regional/local/community variations, and involves set standards evaluated through tests andexaminations.SequencedlearningCurriculum is sequenced so that objectives are achieved at one level before learnersprogress to the next level.SpecialiststafﬁngStaffing consists of qualified, trained professionals (teachers) with knowledge of thesubject matter, pedagogic skills, etc.SpecialistresourcesStandard furniture and equipment are unique to schools and part of definingcharacteristics (desks, blackboard, etc.).While learning takes place all thetime and everywhere, schools arespecially designated institutionsdedicated to the purpose of learning.They represent societies’ efforts toconcentrate resources and skills forquality education within a prescribedcurriculum that includes effective,efﬁcient teaching and learningmodalities. Some basic characteristicsof schools as learning communities arehighlighted in Table 4.1 below. Thesecharacteristics provide an operationalframework for understanding schoolsas learning communities and are theskeleton on which other aspects ofcommunity life are built. The extent towhich schools become true learningcommunities depends on the richnessof additional elements.4.2 THE SCHOOL AS A LEARNING COMMUNITY
87. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALAside from a school’s reputation,there are basic forms of behaviourthat deﬁne the school as a community,such as the rituals and routineschildren and teachers engage in(prayers in the morning, ﬂag-raising,singing the school song or servinga midday meal) and the commonrules and values to which everyonesubscribes. Over time, schoolscultivate an ethos or ‘organizationalambience’ that gives further depthto the sense of community. Aschool with a good ethos is usuallycharacterized by student and teachercohesion, high expectations ofstudents, positive teacher attitudestoward students, a stress on rewardsand consistent, shared values, normsand standards. Such schools aremore likely to develop students whoperform well academically, have self-discipline and high attendance recordsthan schools with a poor ethos,which tend to create opposite studentbehaviours.In a sense, all these characteristicsand attributes are ‘fenced’ withinthe school as a community and helpdetermine a way of life within theschool boundaries. For instance,children may behave negativelyoutside of school, but clearlyunderstand that such behaviour willnot be tolerated in school. The child-friendly school fences in positiveattributes and fences out negativequalities, much the same way it fencesin safety and protection and fencesout risks and dangers.However, since the child-friendlyschool exists in and serves thewider community, the attributescultivated within the school will alsoinﬂuence that wider community. Forinstance, children who bring to schooldisrespectful or violent behaviourlearned at home will hopefullyreplace that behaviour with the morepositive conduct promoted withinthe school, adopting such valuesas non-confrontation and peacefulnegotiation. In the process, they willhelp change the negative behavioursin their homes.Transmitting school attributes intothe larger community is not alwayssimple for child-friendly schools.In some areas, issues of disciplinemay be conditioned by communityvalues and practices that regardcorporal punishment as desirable forbuilding character and self-discipline.In contrast, child-friendly schoolsbelieve that discipline is necessary tohelp children learn correct behavioursand to maintain classroom order, buttheir key attributes are nonviolentdiscipline and protecting the rights ofchildren. Within child-friendly schools,teachers learn appropriate, respectfulapproaches to discipline throughin-service training and mentoring bythe school head, and they implementeffective discipline that respectschildren’s rights and contributes to apositive learning environment. (SeeChapter 6 on classroom discipline.)As children learn and succeed inschool in the absence of corporalpunishment, parents will come toaccept the school’s approach and maygradually shift their thinking.4.2.1 Role of the school headA sense of community within child-friendly schools is cultivated bythe school head, whose leadershipdetermines whether a school takesa child-friendly path or not. Theschool head’s decisions and style areexcellent barometers of a school’schild-friendliness.
89. 9CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALIn a child-friendly school, the schoolhead is a friendly, accessible personwho encourages students’ participationin school life and promotes linksbetween the school community,parents and the wider community.Under the school head’s direction,the school also provides a protectiveenvironment where children are free ofcorporal punishment, violence, genderstereotypes, bullying and stigma.The head of a child-friendly school willalso ensure that the school is managedin a fair, equitable and transparentmanner. School rules and regulationswill be just, clear, available to all andapplied in an open manner in allcases. Student participation will beencouraged, as appropriate, in variousaspects of school life, including theapplication of fair rules and regulations.Evidence suggests that school headswho become successful leadersconcentrate their efforts on four broadgoals:1. Promote powerful learning-teachingprocesses that facilitate educationalachievement for all children. Thisoccurs when school leadershipsets realistic, but high expectationsfor both children and teachers,in the classroom and throughoutthe school, and provides variousways for them to pursue learningthrough the active participationof the learner and the reﬂectiveguidance of the teacher. The schoolleadership can make or break thistype of transformative pedagogyby the goals that are set and theresources that are made available.More importantly, the school headneeds to encourage teachers andlearners to confront obstacles thataffect progress, seek out availableguidance and make the mostcreative use of limited resources.2. Cultivate a strong sense ofcommunity that embraces all whoare part of the school. The schoolhead is the driving force that shapesthe character of the institution andits ethos. He or she is the primegatekeeper of the school’s traditionsand reputation. Maintainingthe school culture requires amanagement style that encouragesthe entire school community toshare the common values and rulesthat support good practices withinthe school. In a child-friendly school,the ethos is rooted in the rights ofchildren and staff to fair and equalopportunities and treatment withinthe school community.The school head must addressthreats to this sense of fair andequal treatment, because failure todo so will undermine the school’scommunity spirit. The schoolhead’s style must reinforce thetradition and culture of the schoolthrough such actions as givingdaily or weekly talks to the wholeschool, emphasizing care andrespect for the school groundsand surrounding environment,encouraging extracurricularactivities and strengthening ritualsby, for instance, selecting a schoolsong or holding a founder’s day or athanksgiving parade.3. Value and expand the proportion ofchildren’s social capital. Children arenot empty vessels to be ﬁlled withinformation, but young people withpersonalities, names and knowledgeto share. The new knowledgethey acquire in school builds ontheir learning from home and thecommunity. Children’s participationin the classroom and school isfacilitated by school leaders whoinvest in children’s capabilities.(See box, page 11.)
90. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY104. Cherish and encourage thedevelopment of families’educational cultures. A culture oflearning is important throughoutthe life cycle of a child, fromearly childhood through alllevels of education. In poor, ruralcommunities, many parents areilliterate and the school leadershiphas to reach out to them to helpthem beneﬁt from and encouragetheir children’s schooling.4.2.2 Role of the teacherTeachers are pivotal to effective andefﬁcient learning. They are vital, alongwith the school head, to promotinga sense of community within theschool and to building links to thewider community. A school and itspupils beneﬁt most when teachers arecommitted to cultivating a learningcommunity with a strong sense ofbelonging and caring among allchildren and adults.Unlike the school head, who managesthe entire school, teachers facilitatelearning, handle the classroom andhelp their students transfer what theyhave learned in the classroom tonon-school settings. They also workwith the school head in laying a solidfoundation and providing a modelof a better future for all. Successfulteachers in child-friendly schools striveto improve their performance, takeadvantage of learning opportunities,create new connections and promotecollaboration among teachers.There are many ways in which thecommunity can be drawn into theschool, beginning with communityinvolvement in the initial decision-making on the design, building (orrenovating) and maintenance ofschool buildings and grounds, toongoing transparency, accountabilityand participation in managementand decision-making. Additionally,parent-teacher associations (PTAs),by allowing the participation of andcommunication with parents, createopenness that encourages parents totrack their children’s progress.School heads and teachers assumethe critical role in building school-community links by reaching out tothe community and drawing it in. Butparents, other community membersand children themselves have crucialparts to play as well.4.3.1 Role of school heads andteachers togetherSchool heads provide schoolleadership and must initiate thesupport and involvement of familyand community. The more willing theyare to recruit parents and communitymembers for school tasks, to listento their views and share decision-making, the more likely school-family partnerships are to take hold.Management and administrativesupport can be provided to carry outschool programmes through district orlocal authorities’ budgets, materials,space, equipment or staff.School managers are instrumental inmaking sure that teachers receive theprofessional development they need tobe engaged in family and communityinvolvement. Ensuring that all school4.3 THE SCHOOL IN THE COMMUNITY
92. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY12Another possible approach is toinvolve school staff and pupils inparticipatory action research. Thismay include small teams of teachersand students who meet monthlyto study school-family-communityrelationships, discuss the challengesand opportunities that arise ininvolving families and the communityin the school and devise interventionsto build active communityparticipation. Kenya and Uganda haveconducted child-to-child surveys usingthis approach.Once the groundwork has been laidand there is two-way communicationbetween the school and the familyand community, schools can establishpartnerships by creating an actionteam committed to developing acomprehensive family-communityinvolvement programme. Members ofthe team bring their own perspective,experience and skills to the initiative.The action team is responsible fora baseline study – developing goalstatements, identifying strategiesto meet the goals, establishingimplementation plans and usingevaluation tools.Strengthening teacher capacityin the area of family-communitycollaboration can be supported byproviding teachers with incentives toengage in these relationships.4.3.2 Role of families andcaregiversA child-friendly school is a family-friendly school. It builds relationshipswith parents and caregivers whohave primary responsibility for thewell-being of children at all stagesof their development. An informed,caring family can be the most stable,reliable and unconditionally supportiveagent for learning, so the engagementof families in the promotion andstrengthening of children’s learningcan be among the most effectiveand lasting of interventions. Thisis particularly critical in the case offamilies made vulnerable by poverty,disease, conﬂict, lack of water, fuelor other resources, or by domesticviolence; in families in isolatedcommunities not reached by limitedgovernment services; and in ethnicallymarginalized or excluded families(EAPRO, 2005).Parents who feel positive aboutschool and are involved in its life arelikely to be the best advocates for theschool’s values, policies and practicesat home, whether by encouraginghomework, promoting anti-harassmentor supporting cooperation with others.Where there is no contact betweenhome and school, problems in thechild’s life may go unrecognized bythe school and will not be properlyaddressed. Even in underprivilegedfamilies, high levels of parentalUGANDA: COMMUNITY-BASEDCHILD REGISTRATIONIn rural Uganda, investing in acommunity-based birth registration(CBR) system provided effective toolsfor monitoring various children’s rights,including enrolment in early childhoodcare activities and primary schools. Thesystem places emphasis on registeringchildren from poor and marginalizedhouseholds and children living in child-headed and female-headed households.These children are then issued birthregistration cards that ensure theirenrolment in primary school at theappropriate time. With this low-costintervention, more than 500,000 childrenwere registered in just two years.
94. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY14Model Primary School in New Owerri,Nigeria, is a bold testimony thatinitiatives to make schools child-friendly can succeed. Before 2000,it was a neglected primary schoolwith buildings in various states ofdilapidation and a population notvery different from those of schoolsin similar conditions. The school’sturnaround began in 2002, when itwas classiﬁed by UNICEF as child-friendly. Since then, a vigorouspartnership between UNICEF, the ImoState Primary Education Board and theschool’s PTA has blossomed, makingall aspects of the school welcoming tochildren.A large compound provides ampleplaying space for the school’s 1,136pupils. Girls outnumber boys, withgirls’ enrolment at 53 per cent andboys’ at 47 per cent. The students arespread over 52 classes, each with oneassigned teacher. Twelve other staffmembers perform various roles inthe school. Demands for admissioncontinue unabated, as the school is theﬁrst choice of many in the community.But only 16 classrooms are currentlyavailable, and the large studentpopulation has stretched the school’sfacilities.School and community workhand in handThe key strength of the school is itsactive PTA, which is involved in manyof the ongoing projects, includingconstruction of 10 new classrooms.It also helped beef up security in theschool by installing burglar-prooﬁngon doors. The PTA takes its roleseriously. According to P. M. Okoro,the association’s vice-chairman, thegroup meets three times each termand other times as needed.Sir Sam Iheakama, second vice-chairman of the PTA, points out thatthe World Bank Estate where theschool is located is a communityunto its own, where residents sharecommon, strong sentiments abouttheir children’s education. He reportsthat PTA meetings are always wellattended, with over 80 parents at eachmeeting. According to Iheakama, thecommunity has a positive view of theModel Primary School and “parentsall wish their children should passthrough this school.”Improving water and sanitationThe PTA has improved personalhygiene among the pupils byproviding washbasins and stands foreach of the school’s 16 classrooms, aswell as soap and toilet paper rolls forthe latrines.Model Primary School has a fullcomplement of ventilated improvedpit latrines for both boys and girls.The water supply is adequate; theState Primary Education Boardprovided two water drums that areconstantly reﬁlled. During break time,excited pupils, their plastic cups andbowls in hand, run to fetch drinkingwater from the handpump-equippedborehole provided by UNICEF incollaboration with the State RuralWater Supply Agency. The borehole, akey component of making the schoolchild-friendly, beneﬁts more than thepupils and teachers in the school.Since it is the most regular source ofwater in the vicinity, the World BankEstate also depends on the boreholeNIGERIA: UNICEF AND PARTNERS CREATE A MODELCHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOL
96. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY16Strengthening links:• The school has a PTA that meetsand communicates regularly,and involves parents from allbackgrounds (not just the elite);• The PTA has a plan of actioncoordinated with schoolauthorities to develop, implementand monitor annual school plans;• The school promotes parents’participation in discussionsand decision-making on schoolpolicies and activities;• The school utilizes variouscommunication tools to reach outto parents;• The school provides informationto parents on its reforms, policies,goals;• The school invites parents todiscuss concerns about theirchildren and provides regularopportunities for them to informschool authorities about events athome or in the community;• In case of illiterate parents orthose who are not speakersof the majority language, theschool provides oral messages ortranslates communications intoparents’ language;• The school hosts events thatinvolve children and families,such as inviting parents for anevening of music, drama orpoetry reading that demonstratesthe lessons their children arelearning;• The school provides the space forenvironmental and communitygardens where PTA members cansupport food security;• The school head may presentawards to children or teachers– such as best attendance, mostimproved, special helper, star ofthe month, sports awards – at anevent involving the community.GHANA: CELEBRATING CHILDREN’S ACHIEVEMENTS WITH PARENTSAt Zangum School in the northern region of Ghana, the head teacher realized thatthe parents of his students had little understanding of what their children werelearning in school. To help them understand their children’s education process, heorganized an afternoon each semester to celebrate the students’ achievements.The activities at these afternoons varied from the younger children’s reciting thealphabet, singing songs or acting out a drama to teach malaria prevention, toolder students’ reading poems or stories that they had written while other childrentranslated them into their parents’ language. The head teacher used these eventsnot only to recognize achievement, but also to highlight important messagesregarding the school, and the events were highly anticipated by the community, thestudents and the teachers. Through these activities, parents, many of whom hadnever been to school themselves, discovered what their children were learning, thevalue of their children’s education and how they could support it. Discipline in theschool improved, and attendance and participation in the PTA grew.
97. 17CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALGHANA: THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN PTASKparigu, a remote rural village in Ghana, had regular PTA meetings thatwere well attended by fathers but rarely by mothers. The headmaster wasconcerned about the lack of women’s involvement and especially wanted toensure that girls’ issues were well represented. Therefore, he made a pointof talking with the mothers on his walks around town, at the market and atchurch, always subtly bringing up the subject of involvement in the PTA. Inthe course of these discussions, he learned that most women had not beento school, so they thought they would not be able to contribute. They alsothought the PTA was ‘men’s business’.Talking about these concerns on a one-to-one basis and later at a PTAmeeting, he found out the biggest stumbling block for women was thetiming of the meetings. The headmaster generally held the meetings in lateafternoon, when the sun was not too hot but it was not yet dark, but this, helearned, was the women’s busiest time of day, when they return from marketand prepare evening meals. The headmaster changed to a suggested time:“Fridays right after prayers because both Muslims and Christians don’t go tofarm on those days and it is before cooking begins.”Engaging the community women and changing to a more suitable time forthem allowed the women gradually to become a much stronger presence inthe PTA. They enriched the dialogue not only on gender issues but also on arange of topics affecting all children.4.3.3 Role of education bodiesand other local authoritiesChild-friendly schools promotebroad-based alliances amongcommunities, local governments,civil society and the private sector.With the need for a cross-sectoralperspective, different actors must befully appreciated and accommodatedto ensure that the child-friendlyschool concept is implemented.Local school authorities haveobligations and responsibilitiestowards schools in theirmunicipalities. It is their duty toprovide resources and funding forteachers and administrators, toprovide quality learning materialsand to monitor school planning andprogress. Both local and nationaleducation authorities monitor theperformance of speciﬁc schools.The local education authoritiesare responsible for supervision ofteachers, school managers andheadmasters/headmistresses andfor the allocation of learning spaces,tools and instruments. They areaccountable to the community forresource allocation. In decentralizedgovernment systems, communitymembers, parents and children havegreater opportunities to participatein planning, implementing,monitoring and evaluating child-friendly education activities andgovernance.
98. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY18A child-friendly school is anintegral part of the community andproactively reaches out to it, bothseeking its support in improvingchild-friendliness and in turnsupporting community development.Such interlinkage is especiallyimportant in areas mired in poverty.Learning takes place in a variety ofcircumstances in the child’s widerenvironment – at home, after school,in religious institutions and ininteractions with other communitymembers. (See Box, this page.)Child-friendly schools are sensitiveto the knowledge, values andtraditions students bring from thelarger community; at the same time,children acquire new knowledge andskills that they take back into thecommunity. The school can extendits outreach by sending childrenhome with take-home messagesthat convey information on theimportance of hygiene, HIV andAIDS prevention, environmentalsustainability and other topics. Inthis way, the school contributes tocommunity development.Establishing such a dialogue givesthe community a sense of schoolownership, so that the school isnot seen as something outside thecommunity. This dialogue acrossboundaries is what distinguisheschild-friendly schools from otherschools. They often become oasesfor the wider community, sometimesproviding the only space for townor village meetings and festivities.These links anchor the school as asupportive, attentive and relevantcommunity institution.Child-friendly schools reach outbeyond their conﬁnes, seekingpartnerships with other actors whocontribute to the school’s effectiveimplementation of all aspects ofchild-friendliness. These includehealth care and social welfareprofessionals and institutionsthat contribute to child health andnutrition. Child-friendly schools need4.4 REACHING OUT TO THE COMMUNITY AND BEYONDBRAZIL: NEIGHBOURHOOD ASSCHOOL PROJECTSA new concept of education has beendeveloped in Vila Madalena, a smalldistrict in Brazil’s largest city, SãoPaulo. Known as ‘Neighbourhoodas School’, it is conducted by a non-governmental organization, CidadeEscola Aprendiz, which since 1997 hasbeen turning squares, alleys, cinemas,ateliers, cultural centres and theatresinto classrooms.The Neighbourhood as School, anextension of formal school education,aims to expand learning spaces inthe community, creating a pedagogiclaboratory in which learning is knowingoneself and socially intervening in thecommunity through communication, artand sports.The success of the Neighbourhoodas School concept is driven by apartnership among schools, families,public authorities, entrepreneurs,associations, craftspeople, non-governmental organizations andvolunteers – indispensable powersin community education. Everybodyeducates; everybody learns atqualiﬁcation centres, so the experiencehelps educators and social leadersnourish the learning systems.
100. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY20community leaders and parents toparticipate in planning and schoolmanagement;• School networks with communityto increase school access forexcluded children, especially girls,domestic workers, children withdisabilities and minority children;• School engages community involunteer programmes (facilityand environment maintenance)and recruits people with specialknowledge and skills as classroomresources;• Teacher assigns homework (take-home messages) that requireschildren to interact with theirparents;• School partners with local privatesector, non-governmental andcommunity-based organizations toassist schools and families;• School health and nutritionprogrammes are planned andimplemented jointly with healthand social welfare workers,teachers, parents and others;• Students are taught songs andpoems with health and safetymessages and are encouragedto share them with their youngersiblings and family members.UGANDA: CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS SUPPORTED BY THE GIRLS’EDUCATION MOVEMENTGirls’ Education Movement (GEM) members are active in child-to-child methodsfor reaching out to non-enrolled children. Using proceeds from their income-generating activities, GEM members purchase learning materials for needy pupils,a pragmatic approach to addressing retention. GEM clubs also promote girl-friendly practices and develop ways to bring out-of-school girls back to class, suchas purchasing sanitary towels for them. GEM members also engage communitymembers, strengthening school-community partnerships and interaction.MEXICO: INCLUSION OF INDIGENOUS CHILDRENChild-friendly schools have been promoted since 2000 in Chiapas and Yucatan,Mexican states characterized by large indigenous populations and high ratesof marginalization. Child-friendly schools are critical in generating participationamong children, teachers and parents and in achieving sustainable development inthe context of indigenous culture. Child-friendly schools improve learning throughintercultural and bilingual teaching, active involvement by students, families andcommunity, and civic education based on democratic values, respect for diversityand promotion of equity, cooperation and participation. They also work towardsa healthy, clean and friendly school environment. A parallel initiative, CommunityParticipative Learning, promotes civic education and activities where families andcommunities learn about children’s rights in a culturally sensitive and respectfulmanner and are encouraged to participate in the organization of community lifearound the school. Similar efforts under the All Children in School initiative seekto ensure basic quality education for all boys and girls. As a result, schools havehigher student achievement, better trained and more motivated teachers, animproved school environment that includes toilets and water facilities, increasedcommunity participation in education and a heightened sense of cultural identity,which contributes to higher self-esteem.
101. 21CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALChild-friendly learning spaces are often,but not always, established in situationsof emergency and crisis to compensatefor the lack of adequate, safe andsupportive learning environments. Inchronic emergency and rehabilitationsituations, they can play an importantrole in providing basic social services,representing points of continuity andstability.Besides functioning as learning spaces,child-friendly areas may also serveas a place for play and stimulation,recreation and life skills activities, andfor cultural and sports events. Duringa crisis, children need psychosocialsupport, counseling and safe placeswhere they can participate in learningand recreation to regain stability in theirlives. The child-friendly spaces seekto provide children with this normalcythrough regular activities necessary fortheir development.In all circumstances, child-friendlyspaces call for the increasedparticipation of children, parents andcommunities in decision-making aboutchildren’s education, recreation andplay. These spaces also can serve ascommunity centres that strengthenadults’ coping skills and provide a venuefor feeding, health care and distributionof relief and rehabilitation items.4.5.1 Organizing learningopportunitiesChild-friendly learning spaces areessential during emergencies and othersituations where children fall outsideformal school settings. Althoughgovernments and education authoritiesare obligated to provide learningopportunities for all children, parents,families and communities often takea greater role in developing learningspaces during emergencies.Local authorities are usually responsiblefor identifying such spaces; howevertheir establishment and operation aremore likely to fall to parents and thelocal community. Although their focusis on learning, child-friendly spaces mayinclude integrated social services, suchas health, nutrition and social welfare.Learning may also take place in localhouses where children come togetherfor complementary or after-schoolactivities that are school-related butmore voluntary in purpose, content andapplication.Local community participation, oftenthrough civil society organizations, iskey to the success of learning in child-friendly spaces, because it is usuallyparents and community volunteers whotake the initiative to operate the learningactivities offered in these spaces. Also,because these are alternative learningspaces, for children who fall outsideformal, mainstream institutions, it isoften necessary to mobilize childrento participate. To effectively integratemarginalized children, learning spacesneed to be trusted by the community,and those in charge have to have theknow-how to engage in effective socialmobilization and communication withyoung people.Community contributions to child-friendly spaces, such as tools,equipment, land and direct teaching oradministration, are essential to fostera sense of belonging and ownershipby children and their families. Likethe formal school system, child-4.5 COMMUNITIES AND CHILD-FRIENDLYLEARNING SPACES
103. 23CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALThe changes recommended tomake learning environments child-friendly imply a substantial change inaccountabilities, monitoring systems,training, curriculum, school admissionpractices, the structure and content ofschools and early child centres, andthe role of families and civil societies.Unless these changes are backedby strong policy commitments andspeciﬁc means of accountability, theywill not occur and children’s rights willnot be realized. Therefore, politicalsupport at the highest level is requiredfor this standard of schooling. Toensure viability, child-friendly schoolsmust be evidence-based, supportedby a system of continual monitoring,evaluation, feedback and advocacy.(See Chapter 8.)Many developing countries implementchild-friendly schools through anaccelerated process of school reform.The entire school community workscollaboratively towards a sharedpurpose by meeting, talking andlearning from each other’s experiences.4.6 POLICY IMPLICATIONSApproaching education and learningfrom a CFS perspective requires adifferent form of supervision andmanagement of schools and learningactivities. Few education systems,especially in developing countries,have effective supervision andperformance appraisal systems forteachers and administrators, andimplementation of such systems isalmost always under constraints.The introduction of the child-friendlyeducation and learning frameworktherefore provides an opportunityto review and change the wayteachers and administrators aresupervised and managed. It alsoprovides an opportunity to establishand strengthen the monitoring andoversight systems and mechanismsto improve accountability for resourceallocation and utilization.4.7 SUPERVISION AND OVERSIGHTVILLAGE EDUCATIONCOMMITTEES:ACCOUNTABILITY TO THECOMMUNITYIn many communities, oversightfor education and teacher qualityfalls to the Village EducationCommittee, which may havedifferent functions and differentlevels of responsibility dependingon the community. Important rolesinclude monitoring children withinthe community, assessing thequality of education, identifyingrights abuses and locating childrenwho are not in school. However, thepower vested in the group and whois represented on it make a majordifference in its functioning. Thecommittees monitor schools andserve as a forum for parents’ andchildren’s decision-making.
104. CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY24EGYPT: THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL MODELIn the rural hamlets of Upper Egypt, where primary schools were previouslynon-existent and girls were particularly deprived, community schools havebeen established as a means of providing children with a quality education.Modelled after the BRAC experience in Bangladesh, the schools are located in thecommunities and are free, with no hidden costs. Local ownership is a key feature,with communities donating space, ensuring that children come to class andmanaging the schools through a local education committee in each hamlet.Young women with intermediate degrees are recruited locally and trained asfacilitators to provide quality education through interactive techniques and locallyrelevant educational content, including health, the environment, agriculture andlocal history. Graduates of community schools are eligible to take the governmentschools’ standardized exams at the end of grades 3 and 6.The project serves as a catalyst for development and, given the emphasis ongirls and the involvement of women facilitators, for change in gender roles andexpectations. Lessons learned from the quality components of the communityschool model are being mainstreamed through the Girls’ Education Initiative andthe model itself is being extended through the establishment of additional girl-friendly schools.Family and community involvement inthe monitoring of learning activities iscrucial in a child-friendly learning modeland must be integrated into the modelfrom its inception. Governing bodiesat all levels must be invited to discusshow the child-friendly school will beregulated. Children’s voices must beincluded via open forums throughoutthe process to strengthen their inﬂuenceand participation. Hotlines and otherforms of reporting systems should to beformulated and agreed upon.Strategic steps:• Review education managementsystems to determine how educationis perceived and managed;• Establish a code of conduct forteachers and child-friendly educationmanagers and a communitymonitoring systemfor appraisal and reporting;• Develop a child-centredmanagement system that buildson the principles of child-friendlyeducation and children’s rights;• Establish an effective, transparentfeedback system on resourceallocation and utilization withopportunities for communityinput through the PTA;• Develop a hotline or other methodfor reporting abuse and exploitationof students.
105. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 5Schools as protective environments5.1 Introduction5.2 The right to learn in safe, healthy environments5.2.1 Healthy environments5.2.2 Safe and protective environments5.3 Children at special risk5.4 Assessing threats to health, safety and security5.4.1 Mapping safe spaces5.5 Reducing risks and increasing protection5.5.1 Legal frameworks5.5.2 Policy frameworks and setting standards5.6 School organization and management5.6.1 Teachers’ roles and responsibilities5.6.2 Children’s participation5.6.3 Protective aspects of the curriculum5.6.4 Partnerships with the community5.6.5 Monitoring and evaluation in protective environments5.7 Child-friendly education in emergencies
106. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALMillions of children attend schoolsthat are reasonably safe most of thetime. But schools in most developingcountries fail to protect children fromthe consequences of natural disastersand accidents. At a time of increasinglyunsafe environments, and as scientistspredict with relative certaintythat climate change will increaseboth the severity and prevalenceof natural disasters, schools thatcannot withstand catastrophes areunacceptable.The problem, however, is not onlywith natural disasters and accidents.There are many ways in which schoolsfail to protect the children entrustedto their care. The sources of riskand danger are many and complex.There are cases of children, especiallygirls, burned alive in boardingschools where doors are ‘securelylocked’, ostensibly to protect them. Insome countries, children risk beingkidnapped for ransom or, in whatis becoming a disturbing patternamong the youth population, caughtup in gang-related violence. Schoolsare sometimes targets for violentattacks during civil conﬂicts, puttingchildren at risk of kidnapping andMore than 50 per cent of children who die in earthquakes each year dieinside their school buildings.• In Pakistan, more than 17,000 children attending early morningclasses perished when their school buildings collapsed following theearthquake in late 2005.• In developed countries, local schools and hospitals are typicallydesigned to ensure survivability and are designated as safe shelter foraffected community members.It is neither expensive nor technically difﬁcult to structurally improvemost school buildings.• The estimated average cost per school ranges between $1,000 and$1,500, assuming use of local labour and materials and low-cost designoptions.Source: Safe at School Campaign, Disaster Resource Network,an initiative of the World Economic Forum.5.1 INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER 5SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS
107. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS2forced recruitment as child soldiers,labourers or sex slaves.The UN Study on Violence againstChildren reveals that childrenworldwide are at risk of violence inand around the school. The threatsrange from rape, sexual abuse, sexualharassment and physical beatingsto verbal abuse, bullying, taunting,stereotyping and other forms ofhumiliation. At times, teachers,school authorities and peers are theperpetrators of such abuse.Sometimes schools fail to protectchildren from exposure to healthhazards, such as pollution, toxicsubstances, noise and fumes, ormay place them in unhygienicenvironments that compromise theirhealth. Schools may be remiss bynot adequately predicting, preventingand preparing for threats to children’shealth and safety in the face of arapidly changing environment.In child-friendly schools, attentionshould be given to these keyelements:• Prediction: School authoritiesneed to foresee imminent risk orpossible dangers that could affectchildren within the school, itsvicinity or the wider community.These may range from seasonalinﬂuenza to more dangerouspotential pandemics such as avianﬂu, or vector-borne diseases suchas malaria and dengue fever,which are emerging in colderclimates as temperatures rise.They may be dangers posed byimpending extreme weather or theschool’s proximity to hazardoussites. In some countries, politicaltension brings the risk of violencein the community. Schools thatare tuned into these developmentscan gauge when it is time totake preventive measures. Whenthe school community takes itsresponsibility to prepare seriously,forward-thinking attentioncan bring about appropriatepreventive measures.• Prevention: School authoritiesshould take precautionarymeasures to avert risks tochildren’s health and safety.Giving ﬂu shots and othervaccines to all children at the righttime helps prevent serious illness.Designated trafﬁc crossing pointsfor children can prevent vehicleaccidents. Community mappingof environmental risks andvulnerabilities to natural disasterscan head off potential calamities.And using proper hand-washingprocedures and following otherhealth practices prevents thespread of disease. In the sameway, prohibiting weapons inschools, providing appropriatesupervision of play areas anddesigning classrooms so thatactivities within them can be easilyobserved from outside are waysto help prevent bullying, assaultsand abuse in and around schools.Fencing off areas of potentialdanger, such as swimming poolsor water wells, and clearing orspraying areas of stagnant waterwhere mosquitoes can breed areall prevention measures that theschool community can invest in toprotect children and staff.• Preparedness: Schools must haveresources and procedures in placeto deal swiftly and decisively withspeciﬁc dangers to children’shealth and safety. Warningsystems, from a simple schoolbell to more sophisticated tools
108. 3CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALsuch as text messages, can allowschools to alert students, familiesand school personnel to a dangeror emergency. Training teachersand students in simple ﬁrst-aidskills, installing ﬁre extinguishersand emergency lighting, schedulingevacuation drills and creatingdesignated assembly points, safeareas and ways of calling forassistance can help prepare theschool community to respond toaccidents and emergencies.Child-friendly schools normally haveclear policies, plans, measures andbudgets to address these elements.They should review proceduresconstantly to make sure they keepup with any changes in the school orwider community.This chapter details protectionissues and the safety dimension ofchild-friendly schools. It exploresexpectations and realities ofschools in promoting the emotional,psychological and physical well-beingof children. Threat categories andrisk assessments are identiﬁed as abasis for reviewing strategies andinterventions to make schools healthy,safe and protective for children.The Convention on the Rights of theChild (CRC) spells out the obligationsof governments to facilitate children’sright to learn in a safe and secureenvironment, whether a conventionalschool or a designated learning spacein an emergency. The CRC speciﬁcallycalls on all States Parties to takeappropriate measures to ensureprotection of children from all formsof violence, injury, abuse and neglect,to ensure that school discipline isadministered in a manner consistentwith the dignity of the child and toensure children’s right to the bestpossible health care. (See Box, page 4.)Child-friendly schools and learningspaces should embrace theseprinciples and standards in creating alearning environment where childrenare free from fear, anxiety, danger,disease, exploitation, harm or injury.They need to create a healthy, safeand protective environment throughthe provision of school-based health,nutrition, water and sanitation services,and codes of conduct against violence.5.2.1 Healthy environmentsChild protection in school starts witha healthy child. Good health andproper nutrition are prerequisites foreffective learning. Research shows thathealthy, well-nourished children learnbetter, and school health and nutritionprogramming is recognized as a meansof improving children’s nutritionalstatus, learning achievement andgeneral well-being. Even short-termhunger can adversely affect a child’sability to learn. Deﬁciencies of iodineor iron have been shown to reducechildren’s cognitive and motorskills and even their IQ. Similarly,worm infestation causes anaemia5.2 THE RIGHT TO LEARN IN SAFE,HEALTHY ENVIRONMENTS
109. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS4and poor physical, intellectual andcognitive development, resultingin a detrimental effect on students’educational performance. Good healthat school age yields long-term healthbeneﬁts, reduces repetition rates andincreases educational attainment.Children are exposed to manyphysical and physiological threats thatjeopardize their health and safety inschool besides poor nutrition. Malaria,waterborne diseases, parasiticinfestations (worms are a majorcause of undernutrition in school-age children), diarrhoea, cholera,dehydration and HIV and AIDS arejust some of the physiological risks tochildren. There are also physical risksthat threaten health and safety, suchas trafﬁc injuries incurred en route toand from school, lacerations, fracturesand other injuries during play,drowning, physical violence (corporalpunishment, assaults, etc.) andsexual violence.Child-friendly schools and learningspaces mitigate these problems bycreating a healthy school environmentCONVENTION ONTHE RIGHTS OFTHE CHILD: CHILDREN’S RIGHTSTO HEALTHY,SAFE AND PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTSArticle 2 Education must be provided without discrimination on any grounds.Article 19 States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, socialand educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical ormental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatmentor exploitation, including sexual abuse. Protective measures should includeprevention and identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment andfollow-up of instances of child maltreatment.Article 24 States Parties recognize the rights of children to the enjoyment of the highestattainable standard of health and agree to take appropriate measures to ensurethe provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children, tocombat disease and malnutrition, to provide adequate nutritious foods and cleandrinking water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmentalpollution, to ensure that parents and children are informed, have access toeducation and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health andnutrition, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents.Article 28 States Parties are obliged to take all appropriate measures to ensure that schooldiscipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child’s human dignity.Article 29 States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to: (a) Thedevelopment of the child’s personality, talents and mental and physical abilitiesto their fullest potential; (b) The development of respect for human rights andfundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of theUnited Nations; ... (d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a freesociety, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, andfriendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons ofindigenous origin; (e) The development of respect for the natural environment.Article 37 States Parties shall ensure that children are not subjected to torture or other cruel,inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
111. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS6NICARAGUA: WATER AND SANITATION IN CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLSIn Nicaragua, where 80 per cent of primary schools lack satisfactory watersupplies and adequate sanitation facilities and where educational quality is poor,the Healthy and Friendly Schools Initiative is an integrated approach to schoolsanitation and hygiene education. The initiative aims to improve the schoolenvironment by addressing health, school hygiene, environmental sanitationand human rights in a comprehensive way linked to quality learning. It isbased on the idea that schools can help transform families and communitiesby promoting positive practices among pupils during their formative years.Participating schools have new hand-washing facilities and chlorinated water, aswell as appropriate sanitary units separated by both age and gender. There aresmaller seats or toilets for preschool children, urinals for boys and one latrineadapted for children with disabilities. Life skills education and hygiene promotionhave contributed to improved knowledge and the beginning of behaviouralchange. The initiative intends to ensure long-term sustainability by combiningeducation, promotion of suitable hygienic practices and improvements in schoolinfrastructure – all with the active participation of the educational community, thesurrounding community and the children.school garden projects. In addition,they promote nutrition education forstudents, with instruction on cookingmethods, menu preparation, use oflocal foods and balanced diets. Thisnot only provides children with goodnutrition in the short term, but alsohelps them develop the attitudes,knowledge and values they need tomake appropriate dietary decisionsthroughout their lives.Child-friendly schools support school-based deworming programmes,usually as an integral part of amore comprehensive school healthprogramme. The Essential Package,partnered by UNICEF and the WorldFood Programme, and the FocusingResources on Effective SchoolHealth (FRESH) framework, launchedby UNICEF, the United NationsEducational, Scientiﬁc and CulturalOrganization, the World Bank andWorld Health Organization in 2000,are good examples of such healthprogrammes.Their key elements include:• Health policies in school thatadvocate and facilitate theteachers’ role in promoting goodhealth practices and helping tomake schools healthy learningenvironments;• Adequate sanitation andaccess to safe water to reducedisease, worm transmission andwaterborne illnesses in the schoolenvironment;• Skills-based health educationthat promotes good hygiene,avoidance of disease, preventionof worm infection and otherillnesses;• Basic health and nutrition servicesthat include school meals anddeworming.In some countries, child-friendlyschools provide a prevocationalorientation by establishing schoolgardens or laboratories near
112. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALor around the school so thatstudents can engage in small-scale animal husbandry, ﬁshfarming, bee-keeping, fruit treecultivation and staple foodproduction. Such endeavourscan provide prevocationalagricultural knowledge and skillsrelated to food production andenvironmental protection, as wellas offer more immediate nutritionalsupport for children (World FoodProgramme & UNICEF, 2005). Inthis time of chronic droughts andfood shortages, it is importantfor children and their families tounderstand and, where possible,support locally grown food.5.2.2 Safe and protectiveenvironmentsThe physical environment of aschool or learning space, includingits surrounding neighbourhood,is crucial to children’s safety andsecurity. To increase school safety,fences should be built to protectchildren from harmful outsideinﬂuences, such as drug peddling,sexual harassment or physicalviolence. Constant supervision ofthe school and schoolyard is usuallynecessary. Expansive schoolyardswith many large buildings orunprotected areas may needadditional staff or other securitymeasures, such as emergencynotiﬁcation or alarm systems thatcan alert students and teachers toan ongoing emergency.The journey to and from school isanother potential source of danger.Child-friendly schools typicallyidentify safe ways for children totravel to school and back, such assecure walking paths in remote ruralareas or protected streets in urbancentres when walking to school isfeasible. Parents may volunteer tohelp children cross busy streets inthe vicinity of urban schools. Wheredistance is a problem, childrenshould be provided with safetransportation, such as an organizedschool bus service or fare-exempttravel on public buses that go pastthe school. In remote locationswhere children live long distancesfrom school or face risks in theirschool journey, such as crossingstreams or rivers or risking physicalattacks (particularly against girls),child-friendly schools can workwith the community to arrange forstudents to travel together (safetyin numbers) or be accompanied byresponsible adults (escort pooling).For child-friendly schools to be safe,protective learning environments,they need to deal with more thanthe obvious issues of physicaldanger and health risks. Attentionshould also be given to thechildren’s emotional, psychologicaland physical well-being, protectingthem from verbal and emotionalabuse and the trauma of sexualharassment, racial discrimination,ethnic prejudice or intrusivenessby teachers and peers (Attig &Hopkins, 2006). Schools that arechild-friendly must protect studentsfrom the psychological harm thatcan result from various kinds ofpunishment perpetrated by peers orby teachers, including verbal abuse,name-calling and other forms ofhumiliation. School authorities mustalso appreciate that children can beaffected by prejudice and biases thatresult in isolation and exclusion bytheir peers. In countries prone to
114. 9CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALViolence and abuse may occur as ateacher-on-student phenomenon,as with corporal punishment, or asa student-on-student phenomenonor even a student-on-teacherphenomenon. In many instances,the forms of violence overlap. Itis important to understand andrecognize these links.Some forms of violence may be‘hidden’ and need to be exposed.Sexual assaults, rape and verbalor physical harassment of girls, forinstance, are often minimized ordismissed with comments such as“boys will be boys.” Other formsof violence, including corporalpunishment, may be locally acceptedby families and society at large,making them difﬁcult to confront inchild-friendly schools. Unless theseforms of violence are challenged,children’s welfare and their rights willbe compromised.Child-friendly schools need to workwith parents and local communitiesto prevent violence. There mustbe clear, transparently enforcedpolicies and procedures and ﬁrminterventions to protect childrenfrom physical harm and verbal,physical, emotional and sexualabuse. Schools must educate parentsand local communities in orderto eliminate acquiescence to ortolerance of violence against children.Child protection and safety can beextended to homes and communities,reinforcing the accepted codes ofconduct adopted by schools. Specialattention must be given to childrenwho are particularly at risk, such asorphans, children with disabilitiesand children made vulnerable byHIV and AIDS. Additionally, schoolsand communities must be alert tohighly traumatic situations, suchas civil conﬂict, in which childrenmay require special counselling andpsychosocial care.Girls and boys need to speak freelyabout protection concerns that affectthem or others. In child-friendlyschools, teachers and principalsshould make a point of listening tochildren’s anxieties about violencein their lives. Together, adults andchildren should set up systemsto generate solutions to violentenvironments. A system may beas simple as a box in school wherechildren can leave anonymousnotes about abuse at home orviolence at school, or it may be amore formal complaint mechanism.The point is that authorities inchild-friendly schools should beproactive in identifying child abuseand neglect and should be preparedto act in accordance with nationalchild protection legislation andprocedures, including mandatoryreporting to the police or otherlegal bodies.The role of the school in regard toserious child protection issues is notto investigate them but to recognizesituations needing attention and referthem to the appropriate child serviceagencies. Child-friendly schoolsshould be prepared to identify,refer and assess children in need,including those who have suffered,are suffering or are at risk of sufferingsigniﬁcant harm. The schools shouldhave procedures in place to ensurequick professional responses todisclosures or suspicions regardingharm to a child.
115. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS10While all children may be exposedto threats to their security and well-being in and around school, someare at particular risk. The mostvulnerable groups include childrenwith special needs, disabilities orhealth impairments; those affected byabuse, discrimination, exploitation,war or natural disaster; orphans andchildren affected by HIV and AIDS;minority children; those in remote,rural areas or urban slums; and girls.Children who face a combinationof these factors are at an evenhigher risk of discrimination andphysical and psychological violence,exploitation and abuse (UnitedNations, 2006).Child-friendly schools pay particularattention to these groups, promotinginclusiveness and developingspecial measures to ensure thatchildren’s rights to health, safety and5.3 CHILDREN AT SPECIAL RISKFORMS OF VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLSCorporal punishment refers to beatings, canings, whippings and other forms ofphysical punishment used by teachers and managers. Few countries have bannedcorporal punishment outright, and there are still many countries where corporalpunishment is a regular part of schooling.Both girls and boys are subjected to various forms of sexual violence in andaround schools. The violent acts can be perpetrated by teachers or schooladministrators or, in other instances, by students (mostly male) against femalestudents and sometimes even against teachers. Gender violence also includesharassment and abuse based on heterosexism and homophobia.Bullying refers to the repeated negative actions of one or more students againstanother. It can include taunting, teasing and other forms of verbal abuse, physicalviolence and other harmful actions, and can also be expressed through newtechnologies – cyberbullying, for example.While some forms of gang violence may also be categorized as bullying, the maindifferences between the two are the structural features of organized gangs andtheir use of weapons. Gangs and gang conﬂict may be located within a school orbetween schools, or they may exist outside schools but have a major impact onwhat happens inside schools by way of drug use, drug trafﬁcking, extortion, gangrape and so on.School as a ‘target’ refers to the ways that the school itself might attract suchforms of violence as arson, vandalism and destruction of teachers’ property,and how it features in less common forms of violence, such as spree shootings,hostage-taking by terrorists and kidnappings.Source: United Nations, UN Study on Violence against Children, New York, 2006.
116. 11CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALprotection are fulﬁlled. Child-friendlyschools and learning spaces rely onthe community to help identify thesechildren and bring them to school. Tobetter address their needs once theyare in school, teachers must be trainedin speciﬁc educational methodologiesand disability assessment tools.Additionally, the school must provideteaching and learning aids, supportiveservices such as counselling, andtraining in social and psychologicalparenting; must encouragecommunity participation in planning,implementation and monitoring; andmust sensitize communities, parentsand children to the rights and needsof children with disabilities and thebeneﬁts of inclusive education.Child-friendly schools must also besensitive to how gender differences putchildren at risk. In general, girls andboys are threatened differently. Forexample, research suggests that boysare more likely to suffer from corporalpunishment, while girls are more likelyto be victims of sexual violence.Schools need to focus on a growingphenomenon, the risk faced bychildren affected by or infectedwith HIV. These children, togetherwith the category referred to as‘orphans and vulnerable children’ ,are often subjected to stigmatizationand discrimination due to lack ofknowledge about the disease amongteachers, parents and other children.They are often excluded from schooland, if in school, can be subjectedto harsh treatment that may causepsychological and physical trauma.School authorities need to work closelywith parents and communities toprotect orphans and other vulnerablechildren in and around school andwithin the community.Child-friendly school principlesand practices provide a uniqueopportunity to identify and respondto the psychosocial needs ofchildren orphaned by AIDS andother children in especially difﬁcultcircumstances. Using data onstudents’ family situations, health,personal environment and learningachievements as tracked by the school-based information system, schools cantailor support measures to meet theneeds of speciﬁc students.Special measures to protect orphansand other vulnerable children include:• Teacher training in counselling,building self-esteem and helpingchildren deal with death;• Life skills camps for orphans andguardians to foster communication,especially through art therapy;• Collaboration in planning for thechild’s future;• Peer-helping and counsellingprogrammes;• Livelihood skills trainingincorporated into the curriculumto support orphans’ income-generating skills;• Drug and sexual abuse resistancetraining;• After-school interest clubs (LifeSkills Development Foundation,2000).These types of psychosocial supportmeasures have proved successful inintegrating orphans and vulnerablechildren into the school community,resulting in improved mental health,reduced behaviour problems and drop-out rates and higher completion rates(Attig & Hopkins, 2006).
117. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS12One of the ﬁrst steps towards creatinga safe, healthy and protective schoolenvironment is to conduct a systematicassessment of the extent to whichgirls, boys, teachers and staff feel safeand secure at school and at home.The school must evaluate currentand potential threats to the children’sphysical and psychological well-being.Assessment questions abouthealthy, safe and protective learningenvironments include:1. What are the physical risks to girlsand boys as they travel to and fromschool and while they are in school?What harm might they encounter inthe school structure or from otherschoolchildren?2. What are physiological threats thatmay affect children’s learning?Hunger? Communicable illnesses orchildhood diseases? Dehydration orfrostbite? HIV and AIDS?3. What are the psychological risksfaced by girls and boys in school?Bullying? Sexual violence?Discrimination? Conﬂict or naturaldisaster?4. What are the environmental risks tothe health and well-being of childrenand their families? Deforestedterrain prone to ﬂoods? Drought?Lack of fuel for cooking? Airpollution? Unsafe, polluted drinkingwater?5. Do children spend their time inactivities that put them at risk ofexploitation or harm?As answers emerge, the school candetermine its ‘risk index’, whichinvolves understanding:• How a community and societydeﬁne risks, violence and threats tovulnerable children;• Different forms of violence that arepresent;• Ways in which a school needs todevelop its protective environment,such as where school personnel andcommunities must watch for childabductions or where road accidentsare likely to occur.Schools need to develop strategiesthat mitigate these risks and reﬂect thedemands and concerns of the widercommunity, so that protection extendsbeyond the risks faced within the schoolalone. The assessment helps determinehow much is being invested and howmuch more needs to be invested tomake the school a safe, protectiveenvironment for all children and staff.Links with families and the communityare critical in this phase.Table 5.1 illustrates the physical,physiological and psychological riskschildren may face, interventions thatschools can develop and the cost ofimplementing them. Such a tablecan systematically assess the risksassociated with the school environmentand how that environment may impacton a child’s success in school. It canalso compare the intervention costsand, in an environment of scarceresources (people, time, ﬁnances,etc.), set priorities for comprehensivelydealing with actual and potentialthreats or risks to children. The list isby no means complete. Each schoolmust thoroughly assess its risks, itsenvironment and its school populationto determine and develop appropriateinterventions.5.4 ASSESSING THREATS TO HEALTH,SAFETY AND SECURITY
118. 13CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALTABLE 5.1: ASSESSMENT OF RISKS, INTERVENTIONS AND COSTS IN ACHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLRisk School intervention CostPhysicalTraffic injuries orfatalities en routeto school or home• Teach traffic safety• Assign older children or adults to accompany younger childrenthrough traffic• Build barriers between recreation and traffic areasMinimal except forfencing, which canbe expensiveLacerations orother injuries• Ensure that corners of furniture are rounded and well sanded,especially for younger children• Ensure that furniture is sturdy and well maintained• Keep school grounds clean, paying special attention to hazardssuch as broken glass, needles, blades (instruct younger children torequest assistance from an adult to remove such items)• Make first aid available in the school (train teachers in basicresponse)• Prepare a map of environmental risks and an evacuation strategyto be used in the case of a sudden onset natural disasterNo direct costsDrowning • Properly cover all wells• Closely supervise or erect barriers to ditches or bodies of waterdeeper than 10 centimetres near schools• Teach swimming and water safety with consideration for flood-related drowningMinimal (purchaseand installation ofbarriers)Violence (beating,hitting, weaponsinjuries, etc.)• Advance institutional ethos of zero tolerance of violence• Establish and implement policies against corporal punishment;support alternative forms of discipline• Establish and implement rules with consequences regarding pupil-to-pupil violence• Engage law enforcement personnel as needed• Hold dialogues in the school to empower children to protectthemselves• Provide adult supervision during break periods and intervene asnecessary in children’s argumentsMinimal (preventionis cheaper thantreatment)Sexual violence • Develop transparent physical environment (children visible inclassrooms and around school )• Establish and enforce policy of zero tolerance of teacher-to-childsexual violence• Empower children, especially adolescent girls, to identify andreduce risks and report incidents• Evaluate whether distance or remoteness of school facilities(water, school garden, latrines) puts children at riskMinimalAbduction • Establish appropriate procedures (all adults register upon enteringschools, etc.)–
119. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS14Risk School intervention CostPhysiologicalMalaria (acquiredat school orimpactingattendance)• Eliminate standing water in school grounds and surrounding area• Educate children on malaria prevention, such as use ofinsecticide-treated mosquito nets (collaborate with public healthofficials to increase supply of mosquito nets to children and theirfamilies)• Teach children and teachers to recognize malaria symptoms andseek early treatment• Engage children in community education to reduce standing water,increase use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.MinimalHunger andundernutrition• Monitor children at risk• Establish school feeding programmes, organize regular checks byhealth workers for malnutrition• Support school gardensFree, if organizedthrough partnerand supported bythe communityCommon childhooddiseases• Collaborate with health sector to ensure complete immunizationcoverage for all children in school–Worms, diarrhoea,cholera (diseasesspread throughfaecal-oraltransmission)• Provide a source of safe drinking water• Provide sex-segregated latrines• Teach and encourage good hand-washing practices• Provide water for washing near the latrines• Provide a sanitary location for food preparation and distribution• Educate children regarding disease preventionEstablishmentof water andsanitation facilities,maintenance costsAcute respiratoryillnes• Provide access to clean energy for cooking in homes and schools(smokeless or solar stoves)–Dehydration • Provide a source of potable water• Teach water hygiene• Educate teachers on ways to identify symptoms early and how torespond to fainting, seizures, etc.–HIV and AIDS • Develop collaborations to ensure that the special needs ofchildren with HIV and AIDS are met• Provide safe storage area for medications–
120. 15CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL5.4.1 Mapping safe spacesUnlike school mapping, whichdetermines if there are enough schoolsfor pupils in a community (see Chapter8), mapping safe spaces enablesa school community to assess theviolence children may experience inand around school. Girls’ and boys’participation in violence preventionand mapping safe spaces should beat the core of a child-friendly school’sprotective environment. When boys,girls and young people map out safeand unsafe environments, there isoften a difference between what girls,boys and young people perceive assafe space.After the ‘risk index’ is completed, themost at-risk groups accounted for andinterventions decided, a child-friendlyschool needs to develop an emergencypreparedness plan. Such plans maybe more elaborate for schools inearthquake or ﬂood zones, but allchild-friendly schools need a plan sothat everyone in the school will knowwhat to do in case of a health threat orother emergency.Risk School intervention CostPsychologicalTrauma of sexualviolence• Ensure that physical injuries are dealt with• Provide counselling and support• Protect confidentiality• Empower children through prevention• Remove risks (such as the presence of a perpetrator in the school)• Develop mechanisms for reporting incidents and deal withcomplaints effectively to instill confidence in the process• Enforce zero tolerance rules–Bullying (can alsobe a physical risk)• Provide counselling to deal with children’s damaged self-esteemand feelings of fear and humiliation• Establish anti-bullying programmes, if appropriate• Provide adult supervision before and after school and at breaks• Enforce rules with regard to treatment of peers–Trauma causedby an emergency,conflict or forcedmigration due toclimate change• Assess children for effects (such as loss of concentration, changein achievement levels, frequent distracting thoughts)• Reduce risks to children and build their sense of security in theirenvironment• Develop counselling programmes with professional counsellors• Train teachers to identify and support children at risk–Prejudice orexclusion• Support ethos of inclusion and respect• Encourage dialogue regarding differences and developunderstanding• Build teachers’ capacity to identify equity issues• Develop mechanisms for reporting incidents and deal withcomplaints effectively to instil confidence in the process–
121. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS16SOUTH AFRICA: SAFETY AND RISKFACTOR RESEARCHIn 2004, UNICEF and the LimpopoDepartment of Education (LDoE) contractedthe University of Pretoria to conduct researchin Limpopo (South Africa) that examinedissues related to safety and threats forlearners at the foundational (Grades R through3), intermediate (Grades 4 through 7) andsenior (Grades 8 through 12) phases.The research was to provide baseline data andpotential strategies for longer-term school-based and community-based programmes todevelop child-friendly schools and schoolsas ‘centres for care and support’ in Limpopo.The study also was to identify environmental(school, family, community) and individualrisk factors that threaten healthy developmentof the individual, and the protective factorsperceived to be essential in supportingand building resilience. The research wasto ultimately promote learners’ healthydevelopment. The protective factors couldfocus on learners while the environmental andindividual risk factors could simultaneously beexamined and alleviated.Three districts in the province – Bohlabela,Sekhukhune and Vhembe - were selectedas research sites by the LDoE based on datarelated to poverty, location and number oflearners. Schools within the districts wereselected to participate.Learners were selected through randomsampling. Their ages ranged from 3 to 21years. In all, 2,391 children participated, 1,200girls and 1,191 boys. Community forums,composed of various stakeholders involved insafety and children’s issues, were conductedin two phases.The survey’s overall ﬁndings indicated thatthe respondents felt safe at home (87 percent), at school (86 per cent) and in theclassroom (85 per cent). Fewer learnersfelt safe on the playground (66 per cent)or on their way to school (61 per cent). Thisgenerally matched the results from open-ended questions, which found that thechildren from Grades R through 12 in allthree districts felt that the community hadthe most to offer with respect to safety andassets for children, followed by the family andschool. However, school was also seen ashaving the most potential danger to safety.All learners in the three districts mentionedspeciﬁc ways to improve their safety.Mentioned most frequently was facilitationof learning in schools, followed by individualemotional aspects, and availability ofstructure and channels for involvement inthe community and schools. Facilitation oflearning included providing environmentsconducive to teaching and learning;engaging and well-trained teachers; schoolsthat encourage community and familyinvolvement, offer extramural activities andlife skills programmes, and are characterizedby an academic climate of high expectationsas well as mentorship and mutual respect.Overall, the most common theme regardingthreats to safety was the exposure to andthreat of crime. On a community level, andreafﬁrmed by the community forums inthe three districts, this sub-theme signalsawareness of high crime levels and suchacts as murder and kidnapping. In terms ofthe family system, the sub-theme referred toactive encouragement of criminal behaviourand a fear of crime and exposure to weapons.The lack of future orientation, poor rolemodels, sexual behaviour, and HIV and AIDSwere identiﬁed with the least frequency by thechildren as threats to their safety.HIV and AIDS and sexual behaviour werehardly mentioned by the learners, bothboys and girls. It was interpreted fromparticipant responses that HIV and AIDSare still too stigmatized to discuss openly.In this regard, participants identiﬁed thefamily as being a risk factor and relatedsub-themes documented the effects of thepandemic on the family: discrimination andlabelling, related chores (unsafe, too many,burdensome), emotional neglect (insufﬁcientcare or love, rejection), absentee oruninterested parents, and a lack of supervisionand protection.Community forums also emphasizedindividual, school and community factors.The community forums, in the secondphase, helped identify possible strategiesto create conducive and safe environmentsfor children/learners.
122. 17CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALConclusion and recommendationsThe ﬁndings suggest that there is value in thecreation of child-friendly schools and schools ascentres of care and support for children. This isespecially relevant in the current context, wherechildren indicated that the home and familyare not always a place of safety. Rather, thecommunity and schools were seen to provideprotection. However, schools have to ﬁrst dealwith the numerous threats that children feelin order to be effective as protective places.Based on the ﬁndings, the following practicalarrangements are suggested:• Strengthen intersectoral communityforums that were established as part of thisresearch to further the recommendationsand develop safety plans for children andschools;• Fast-track the infrastructure developmentfor schools, especially in those areas thataffect security, such as school fencing andrepair of broken windows;• Organize pickup points where children canbe picked up and taken home at the endof the day, and organize safe transport orwalking clubs so that children can walkhome in groups rather than alone;• Ensure that there is adequate teaching staffat school at all times, for example, one ortwo teachers to supervise children duringbreaks and on the playgrounds;• Ensure that teachers know who isauthorized to pick up the child, ensuringthat the learner is only allowed to leave theschool premises with a speciﬁed adult;• Train guidance counselors and teachers tobe able to provide psychosocial support andreferrals for children at risk.Because children identiﬁed the importance ofcommunity, various stakeholders (membersof non-governmental and community-basedorganizations, community leaders and others)should be trained on early identiﬁcation ofchildren and households in distress and whereto make referrals for such families or children;Extension of an integrated plan for early childdevelopment to the intermediate and seniorphases should be considered. (Feasibilityshould be examined in terms of requiredresources, ﬁnancial and human, to determineif it is practical).Because children relied heavily on positiveinterpersonal skills and traits as coping andsafety themes, communication skills should betaught through a ‘life orientation’ part of thenew curriculum. There is a need to fast-trackthe training of teachers on ‘life orientation’or, in the interim, allow non-governmentalorganizations to provide such teaching.In Sekhukhune and Vhembe, especially at thesenior grades, children feel less safe on theschool premises. There is the need for futureresearch to determine the factors contributing tothese feelings and to devise ways of addressingthese concerns and making the schools safer forthe learners, both boys and girlsFailure to mention HIV and AIDS directly isalso a matter of concern. Children, even thosein the higher grades, did not acknowledgeHIV and AIDS as a threat. With current ﬁguresindicating that young people – especiallygirls – are most at risk and the fastest growingproportion of the population infected with HIV,this must be addressed urgently. Students’not directly referring to HIV and AIDS impliesthat there is not a welcoming environment forthose in crisis to feel comfortable discussingproblems, such as being infected with HIV orhaving a sick parent at home, with teachers.One of the purposes of life skills is to raiseawareness about HIV and AIDS and responsiblesexual behaviour for young people; given that‘life orientation’ is now mandatory and a keylearning area, it needs to be re-examined toensure that it is meeting its objectives.The need for integrated HIV-awarenesscampaigns, including dealing with stigmaand discrimination and providing appropriatemessages and improving teachers’ expertisein discussing issues related to HIV and AIDS(for example, without judgements), is clear.This means that teachers need to confront theirown biases about HIV and AIDS. This can resultfrom ongoing HIV training and interventionsfor educators as well as from creating anenvironment conducive for teachers to seekassistance if and when they need it themselves.Source: Construction of Safety and Risk Factors by Learners inthe Limpopo Province, 2006.
123. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS185.5.1 Legal frameworksAn important guarantor of a healthy,safe and protective environmentis the legislative framework thatguarantees children’s rights to qualityeducation and protection. The CRC,along with many other internationalinstruments, offers guidance togovernments on legislative andpolicy reform needed to ensurechildren’s rights to health, protectionand well-being.Strategies and interventions toshore up healthy, safe and protectiveenvironments begin with a reviewof existing legislation to makecertain that all forms of physicaland psychological violence againstchildren in school and at homeare prohibited and that suitablemechanisms for recourse andcomplaint by children and parentsare in place. The legislation needs toguarantee children’s rights to healthand development.Where adequate legal provisionsexist, assessment of how rigorouslythey are being implemented isrequired. If the assessment shows a5.5 REDUCING RISKS AND INCREASING PROTECTIONSETTING SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS IN SCHOOLS AND OTHEREDUCATIONAL SETTINGS111. Bearing in mind that all children must be able to learn free from violence, thatschools should be safe and child friendly and curricula should be rights based, andalso that schools provide an environment in which attitudes that condone violencecan be changed and non-violent values and behaviour learned, I recommend thatStates:(a) Encourage schools to adopt and implement codes of conduct applicable toall staff and students that confront all forms of violence, taking into accountgender-based stereotypes and behaviour and other forms of discrimination;(b) Ensure that school principals and teachers use non-violent teaching andlearning strategies and adopt classroom management and disciplinarymeasures that are not based on fear, threats, humiliation or physical force;(c) Prevent and reduce violence in schools through speciﬁc programmes whichaddress the whole school environment including through encouragingthe building of skills such as non-violent approaches to conﬂict resolution,implementing anti-bullying policies and promoting respect for all members ofthe school community;(d) Ensure that curricula, teaching processes and other practices are in fullconformity with the provisions and principles of the Convention on the Rightsof the Child, free from references actively or passively promoting violence anddiscrimination in any of its manifestations.Source: United Nations, UN Study on Violence against Children, New York, 2006.
124. 19CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALfailure of adequate legal provisions,strong advocacy to incorporate childprotection into legislation is necessary.The UN Study on Violenceagainst Children offers concreterecommendations in this regard.It calls on countries to strengthennational and local commitmentsto end violence, enact legislationthat prohibits all forms of violence,prioritize prevention through policiesand programmes that address riskfactors, promote non-violent valuesand awareness, build capacity ofthose who care for children throughsuch mechanisms as codes ofconduct, ensure child participation,create accessible reporting systemsand address gender dimensions ofviolence.One way to ensure that agovernment’s legislation reﬂects itscommitment to realizing the rights ofchildren as expressed in the CRC isthrough the Committee on the Rightsof the Child. Each year, this bodyreports on the progress of countries inupholding their obligations to protectchildren.5.5.2 Policy frameworks andsetting standardsChild-friendly schools are dependenton national, regional and school-levelpolicy frameworks and standardsto institutionalize healthy, safeand secure measures. Policies andstandards should provide essentialservices for children, including schoolhealth programmes, micronutrientsupplementation, deworming,vaccinations, school-feedinginitiatives, and HIV and AIDS careand support. In many developingcountries, services and socialinstitutions, including the family,hospitals and health centres, andwater and sanitation infrastructures,are under siege from poverty, politicalconﬂict, natural disasters and the HIVand AIDS pandemic. Therefore schoolsare forced to step up when otherinstitutions cannot.Some governments have introducedLearning Plus, an initiative that hasexpanded school functions to includesocial services delivery to children.This entails collaboration amonggovernment ministries, such as health,social welfare, water, local governmentand lands, women’s affairs and justice,in systematically assessing risks tochildren’s health, safety and securityin and around schools. In countriessuch as Lesotho, Rwanda, Swazilandand Zambia, Learning Plus is part ofchild-friendly schools because it isunderstood that providing essentialsocial services for children throughschools is critical to learning.At this juncture, it has become clearthat effective policies are the backboneof legislation that guaranteeschildren’s right to quality education.Although the CRC has been almostuniversally ratiﬁed, the effectiveprotection of children against violence,exploitation, abuse and discriminationis not yet a reality in many places.Despite improved legislation, oftenpolicies and government practices donot change signiﬁcantly. Countriesneed to strengthen policies andinstitutional frameworks and setstandards for education quality thatinclude speciﬁc guidance on health,safety and security (hygiene andsanitation, ﬁrst aid, safety of schoolfurniture and equipment, protectionfrom violence). In addition, policies
125. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS20need to be in place to guarantee theright to education to children withdisabilities. These policies need tobe developed with full participationof all stakeholders – communities,parents and both children and adultswith disabilities – and should includeinternational best practices and localvalues and realities (UNICEF EAPRO,2003).Child-friendly schools do not exist ina vacuum, but rather in the context oflocal, district and national educationsystems and other sectors andministries such as health and justice.To support schools, education systemsneed to develop policies and setstandards that support the dimensionsof a child-friendly school. They mustestablish the policies needed to ensurethat buildings are safe and clean,employ a fair ratio of female and maleteachers, and enforce codes of teacherconduct. The education system shouldalso institute school guidelines forsafety and security that are knownby all stakeholders and enforcedby school management. Standardpractices should also be establishedand used by teachers so that childrencan speak up freely and safely if theyare aware of violence.Beyond the education system, statelaws and government administrativerules that criminalize abuse of studentsand support prosecution of violatorsFOCUSING RESOURCES ON EFFECTIVE SCHOOL HEALTH (FRESH)A framework developed by four UN agencies (UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO and theWorld Bank) identiﬁes four essential health components to be available in allschools in order to ensure child-friendliness. These are:1. Health-related policies in schools that help ensure a safe and secure physicalenvironment and a positive psychosocial environment, and address all types ofschool violence, such as the abuse of students, sexual harassment and bullying,and that help maintain the education system in the face of HIV and AIDS.2. Provision of safe water and sanitation facilities, as ﬁrst steps in creating ahealthy school environment that reinforces hygienic skills and behaviours;providing separate sanitation facilities and privacy for girls is an importantcontributing factor in reducing dropout during and before menses.3. Skills-based health education that focuses on the development of knowledge,attitudes, values and life skills needed to make appropriate positive decisions,to establish lifelong healthy practices, and to reduce vulnerability to substanceabuse and HIV/AIDS.4. School-based health and nutrition services that are simple, safe and familiar,and address problems that are prevalent and recognized as important in thecommunity, including the provision of counselling to cope with the AIDSepidemic.Source: Assessing Child-Friendly Schools: A guide for programme managers in East Asia and the Paciﬁc,UNICEF EAPRO, 2006.
127. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS22In protective environments, theschool ethos and culture shouldenable teachers to organize andmanage their classrooms in waysthat encourage children to participatein the learning and teachingprocess. For instance, certainsuccessful mother-tongue literacyprogrammes used in Africa havebeen structured in ways that allowteachers and students to interact ona daily basis, even in large classes.School managers and parents aretrained to support and reinforce thisapproach from a management andgovernance perspective. Where thereis meaningful child participation andteacher engagement in support of thelearning process, there tends to beless violence in schools.5.6 SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENTPHILIPPINES: AN UNRULY SCHOOL BLOSSOMSINTO A CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLWhen Faviolito Alberca became principal of Cebu City Central School (CCC) in2002, the public school was a place to avoid. Rowdy gang wars rocked dirty,smelly classrooms that housed more than 6,000 students. Faculty and studentslacked discipline, and tardiness, petty squabbles and poor learning were common.Parents who had escorted their children to school roamed the corridors freely,even after classes had begun. Gossip and shouting matches among parents werecommon. Principals did not last; there had been three in just two years.Instead of quitting, Mr. Alberca took immediate steps to rectify the situation.Guided by the vision of a ‘child-friendly school’, he led the school in developingan improvement plan that set speciﬁc goals, policies, standards and actions. Theplan was regularly monitored to achieve consistent day-to-day performance resultsfrom teachers, parents, pupils and other school personnel.After a proﬁle of the student body, including information on their families andhome circumstances, showed stark poverty, with more than 80 per cent ofparents impoverished, jobless or engaged in marginal work and unable to takeon school activities, CCC went an extra mile. Believing that impoverished parentsmeant malnourished children who perform poorly in school, the school initiatedskills-training courses for parents. Teachers helped some parents ﬁnd jobs.Other parents were hired by the school to repair broken windows, paint and ﬁxplumbing, using their new skills.News travels fast in densely populated communities. Central’s concern for thepoorest was quickly noted. And the poorest families reciprocated by supportingthe school wholeheartedly. They provided free labour, ﬁxed and cleaned thesurroundings, supported their children, helped teachers and raised resources forthe school. They are also the proudest when declaring that CCC is now comparableto a quality private school.Adapted from ‘Grime, Cloth Slippers and Hope’, Mercado, J., Sun Star, Mindanao Bulletin, Gold Star Daily,Zambaonga Scribe, Visayan Daily Star, Visayas (Philippines), 1 March 2005.
129. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS24FEMALE CLASSROOM ASSISTANTSMost teachers in schools for refugees in Guinea and Sierra Leone are men, asfew women have completed higher teacher education. To address concerns ofgender violence against girls in the schools, the International Rescue Committeerecruited and trained female classroom assistants to work alongside maleteachers in some refugee school classrooms in these countries. An evaluationof this pilot project found that the presence of the classroom assistants ledto signiﬁcant decreases in pregnancies and dropouts and increases in girls’attendance and academic achievement. In addition, girls – and boys, too –reported that they felt more comfortable in their classrooms. The students alsosaid they were pleased that the classroom assistants were reaching out beyondschools and following up in homes.Source: The International Rescue Committee, Classroom Assistant ProfessionalDevelopment Training Manual, July 2003.boys during a lesson to ensureequal opportunities for students toparticipate. In Kenya, for instance,where the Government initiateda nationwide policy endorsingchild-friendly schools and freeprimary education, the child-friendlyapproach includes teacher trainingin child rights and protection. InSouth Africa, the Nelson MandelaFoundation supports the child-friendly school approach andfocuses on preventing violenceand fostering a creative learningenvironment.Teachers and other school personnelneed to be educated on the manyforms of violence and ways to assessviolence in and around schools. Withsuch training and preparedness,teachers will recognize early signs ofdomestic violence through children’sbehaviour changes or physicalinjuries. Because of their regularcontact with children, teachers areoften the ﬁrst persons to whomchildren will disclose abuse andexploitation. Teachers can helpreport and refer such cases inorder to prevent further abuse andprovide necessary health care orpsychosocial support. Early warningsigns of violence and abuse mayinclude absences, disappearancesor dropping out of school.Most teachers show the girls andboys in their classes the sameprotective care they show their ownchildren or siblings. But there arecases of teachers harassing girlsor boys and violating children’srights. Schools must have a zerotolerance policy for such harassmentor violence by teachers against girlsor boys. Policies should be in placeand enforced so that teachers whoviolate children will be prosecutedand expelled from teaching, notsimply transferred to another schoolas occurs in some countries.
130. 25CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL5.6.2 Children’s participationActive participation is important forchildren, teachers and the communityin child-friendly schools. For children,participation may involve peer learning,various other child-to-child initiatives,school clubs (health or sport clubs),student government or children’sschool parliaments. Such activitiescan help children shape the teaching-learning process and encourage themto take home and share messages ongood practices related to health, safety,nutrition and so forth.How children spend their time inand out of school is important indetermining their safety and protection.Rather than allowing unstructuredtime to possibly result in negativeor dangerous behaviour, children’sfree time in school can be spent onconstructive activities. Children andteachers can routinely take ‘safetywalks’ around the school during freetime to see what needs to be ﬁxedand cleaned. They can do their part inmaintaining and improving the schoolenvironment.Worldwide, governments deﬁne thestandard time for teaching speciﬁcprimary-level material at “usually850–1,000 instructional hours or180–220 days per school year.” Inpoor countries, however, teachingtime is often lower because of a “40per cent loss in instructional time andreduced learning outcomes” due toovercrowded conditions and split shifts(Abadzi, 2007). In Latin America, studieshave shown that public school studentsreceived between 550 and 800 hours ofclass time compared to an estimated1,000 hours for private schoolstudents, and also that the contentwas “not connected to the reality ofthe students” (Portillo,1999). A simplecalculation reveals that in the bestcases, only an estimated 11 per centof a primary schoolchild’s life involvesschool-based learning. This translatesinto children having a signiﬁcantamount of additional hours for otherlearning and participatory activities.2ETHIOPIA: GIRLS’ EDUCATIONADVISORY COMMITTEESCommunities in Ethiopia haveestablished Girls’ EducationAdvisory Committees (GEACs) toincrease girls’ access to educationof a high standard. GEACs haveorganized girls’ clubs that are safeplaces for girls to talk, where theyare encouraged to speak aboutproblems of harassment and abuseand to report those problems to thecommittees. Other GEAC activitiesinclude disciplinary committees tohold teachers accountable, ‘police’to protect girls on their way to andfrom school, separate latrines forgirls, promoting the use of femaleteachers, training boys and girls onhow to treat each other respectfully,counselling girls and enlistingreligious and clan leaders to stopabductions and child marriages.As a result, in one primary school,217 girls were added to the rolls in2003 and the drop-out rate of girlsfell from 57 per cent to 19 per cent.Source: World Report on Violence againstChildren, United Nations, 2006.2This calculation is a rough estimate based on dividing the estimated number of instructional hoursper year by the total number of hours in a year.
131. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS26At the most basic level, childrenneed to be free to speak about childprotection concerns that affect themor others. Teachers and schoolpersonnel need to listen to girls andboys to be aware of the violencethey experience. Systems must beset up that take children’s voices intoaccount and involve girls and boysin developing remedies to violentor potentially violent environments.Children should learn how toprotect themselves and be involvedin formulating appropriate schoolrules and disciplinary measures forinfractions, including alternatives tocorporal punishment.For children to be less vulnerable,girls and boys need to know theirright to be free from abuse andneed to be warned of the dangers oftrafﬁcking, sexual exploitation andother threats to their safety. A childwho knows about these risks willless likely fall victim to abuse.Beyond the school level, child-friendly schools can inﬂuencedecision-making and be agents ofchange within society. In a protectiveenvironment, teachers and childrenare free to discuss issues of childmarriage or child labour and thuscontribute to changes in norms andpractices regarding violence andchild abuse. Schools can have animpact on gender relationships inthe society by ensuring that schoolsare safe and that girls have goodrole models, such as senior femaleteachers and female head teachers.During a humanitarian crisis, thesocial and political context is likelyto be threatened or destroyed.Innovative strategies are needed inthese circumstances to guide andsupport adolescents in contributingto community life and the protectionof younger children. Young people(10 to 24 years old) and theirorganizations should be consideredkey partners during crisis and post-crisis times. In Colombia, the Returnto Happiness programme invitesadolescents to provide psychosocialsupport to younger children throughplay therapy. Colombian refugeecommunities across the border inPanama have also implementedthe project in child-friendly spacesinside the camps. (See Box, page27.)Participation of children andadolescents in school andcommunity life is the most effectiveway to develop their potential andincrease their protection, especiallyduring times of conﬂict and crisis.Young people need the opportunityto express themselves andcontribute their opinions and ideasto the social dialogue. This buildsself-esteem and helps them ﬁndtheir role in the community. Further,children and adolescents infuse thesocial agenda with creativity, energyand resourcefulness.
133. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS28MALI: CHILD PARTICIPATION THROUGH CHILDREN’S GOVERNMENTSA major challenge for primary schools in Mali is access. In 2004–2005, the gross enrolmentrate was 73 per cent, with a 21 point gap between girls and boys. Completing the schoolcycle is also an uphill climb. A poor, rural girl, for instance, has a 17 per cent chance ofcompleting Grade 6. A third challenge is reinforcing classroom knowledge and life skills,since 75 per cent of Mali’s teachers are contract employees with minimal training andwhose teaching methods remain traditional and non-engaging.For children, other issues are important as well: improving school conditions, especiallyin areas of hygiene, health and protection; learning about and practising equality betweenboys and girls; lowering the absentee and drop-out rates. Anchoring life skills, such astaking initiative, personal responsibility, helping others, self-esteem and citizenship,is also important.Child government helps provide concrete responses to these challenges by enablingchildren to take active roles in the life and management of their schools. After a two-monthtraining course on child rights, child-friendly and girl-friendly schools, children analysetheir school. They choose areas in need of attention, form committees for each identiﬁedproblem area and elect ministers, half of whom are girls. The committees are made up ofstudents from all grades, and each committee develops its own set of activities and puts itinto practice. The child government meets regularly with teaching staff and frequently withthe parent association. A new child government is formed every year.Child government is a teaching tool. Children’s participation through role playing promoteschange in living conditions and behaviours in school. The student government is a learningexercise on such interdisciplinary issues as education, health and protection; with teachers’support, students are the actors and decision makers. Regional teams of school counsellorstrain teachers in the schools, who in turn train their students. A child government guideadapted for children was provided to students and teachers. By October 2005, 1,500 outof approximately 7,000 schools in Mali had a child government. Today, it has become anationally approved strategy of the Ministry of Education.In May and June 2005, an evaluation of child governments in 45 schools found that therewas gender parity in general, but that tasks were conducted and tested in an unequalmanner. In the child government context, children were easily capable of expressingthemselves. Enabling girls to make their voices heard and take on more responsibility hashad a positive effect on the psychology and behaviour of all children. Students developednew competencies, in particular relating to health and hygiene (managing drinking waterand washing hands, for example) as well as in educational and school support activities.These attitudes reinforced student groups and also facilitated communication betweenstudents and teachers.Several areas were found to be needing improvement. Child government initiatives werenot correctly or sufﬁciently implemented by teachers within the curriculum to reinforcestudents’ learning and life skills. Teachers and school staff together needed to becomemore involved in students’ initiatives so that they could provide teaching and technicalsupport to the students. Training also needed to be redirected to focus on pedagogicaspects and the role of the teacher.Despite these shortcomings, child governments have allowed children to become awareof their rights and learn that these rights have practical implications for themselves, theirschools and their communities.
135. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS30work together to ensure that childrenhave access to essential services.Life skills curricula enable childrento develop listening and speakingskills, communication and negotiationskills, assertiveness and empathy.They learn self-protection, ways torecognize perilous situations, copewith and solve problems, makedecisions and develop self-awarenessand self-esteem.When life skills include humanrights education, children cometo understand the nature of basicrights as set forth in the CRC andto apply human rights standards toreal situations, from interpersonal toglobal levels. Children begin to thinkcritically, grappling with dilemmaspresented when people’s rights comeinto conﬂict, such as in disputescaused by safe water scarcity or otherenvironmental problems. Two otherlife skills components with implicationsfor the curriculum and human rightsare non-discriminatory education andpeace education.Non-discriminatory educationchallenges children’s stereotypes ofgroups of people based on gender,race, ethnicity, disability and othercharacteristics. It aims to preventchildren from stigmatizing particulargroups and end the pernicious effectsof stigmatization on those ostracizedgroups. For example, if children fromone ethnic group hear that childrenfrom another group are dirty or lazy,they may believe the rumours withoutquestioning. Additionally, marginalizedgroups may internalize the stereotypes.In non-discriminatory education,children confront stereotypes asthey learn to understand, accept andappreciate cultural, class, gender andability differences. They learn to askquestions about the knowledge passedon to them by books, the media, adultsand other children. For example, ifa science or mathematics textbookshows mostly pictures of men, childrenwill learn to ask routinely, “Whereare the women?” They will learn tochallenge the false belief that girlsand women cannot perform well inmathematics and science or that boyscannot do certain handicrafts. Finally,teachers and students openly exploreissues of discrimination and the denialof human rights in the context of theunderlying power structures that createinequality within a society.In peace education, girls and boyslearn how to avoid conﬂict and howto mediate and resolve conﬂicts. Theylearn to understand and challengeimages of others as ‘the enemy’presented in books, televisionand other media. Students beginto examine the causes of conﬂict,the relative merits of cooperationand competition and the place oftrust within positive interpersonalrelationships. The peace educationcurriculum pays attention tointerpersonal violence, such as childabuse, bullying and harassment,which typically involve both directand indirect violence includingpsychological violence.Peace-building and conﬂict-resolutionskills can be relevant and usefulwhen such resources as water, foodand household energy are scarce.Additionally, peace education providesinformation about telephone hotlines,medical care and other services forvictims of abuse, and about the risks ofexploitation and trafﬁcking.Since the school day is short andtopics are many, teachers and those
136. 31CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALwho set national curriculum timetablesmust ﬁnd ways to integrate theseessential life skills into the curriculumalong with health, nutrition, peace-building and non-discrimination. Timemust be set aside for speciﬁc lessonsin these areas.In emergency situations, standardcurriculum practices may bedisrupted and key teaching andlearning materials may be lost. Inconﬂict or post-conﬂict situations,the curriculum may no longer appearacceptable or relevant for the changingcircumstances. This frequently createsan opportunity to develop a differentcurriculum, better adapted to thenew situation and local needs. Inconstructing this new curriculum,the emergency situation is considered.A curriculum that integrates healingactivities, such as dance, storytellingand music, not only affects children’sability to learn but also their capacityto heal and recover from the post-traumatic stress of being a victim orperpetrator of violence. Throughoutan emergency, it is important forteachers and community workers toorganize recreational opportunitiesfor children.After narrowly escaping death inthe tsunami that struck his homeon Thailand’s Phi Phi Island on 26December 2004, Songklod took solacein batik painting, a healing form of artin which the bright colors he splasheson the cloth canvases help blot out badmemories.“I was depressed after the tsunamiabout losing my house and seeing myparents lose their jobs,” says Songklod,a shy 14-year-old. “Batik paintinghelps cheer me up, calm me down andimprove my concentration.”UNICEF and the Thailand Ministry ofEducation’s Non-Formal EducationDepartment introduced batik paintingto promote psychosocial recovery forchildren at the Nong Kok temporaryshelter, home to more than 70households from the island.The batik centre has slowly grown into asmall community business from whichchildren can earn income to help theirfamilies. Paintings made at the centreare sold for 100 to 1,000 baht (US$2.50to US$25).Naturally talented, Songklod is one ofthe centre’s most promising painters.He is pleased that he can earn money tohelp his family while his father looks forwork. The money also makes it possiblefor him to go to school, which his familycould not afford before the tsunami.“It’s so good to go back to school whereI have friends and can practice drawingand painting during the art class. Myart teacher always gives me tips andnew techniques to improve my paintingskills,” he says.When asked about his plans, the usuallyreticent Songklod eagerly explains: “Iwant to continue doing batik painting.I really enjoy it. And I hope one dayto open a batik shop in Krabi.” In themeantime, he enjoys going to schooland painting batik – two opportunitiesthat came his way after the tsunami.Source: Rodraksa, Natthinee, Building Back Better,UNICEF, 2005.BATIK PAINTING IN THAILAND: A LIFE RESTORED THROUGH ART
138. 33CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALPHILIPPINES: MONITORING PUPILS THROUGH STUDENT PROFILESIn Francisco Benitez Elementary School, a public school in a poor, congestedcommunity in the heart of the Tondo district of Manila, teachers are constantlyconcerned about students who are absent, at risk of failing, involved in gang warsor unruly, rebellious and disruptive in behaviour. Student proﬁling, an innovativeactivity that is part of the child-friendly school approach, revealed to teachers thatthe students encountering difﬁculties often came from families facing extremepoverty and other difﬁcult situations. Moreover, most of the students who werefrequently absent and at risk of failing worked in the evening as vendors andscavengers. Likewise, they found that a number of the children having problemsin school were victims of sexual abuse and exploitation.With this knowledge came an understanding and resolve to work with parents,communities, social workers and lawyers to help children at risk. As a result, childabuse cases were ﬁled in court; abused children were referred to social workersfor psychosocial counselling; and working students were placed in afternoonsessions and provided with tutorial classes so they were able to complete theschool year and move on to the next higher grade. Teachers, on the other hand,became more sensitive and responsive to students manifesting attitudinal andbehavioural problems. One teacher commented, “Now I know that there is nosuch thing as a problem child – only a child with a problem.”For further details, see <www.unicef.org/teachers/forum/0302.htm>.labour and other forms of exploitation– can be brought to the fore. Schoolscan inﬂuence attitudes and behavioursand can help break the silence aroundsensitive topics. By advocating forchild rights and protection, schoolofﬁcials, teachers, parents and childrencan become catalysts for positivechange in the lives of individualchildren, in communities and withinsociety as a whole.Child-friendly schools work withfamilies, communities, and medicaland legal professionals to supportchildren in need of special protectionand help parents understand andrespect children’s rights. At thecommunity level, health workers,teachers, police, social workers andothers must be equipped with the skillsand knowledge required to identify andrespond to child protection problems.5.6.5 Monitoring and evaluationin protective environmentsA healthy, safe, protective environmentfor children requires an effectivemonitoring system that trackschildren’s health and health care,monitors school safety records,registers the incidence and natureof child abuse and has informed andstrategic responses. The monitoringand evaluation system is moreeffective when it is participatory andlocally based. Schools can monitorchildren’s absence or disappearancefrom school and can intervene early if,for instance, a child enters the labourforce. Schools can speciﬁcally monitorgirls’ attendance and drop-outrates, which often are inﬂuencedby child marriage or female genitalmutilation/cutting.
139. CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLS AS PROTECTIVE ENVIRONMENTS34In emergency situations, thegovernment, UNICEF and otheragencies monitor educationalactivities run by governments andnon-governmental organizations asimplementing partners. Monitoringand evaluation may involve workingwith partners to develop simpleways of collecting and updatingdata on children in and out ofschool or identifying teachers andother resources who can contributeto the re-establishment andfurther development of primaryand secondary education. Soonafter classes are up and running,partners review how programmeinterventions are progressing andidentify areas for improvement.Normal monitoring criteria maynot apply in an emergency. Classsizes can be exceptionally largeand lessons may not be given ina traditional classroom setting.But children learn, and monitoringcontinues to be important for botheducation quality and community-building around the educationalprocess.Violence is an overwhelmingpsychosocial blow to children andfamilies. The social, psychological,moral and emotional losses suffered,the unrelenting fear of loss and theactual death of parents and caregiverscan be as damaging as not havingsufﬁcient food, water and healthcare. One of the most urgent taskswhen conﬂicts loom is ﬁnding waysto protect children. Protection in thissense means not only defendingchildren against physical aggression,but also ensuring that their full rangeof rights and needs is respected andfulﬁlled.The strategy UNICEF and its partnersuse to ease trauma and bolsterchildren’s well-being in unstableconditions is to establish safe andprotective learning environments.In an emergency, the child-friendlyspace approach offers a protectiveenvironment by engaging varioussectors and charging them with themain objective of providing childrenwith protection and access to basicservices. Based on the whole-childapproach of the CRC, child-friendlyspaces integrate all the componentsthat contribute to the protection andfulﬁlment of a child’s rights.The child-friendly space approachintegrates health services, primaryeducation, childcare, nutrition,psychosocial development,environmental education andstructured recreation in a protectiveenvironment that is both family-focused and community-based.(See diagram, page 35.) The centreshave programmes for preschoolchildren, primary-school-age children,youth and parents.A key to the success of the child-friendly space approach is thatchildren, their families and theircommunities are all partners inplanning camp and community5.7 CHILD-FRIENDLY EDUCATION IN EMERGENCIES
140. 35CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALTURKEY: RESPONSE TO A CATASTROPHEIn response to the massive earthquake that struck the Marmara region of Turkeyin 1999, the child-friendly school/environment initiative was developed as anintegrated package including health and nutrition, hygiene, water and sanitationservices, early childcare and mother support, primary education and recreationactivities, and psychosocial support and youth activities. A set of minimumstandards was established based on average tent camp populations. Educationcomponents included temporary tent facilities, educational kits and materials,including special needs kits, teacher-support activities and psychosocial trainingsupport. Early childhood activities and youth activities were also included. Thereactivation of the school system emerged as an effective channel for other reliefactivities, with the school system used to distribute nutritional supplements,offer psychosocial support, and help register and locate survivors.EXAMPLE OF CHILD-FRIENDLY SPACES33Minimum standards per 1,500 population: primary schooling space, 300 square metres;preschool space, 150 square metres; primary-health-care space, 110 square metres;mother support space, 110 square metres; psychosocial support space, 110 square metres.Primary schoolPreschoolPlay areaPsychosocialsupportPrimaryhealth careWater pointMother support
142. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 6Learners, teachers and school managers6.1 School reform and learning achievement6.2 Preparing teachers6.3 School head as leader and mentor6.4 Organizing classrooms and learning spaces6.5 Pedagogic materials6.6 Learning and teaching methods6.6.1 Lessons learned from multigrade teaching6.6.2 Classroom discipline and management practices6.7 Curriculum
143. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALDuring their early and formativeyears, children spend half theirwaking hours in school. It is thereforereasonable to expect that schoolsand teachers will help forge students’development and destinies. Countriesinvest heavily in schools as the keyinstitution for shaping the lives of theyoung and preparing them for futureroles in homes, communities andsociety at large. Much is expectedof schools, especially in terms ofenabling children to achieve theirpotential through mastery of thelearning prescribed in the curriculum.The school is not the onlydeterminant of how children develop,what they learn, how much theylearn and what becomes theirultimate destiny. Innate abilities,socio-economic factors relating tohome and community background,and information and knowledge inthe popular culture play a key rolein children’s lives. Links betweenschools and communities are criticalfor optimizing the school’s inﬂuenceon the child’s development andachievements.The school’s main contribution restson the total learning experience itprovides for children. A wide range ofplanned and unplanned activities isinvolved, usually deﬁned as theformal curriculum and the ‘hidden’curriculum. The speciﬁc ways inCan China create schools that foster openness, ﬂexibility and innovation?And what happens to China if it does?Even as American educators seek to emulate Asian pedagogy – a test-centered ethos and a rigorous focus on math, science and engineering– Chinese educators are trying to blend a Western emphasis on criticalthinking, versatility and leadership into their own traditions. To put itanother way, in the … style typical of ofﬁcial Chinese directives (as wellas of educationese the world over), the nation’s schools must strive “tobuild citizens’ character in an all-round way, gear their efforts to eachand every student, give full scope to students’ ideological, moral, culturaland scientiﬁc potentials and raise their labor skills and physical andpsychological aptitudes, achieve vibrant student development and runthemselves with distinction.”Source: Hulbert, Ann, ‘Re-education’, The NewYorkTimes Magazine, 1 April 2007.6.1 SCHOOL REFORM AND LEARNING ACHIEVEMENTCHAPTER 6LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERS
144. 2CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSwhich schools are expected to makea contribution will be establishedby the teaching and learning processthat takes place in the classroomas well as ‘outdoor’ activitiesorganized as part of the curriculum.In fact, the interactive classroomprocess has the greatest inﬂuencein determining learning outcomesbecause education is most of allabout engaging young minds.Over time, schools and educationsystems develop distinctive teachingand learning styles, which maybe based on learning theories,philosophies of learning rooted in theculture or simply practices that haveevolved through eclectic teaching andlearning methods. The predominantpedagogy usually inﬂuenceseducation from primary school touniversity, and determines the kindof successful learner producedby the education system. In everysystem, good schools tend to excelin the predominant style of teachingand learning, while taking intoaccount the requirements of differentsubject areas. For instance, teachingmathematics will be different fromteaching literature; teaching sciencewill be different from teachingreligious studies.In general, the predominant styleof teaching and learning deﬁneswhat constitutes success. At oneextreme, successful learners maybe those who excel at formulatingarguments, assembling evidence,exercising judgement, expressingopinions, exploring creativity,showing tolerance, making innovativedecisions and developing a balancedapproach to life. At the otherextreme, successful learners maybe those who are good at followingrules, conforming to conventions,applying formulas, memorizingfacts, correcting mistakes andmanaging time. All of these cancount as successful learning, as longas learners master much of what isprescribed in the curriculum.The predominant means ofmeasuring learning achievementhelps determine teaching andlearning styles as well as theculture of schools and educationsystems. In some systems, there isa predominance of multiple-choicetesting, frequent tests and continuousassessment, while others focus onmajor examinations at the end of agrade or cycle and use test formatsthat involve technical problem-solving, essays and comprehensionexercises. Learning assessmentsystems may also emphasize andreward individual efforts or teamworkthrough different categories ofprojects and assignments. Mostschools and education systems willuse a combination of these meansof testing learning achievement, butthere will be a predominant testingmode that learners must master ifthey are to be successful.At an early stage of their education,children quickly learn the importanceof the predominant style and thesigniﬁcance of the main testingmodes that are used to determinelearning achievement. Initiationinto this culture can take place, forinstance, when children begin tounderstand that self-expressionis discouraged in favour of rotememorization; when answers areknown only to the teacher; whenthere is only one right way of doingthings; when conformity is rewardedand creativity is punished; and whenlabels of ‘stupid’ or ‘clever’ areapplied to young children.
146. 4CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSSuch principles will guide therange of teaching and learningstyles employed by the teacher as areﬂective practitioner operating in achild-friendly classroom. The broadfocus is on the best interest of thechild and how to bring out the bestin every child.Learning is an individual processdependent as much on what a childbrings to it as on what a teacherdoes to facilitate it. The natureof this process will vary with theage and developmental stage ofthe child, among other factors.For instance, in the early years ofschool young children do not havethe same ‘readiness’ in terms ofskills, knowledge and ability to learncomplex concepts as older childrenor adults. Children learn differentlyat this stage, and research indicatesthat, for the most part, learning occursthrough structured play. Learning isalso affected by language and culture,especially if the curriculum is basedon a language and culture alien tothe learner. Research makes clear thatchildren learn best in the early yearswhen taught in their own language;so schools often must adoptmultilingual policies for childrenfrom different ethnic or languagebackgrounds.The research literature also showsthat children learn better when theyare motivated and encouraged toparticipate in classroom activities.Therefore, class size needs to bemanageable for a teacher to giveadequate attention to motivatingeach child. Motivation can come fromthe physical environment in whichlearning takes place, the facilitatingefforts of the teacher and the activitiesand processes among the learners inthe classroom. The interest shown inchildren’s education and well-beingby parents, local communities andthe nation at large also can inspirestudents’ motivation to learn. A child-friendly school in itself attracts andmotivates children, brightening uptheir lives and inspiring them with thedesire to learn (UNICEF, 1999).A child-friendly classroom or learningspace is many things. It is not onlyfriendly and welcoming for the child,but also conducive to learning, safefor all, gender-responsive and fullyinclusive. It provides opportunitiesfor girls and boys alike, regardlessof their background, enabling all toparticipate equitably in the learningprocess. In such schools, as far aspossible and appropriate, the focusis on allowing learners to experimentwith ideas and discover answersto promote the ‘joy of learning’that comes from self-discovery. Inmuch the same way, these schoolsencourage and facilitate the ‘joy ofteaching’ that comes from applyingprofessional skills and reﬂectivemethods to help all children achievein the learning process.Experiences in different countriesshow that child-friendly schoolsprovide motivation for teachers, who,through the schools, are introducedto appropriate pedagogy for the ﬁrsttime. As they operate in stimulatingclassrooms and use new techniquesto improve learning achievement fortheir students, these teachers becomeinfused with a new sense of pride intheir own professional competence.And as the schoolchildren displaya new conﬁdence and an increasedinterest in learning, their teachersare better able to win the respectand trust of parents and localcommunities. Such professionalrewards and recognition can be just
147. 5CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALas important to teachers as issuesof salary and conditions of service.It has also been observed in severalcountries that teachers who have beenintroduced to child-friendly pedagogyoften serve as ambassadors for themodel. They motivate other teachersto become more reﬂective in theirwork and more concerned with thegeneral welfare and improved learningachievements of all their students.The teacher’s role is the key toachieving results in child-friendlyschools and learning spaces.Therefore, the required training andsupport to prepare teachers for thisimportant role must be a priority.Attention also should be given toteachers’ rights and responsibilitiesas well as their accountability andgeneral conditions of professionalservice. For teachers to play the criticalrole expected of them, the classroomdesign and layout should be right forthem and should provide and organizeteaching and learning materialsand activities appropriately. Theseelements contribute signiﬁcantly tothe overall classroom managementnecessary for quality teaching andlearning.Whatever teachers do in a child-friendly school, they need to focus onchild participation and consciouslystrive for children’s empowerment asan outcome of the learning process.Combining the right classroomconditions and processes with theexpertise of trained teachers anda supply of pedagogic materialsconstitutes the critical child-friendlyschool package.The challenge that countries faceis not only to plan for new child-friendly schools, but also to makeexisting schools more child-friendlyin order to boost education qualitythroughout the system. The range ofproblems encountered in refurbishingan existing school may includeunattractive classrooms, inappropriateteaching-learning methods, inadequateteaching-learning materials, unsafeschool grounds, absence of effectiveand sustainable teacher supportsystems and poor teacher motivation.These factors erode educationquality and contribute to high drop-out rates and low levels of learningachievement. School reform toimprove quality therefore requireseffective strategies for the investmentof resources and support of keystakeholders.Education reform based on thechild-friendly school model makes itpossible to:• Implement innovative classroompractices that greatly improvelearning outcomes;• Encourage the involvement,cooperation and participation ofchildren, teachers, school headsand parents in the reform process;• Cultivate incentives for improvingthe quality of education based onfavourable working conditionsthat serve to motivate teachers,students and the community.These working assumptions of thechild-friendly school model areconditions for success in the sense thatthey need to be factored into educationreform plans as ‘risks’. In other words,if the assumptions do not hold inpractice, results from investing inchild-friendly schools will be less thanexpected. The child-friendly reformprocess needs to avoid generatingfalse expectations like those thathave occurred in earlier education
148. 6CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERS6.2 PREPARING TEACHERSTeachers are central to school reform.Thus, the success of implementingchild-friendly models in the contextof reform will depend on the calibreof teachers within the system.In many developing countries, ahigh percentage of teachers lackthe requisite level of educationand training needed to rise tothe challenge of school reform.Moreover, for many reasons, themorale and motivation of teachersin these countries may be low. Ifschool reform is to succeed, it willbe critical to establish well-designedtraining and mentoring programmesthat build competencies, strengthencapacity and improve the moraleof teachers. This will include high-quality preservice and in-servicetraining for teachers enabling themto operate effectively within thechallenging rights-based, child-centred and interactive pedagogy thatis at the heart of the child-friendlyschool model.Investing in this type of trainingmust be a two-pronged approach:focusing on in-service training forexisting teachers, preferably atthe school level; and building newcapacity through preservice trainingfor those wishing to join the teachingprofession. In addition, strongteacher mentoring by school headswill be essential for success. Formany countries, this would requirea revitalization and restructuring ofteacher training. Such restructuringwould not only improve professionalcompetencies, but also encourageinvestments. For instance, it wasassumed previously that if countriessimply invested in constructingschools and providing teachers andmaterials, quality education for allwould blossom. But it takes more thansupply-side provisions to achieve suchresults, and more attention needs tobe given to the demand-side barriersthat keep children out of school,even when schools and teachers areavailable.The key assumptions about successin child-friendly schools are fairlycautious and based on widelyaccepted norms about humanbehaviour. They include expectationsabout how children and their parentsare likely to behave, such as:• Based on their innate abilitiesand instincts, all children wishto learn and will do so if theirnatural curiosity is encouraged andstrengthened;• Parents who can afford the costswill send their children to schoolregularly if they trust the school toteach and care for them;• Children will willingly attendschool on a regular basis if theyﬁnd the teaching-learning processenjoyable, stimulating, inspiringand attractive;• Children and their parents willdevelop conﬁdence in schools ifthe children are making progresswith learning;• Communities will generallysupport teachers and identifywith schools (local ownership) ifchildren are learning, teachers arecommitted to facilitating learningand the school is responsive to theconcerns of the local community.
150. 8CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERScontribute effectively to changes inclassroom practices, teacher educationpedagogy should not only stress thetheory that underpins child-centredlearning, but also be grounded inpractical methodologies that havebeen successfully classroom-tested. In-service training for teachers and schoolheads is also important for bolsteringtheir capacities for school developmentand planning, as the child-friendlyschool is likely to be different frommost other existing schools.Reform that seeks to make schoolschild-friendly system-wide willIn Ethiopia and Kenya, a ﬁve-day in-service teacher training programme wasdeveloped with unique organizational,methodological and content features.Additionally, the programme set outto improve quality by varying thecustomary training hierarchy withquestions of ‘who trains?’ and ‘howwill the training be conducted?’ Thisinnovative training was based on thefollowing principles:• The training programme must bestimulating, inspiring, motivating andexciting for teachers and trainers;• For maximum impact, the trainingprogramme preferably shouldbe residential, with minimumdistractions;• The training should bring about achange in teachers’ perceptions andorientation in a way that enablesthem to put what they have learnedinto immediate practice;• Teachers should be given ‘take-away’resource packs that they can use intheir classrooms;• Teachers should be given suggested,rather than prescriptive, guidelinesthat can subsequently be adapted totheir classroom and school situationsand supported through continuoustraining at the cluster level;• The training programme shouldbe activity-based and highlyparticipatory, as well as helpfuland friendly (non-threatening), sothat teachers feel conﬁdent enoughto share experiences, learn frommistakes, express doubts and voiceshortcomings without fear of ridicule;• The training process should involvesome behavioural objectives,including self-discipline, rolemodelling, respecting each others’views, punctuality, cooperation,equitable treatment and gendersensitivity;• The training programme shoulduse enthusiasm as ‘shock therapy’to help teachers rapidly replaceany inertia, cynicism or ‘non-action syndrome’ that might defeatpromising innovations;• Teachers should ﬁnish the coursefeeling conﬁdent and satisﬁed notonly that they have learned a greatdeal, but that it is feasible to put whatthey have learned into practice intheir classrooms;• Trainers should include experienced,practicing teachers who are familiarwith a variety of teacher trainingtechniques and are able to articulatehow these techniques can be madeeffective in schools;• Trainers should be enthusiastic aboutchild-friendly school models andcapable of generating excitementand interest in the teacher trainees,who need to observe and hearinspiring trainers to be motivated.IN-SERVICE TRAINING: TEACHER-CENTRED TRAINING FORCHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS
151. 9CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALsucceed only to the extent that itis possible to build a critical massof trained, committed teachers,education managers and teachereducators. Universities and teachertraining institutions must take thelead in school reform processes. Forchild-friendly school models to besustained at the education-systemlevel, they have to be an integralpart of preservice teacher educationprogrammes, and several countrieshave started this process. However,the main challenge is not withpreservice training, but in designingappropriate in-service programmesthat prepare current teachers forthe demands and challenges of thehighly innovative, child-friendlyschool models.Experiences with these modelsin countries that have begun tointegrate them in preservice teachereducation, such as Ethiopia, Kenyaand Vanuatu, have underscoredthat teachers’ behaviour changemust be ‘institutionalized’ at boththe classroom and the school levelfor successful reform. Only whensuch changes are routinely part ofeveryday practice in the classroomand throughout the school will therebe a positive impact on the educationsystem in terms of access, quality andlearning achievement. In short, thistype of reform requires sustained,long-term support to transformclassroom practice.Support measures that have provedto be effective include:• Building capacity andstrengthening the role of ﬁeld-level education supervisors asresource persons who follow upwith teachers in their schools or atthe school cluster level;• Enhancing the capacities of headteachers as mentors and ‘catalystsfor change’ at the school andcommunity levels;• Helping teachers develop self-conﬁdence in their professionalcompetence and becomeincreasingly autonomous ascapable child-friendly schoolpractitioners.Experience to date suggests thatschool-based, on-the-job trainingand support are most appropriatefor building teacher competenciesand maintaining momentum aroundthe change process in classroomsand schools. In providing suchtraining, it is essential for teachersand head teachers to be treatedas professionals with a stake indeveloping their school and theirown practice. Purely technicalINDIA: TEACHER EMPOWERMENTPROJECTSExperience from India has shown thattimely involvement of teachers canenhance the process of educationreform. The Teacher EmpowermentProjects in Madhaya Pradesh and UttarPradesh in the 1990s included highteacher participation at early stages.As a result, the Primary Teachers’Association assumed a leadershiprole and helped motivate teachersto fully support child-friendly schoolinnovations introduced by the EducationDepartment with UNICEF support. Thistype of partnership between teachers’unions and associations, which goesbeyond issues of salary and conditionsof service, has helped to successfullyimplement innovations such as child-friendly schools.
152. 10CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSETHIOPIA: VOLUNTARY SERVICE OVERSEAS AND NEWLY QUALIFIEDTEACHERS PROGRAMMEThe Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) programme was introduced throughoutEthiopia in 2004–2005. A VSO mentor in the school welcomes the new teacher,orients him or her and works with the newly qualiﬁed teacher and other schoolstaff involved in planning, subject knowledge and other programme activities.They form a small team to work on simple, practical classroom-based assignmentsand share good practices with others in the school community. This is gradedand monitored by the head teacher and the local administrators, and at the end ofthe period, the newly qualiﬁed teacher is given a certiﬁcate of competence. Theprogramme design allows this managed professional development programme toextend throughout the school.“It is very interesting that I have learned so much from this programme for a newteacher,” said Mulatu Waktole, a teacher in Assosa Primary School for 13 years.NIGERIA: VSO AND SCIENCE EDUCATIONA VSO science teacher in Nigeria had been running a series of practical regionalworkshops for science teachers. By the end of the programme, more than 40science lessons had been developed, along with descriptions of how to turndiscarded objects into simple science materials and equipment. The volunteerapproached the area’s Regional Education Ofﬁcer, who was impressed with thequality of the initiative and ultimately requested UNICEF support. UNICEF agreedto have the lesson plans published as a book, Junior Science 1. The book was thendistributed to schools throughout the region, where it was welcomed by teachersand children – some of whom had never had an opportunity to engage in practicalscience before. This initiative continues to develop, and Junior Science 4 will bepublished soon.training programmes tend to treatteachers and head teachers simply aspractitioners who lack the knowledgeand skills necessary to implementthe innovations that have beendesigned by others. Major changesare required in the mindset of thosewho plan the new type of in-serviceteacher training programmes. Ifthese new programmes are to workand improve education quality, theremust be a close relationship andunderstanding between the teachersand teacher educators. In suchcountries as Ethiopia and Kenya, thecore trainers providing in-servicetraining include both teachers andteacher educators. They work closelytogether, demonstrate mutual respectas professionals and understand theneed to communicate and cooperatewith each other. (See Box, page 8.)Teachers’ motivation andcommitment are as much apart of the reform process astheir knowledge and technicalcompetencies. Salaries and
153. 11CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALconditions of service are majorfactors in teacher motivation andcommitment, and these need to becarefully addressed. However, otherimportant factors besides pay andconditions affect teachers’ moraleand motivation. Many of these arecritical for the child-friendly model tosucceed.How much are teachers includedin planning reform as opposed tosimply being asked to implement it?Research suggests that practitionerswill implement innovations if theybelieve in them and are committedto the promised outcomes. Involvingpractitioners during the planningprocess is one of the most effectiveways of getting them to believe inand commit to reform. Without this,teachers tend to perceive innovationssuch as child-friendly schools asjust added work, often with littleor no additional compensation orreduction in their existing workload.On the other hand, when teachersfeel that they have taken part inplanning a reform and that theirviews have been taken into account,they will have a stake in its successfulimplementation.External support to education underthe Monterrey Consensus requirescredible plans arrived at througha participatory process. In reality,most plans are purely technicalexercises involving little or noparticipation by key stakeholders.Analysis of education sector plansdeveloped in many countries aspart of the sector-wide approachprocess shows negligible teacherinvolvement. The exceptions tend tobe in matters of salary and conditionsof service, rather than in the technicaland professional aspects of theproposed changes in these plans.In order to win teacher support forimplementing child-friendly schoolmodels, countries need to mountmajor advocacy campaigns andconsultation processes around thereform.Another key factor that affectsteachers’ commitment to changeis the extent to which theirprofessionalism is recognized andutilized in the process of buildingcapacity for reform. Most teachershave knowledge and skills that willhelp others adapt to change whenthey are shared. Usually, a simpleappraisal will identify teachers’knowledge and skills and, at thesame time, pinpoint their areas ofweakness. Teachers can agree toa systematic plan to correct theseweaknesses and develop practicalprogrammes to improve what theydo well in order to support changein the classroom. These simpleprogrammes can address many of theday-to-day difﬁculties that teachersencounter in their work, whilecreating a sense of professional pridein the collaborative efforts used tosupport child-friendly achievementsin the classroom. There are manytalented practicing teachers who canbe role models for other teachersand, if they are good communicators,also effective trainers. Although thisin-service approach may appearintensive and burdensome forteachers, it reaps signiﬁcant gains.(See Boxes below.)One of the most effective waysof promoting intensive, localizedand continuous teacher trainingis through school clusters, smallnetworks of allied schools thatencourage professional development
154. 12CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSamong teachers and allow for sharingresources, facilities and experiences.Typically, four to six schools in thesame area form a cluster, enablingteachers to arrange in-service trainingprogrammes. In many developingcountries, most teachers live andwork in isolated locations and requireregular, timely support to improvetheir classroom and school practices.Establishing a support system such asschool clusters or a resource centrethat serves several schools enablesteachers to build on what they havelearned in more formal trainingprogrammes. Without this ongoingsupport, the initial enthusiasm forchange can drop rapidly.The main objective of schoolclusters is to improve the qualityof the learning-teaching process inthe classroom. This involves thecooperation, active involvement andfull participation of all facilitatorsand teachers in the cluster so thatteachers receive the ongoing supportneeded to upgrade their pedagogicskills and professional competencies.Clusters also can help increase theenrolment, attendance and learningachievements of student in thecluster schools and mobilize localcommunity participation in planningand managing primary education.By establishing and strengtheninglinkages among district educationofﬁces, divisional education ofﬁces,teacher training colleges and primaryand secondary schools, they canalso improve the quality of learning-teaching practices. School clustersin Kenya go further by assuming aholistic approach that integrates earlychildhood education with formalprimary and non-formal education.In practice, the most importantadvantages of school clusters includeproviding opportunities for teachersto participate in continuous in-servicetraining without travelling longdistances and facilitating the use ofneeds-based, demand-driven teachertraining based on the ‘teacher teachteacher’ school-based in-servicetraining model. Clusters also improveschool management practices throughschool collaborations.In Ethiopia and Kenya, school clusterswere shown to be sustainable bymodifying the roles of educationdepartment supervisors and teachertraining institutes and colleges. Theeducation departments providedencouragement and support, whileteacher training institutes and collegesgave ongoing technical guidancethrough cluster-learning resourcecentres, using schools’ feedback onthe implementationof this innovative approach. Further,in Ethiopia, Kenya and manyAsian countries, periodic trainingsessions organized at cluster-GUYANA: TEACHER LEARNINGCIRCLESIn Guyana, teacher absenteeismis high, classes are large, andvolunteers are essential. Thecountry’s strategy of ‘learning circles’(or ‘school clusters’, as they arecalled in Ethiopia and Kenya) is asimple method of in-service trainingwhereby teachers in a school orcluster of schools periodically discussemerging issues and processesrelated to children’s learning. Theycome together to share information,experiences and successes in theirquest to become efﬁcient, effectiveand conﬁdent teachers, and todevelop common goals and vision.
155. 13CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALThe Escuela Amiga project in Mexicopromotes quality education forindigenous girls and boys throughchild-friendly learning environments.Children’s participation is emphasizedas part of citizenship and democracyeducation, based on the principlesof the Convention on the Rights ofthe Child (CRC).The project developed a guide forteachers and education managers thatincludes checklists on constructing aschool work plan and monitoring andevaluating progress towards child-friendliness.Project indicators for child participationinclude:• School has informational materialon the CRC;• Child rights are taught at everyclass level;• There is concrete evidence thatunequal classroom participationbetween girls and boys isdiminished;• School ‘societies’ with establishedafter-school activities exist, withequitable participation of girls andboys;• Children’s opinions are heard andtaken into account;• A positive climate for the resolutionof conﬂicts has been created.Source: United Nations Children’s Fund,Proyecto Escuela Amiga: Guía para maestros yautoridades escolares, UNICEF, Mexico, 2002.learning resource centres ledto progressive improvementof overall classroom practice.In western Ethiopia, UNICEFand Voluntary Service Overseasdeveloped school clusters thatdelivered training programmes andworkshops simultaneously to schoolcluster coordinators, head teachersand local administrators. All involvedreceived clear guidance on how thedevelopment of each stage wouldprogress and at the same time wereable to understand and develop theirdifferent but complementary rolesand functions within the system.While attitude change can be slow,continuous interactive on-the-jobeducation, especially at the school orcluster level, can be an inexpensive,culturally appropriate and effectiveway of introducing new teachingstyles to both trained and untrained,inexperienced teachers. Withminimal variation, this interactiveteacher training can be extended tocommunity groups and to volunteersin emergency situations.School clusters or learning resourcecentres work well if schools arelocated close enough to eachother or to the resource centre.Realistically, teachers have manyother responsibilities outside theschool and cannot be expected totravel hours or even days to the nextschool. In those situations, school-based training and developmentmay be the only realistic option,unless there are investments inmodern information-communicationtechnologies so teachers can haveregular exchanges with their peersthrough the Internet.MEXICO: CHILD PARTICIPATION IN THE ESCUELA AMIGA PROJECT
156. 14CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERS6.3 SCHOOL HEAD AS LEADER AND MENTORSchool heads play an important rolein raising their schools’ teaching andlearning standards to ensure highachievement for all pupils. Yet indeveloping countries, most schoolheads have heavy workloads linked toincreasingly complex, varied tasks forwhich they are responsible but poorlytrained to handle. These school headsoften are drowning in bureaucraticprocedures and directives fromnational and district educationauthorities. Often there is a lackof clarity regarding which policiesand tasks are mandatory andwhich are optional.Child-friendly innovations providean opportunity to tackle schoolleadership challenges. If educationministries support school headsby overhauling outdated schoolregulations and providing betterguidance on whether policies arecompulsory or advisory, schoolheads are in a better position to limittheir involvement with bureaucracyand focus instead on facilitatingchange in classroom practice, schoolmanagement and links with thecommunity. Further, school headsneed to be empowered, supportedand trained to serve as managers andmentors for school reform.In child-friendly schools, the headsare custodians of change andmanagers of innovation. They leadthe school planning process, securenecessary resources, facilitateessential training for teachers andbuild constructive links with thelocal community. In managing theprocess of change, the schoolhead must lead, guide and inspireteachers – who are the main thrustbehind classroom change in child-friendly schools.The school head must haveadequate qualiﬁcations, training andexperience to cope with challengesand win the respect and supportof teachers, pupils and the localcommunity. The school head needs touse these credentials to exerciseauthority in a positive manner, notsimply rule by bureaucratic force.While ultimate responsibility forcrucial decisions rests with schoolheads, they must consult withand involve teachers, pupils andthe local community in decision-making. Similarly, they mustmanage school resourcestransparently, in order to inspireconﬁdence and persuade teachers,pupils and local communities touse limited resources judiciously.The school head’s management stylehelps determine teachers’ motivationand commitment to child-friendlystandards. Securing appropriatesalary levels and conditions ofservice, for instance, allows teachersto feel that their welfare matters inthe school. Additionally, the headshould provide training opportunitiesfor all teachers and help organizeongoing training and support at theschool or cluster level. Most of all, theschool head should be a mentor toteachers, leading by example in theuse of child-friendly pedagogy, beingaccessible as a conﬁdantand adviser to all teachers andhelping to solve problems thatarise in classrooms or in thelocal community.
157. 15CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALMy school is in a poor region of thecountry. The poverty is made worseby the growing number of adultsdying from AIDS. In my school, I havemany children who are orphans.These children either live with theirgrandmothers, other relatives orby themselves. They live in povertyand come to school hungry andpsychologically traumatized. Thatis why the school is collaboratingwith the Ministry of Education, othergovernment ministries, the universityand the community to address thesechallenges.The Ministry of Education ofﬁcialsand the university are developingmy capacities and those of the seniorstaff to provide psychosocial supportfor the most vulnerable children.As a result, the deputy school headkeeps a notebook to record all theorphans in the school and all cases ofour schoolchildren’s being victims ofsexual harassment, rape and abusein and around the schools. She andother senior teachers work with theDepartment of Social Welfare to ensurethat orphans have birth registrationforms. For those who do not, theDepartment comes to the school toregister them. The community workswith us to raise funds and providechildren with school feeding. Somemothers run a café once a week, andcommunity members come to theschool to buy lunch. We also workwith the Ministry of Health to dewormchildren and work with the Ministry ofWater Affairs to ensure that the schoolhas clean water.Extracts from interview with a school head.LEARNING PLUS: CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS PROVIDE MORETHAN LEARNINGIn addition to these aspects ofschool management, the schoolhead serves as the school’s mainpublic relations ofﬁcer. The imageof the school, its traditions andethos, must be carefully cultivatedin line with child-friendly standards.The school head needs to maintainrituals and activities that help projectthe correct image. These could beschool celebrations, sporting events,cultural performances or charitableevents, or establishing school clubsthat support the local community.In the same way, the school headneeds to nurture links with the localcommunity. A child-friendly schoolwill not only seek to win communitysupport, but will also reciprocatethat support where appropriate andshow sensitivity to the communities’aspirations and challenges. Insome of the most disadvantagedcommunities, child-friendly schoolstake on even greater roles in the livesof children and their communities.(See Box, page 15.)School reform that seeks to raisequality through child-friendlyprinciples requires nationalstandards that will guide schools andschool heads as they implement thechange process. Each country willdevelop its own standards in thisregard, but there are some broadguidelines for school heads. (SeeBox, page 15.)
158. 16CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERS6.4 ORGANIZING CLASSROOMS AND LEARNING SPACESSchool heads and teachers need tocreate a favourable environment inorder to make schools more child-friendly. This environment begins witha well-designed and well-constructedschool that is safe for children andteachers, with secure classrooms,functional spaces and open areas.Just as important, however, are child-friendly equipment and supplies thatpromote learning. The goal is to createstimulating classrooms where childrenare inspired to learn and teachershave a range of skills and tools tosuccessfully engage them in thelearning process. These classroomsoften have learning corners, andteachers typically produce and use awide range of high-quality, low-costteaching aids.In many countries, a stimulatingclassroom is prepared by a trainedteacher with the help of other teachersand the pupils. Classrooms can bemade stimulating in a variety ofways depending on the context.It is possible to have stimulatingclassrooms even where resourcesare limited or the education systemis impoverished. However, thisrequires teachers’ commitment andenthusiasm and strong supportfrom the school head and the localcommunity.In many developing countries, thechallenge of making classroomsstimulating is compounded by theproblem of overcrowded space,especially as policies to boostenrolment begin to gain success.Kenya, Malawi, Uganda andthe United Republic of Tanzaniaexperienced huge increases inenrolment when school fees wereSchool leadership should focus on therights of children, the best interest ofteachers and the expectations of parentsand the community.The key objective of school leadership isto raise the learning achievement level ofeach child and the collective achievementof the student body.The head should be a qualiﬁed teacher,a professional with relevant knowledge,skills, vision and versatility to inspire,lead and adapt to change.Leadership functions can be distributedamong senior staff to engender a senseof participation and motivate staff tocommit to the process of change.Wider skill sets should be developed,such as expertise in ﬁnance, humanresources, children’s rights andprogramme management.School heads need to adopt a democraticstyle of authority to win the support andcommitment of teachers, pupils and thelocal community.School heads must lead by example, asproblem solvers, trusted conﬁdants toteachers and the main public relationsofﬁcer who projects the school’s image.School heads need to be able to identifyareas of practice requiring improvementand those where positive trends can becapitalized on.LEADERSHIP GUIDELINES FOR CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS
160. 18CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSIn December 2003, an earthquakelevelled 67 schools in the city of Bam,and most of those remaining weredamaged beyond repair. A monthlater, schools were ofﬁcially reopenedin an effort to return to normalcy forchildren. First, classes were held in theopen air, then in tents and containers.‘Mobile’ education and recreation wereprovided, a tracking system for out-of-school children was established,tools for data collection, managementand analysis were created, andlearning spaces were linked to earlychildhood development centres andnon-formal education and recreationcentres. Advocacy and technicalsupport were generated for a nationalschool design review with the goal ofpromoting healthy and safe girl-friendlyenvironments incorporating water andsanitation facilities, playgrounds andsports areas, and involving childrenand the community in school designand construction. Interventions toimprove learning quality includedadvocacy for girl-friendly schools asa package at the policy and schoollevel; teacher support includingpsychosocial services, extra-curricularcourses (psychosocial education, lifeskills, hygiene education); educationaland recreational materials review;participatory, child-centred andgender-sensitive teaching methods;children’s participation in schools(clubs, school governance); enhancedcommunity involvement in planning,management, and monitoring andevaluating educational activities (schoolmanagement); implementation of catch-up classes; and school environmentsand learning materials to meet theneeds of disabled children.teaching aids in learning corners.Optimal use of locally availableresources is encouraged as a way tomake classrooms stimulating. Thebasic cost of converting an averageKenyan Standard One classroom into astimulating classroom is only US$25, amodest amount that most schools andcommunities can afford.Child-friendly schools involve theprinciple of progressive realization. Forexample, purpose-designed desks andchairs and other customized furnitureand equipment should be part of thestimulating classroom. However, ifthis is not feasible, the environmentcan still be true to child-friendlyprinciples, philosophy and standards.In many developing countries, childrenin primary schools have to sit ondirty ﬂoors or under trees due toshortages of furniture or classroomspace. Pupils and their parents canwork with teachers and school headsto transform drab classrooms intostimulating environments.Child-friendly schools in Ethiopiaand Kenya adopted the progressiverealization principle to change existingschools. Floors were made smoothand clean with layers of plaster andﬂoor paint, and because customizeddesks and chairs were not affordable,children were given clean, brightlycoloured ﬂoor mats that they couldsit on after removing their shoes. Thisnot only provided a pleasant and cleanclassroom environment, but also gavethe children, teachers and parentsan understanding of the importanceof hygiene and cleanliness, evenin an environment with little or noIRAN: BUILDING BACK BETTER IN BAM
161. 19CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALETHIOPIA: CHILDREN’S PARTICIPATIONOur Classroom Golden Rules:We want our classroom to be clean and tidy.We want everybody to look after our books, cards and other materials.We want everybody to talk quietly, including our teachers.We want everybody to try to do their best work.We want everybody to be kind and friendly to each other.We want everybody to help each other and share.We want everybody to keep their hands to themselves.We want everybody to be safe in the school and playground.Every so often children need to sit and discuss these again.Source: Gambella Primary School, Ethiopia.resources for customized furniture.Sitting on the ﬂoor enables youngchildren, especially those in theearly grades, to feel at home andengage comfortably in such activitiesas playing games, cutting, pasting,drawing and creating art.The principle of progressive realizationcan be an essential innovation ofschool reform when re-establishingschools and education systems aftera disaster or crisis. In the aftermathof the earthquake in Bam (Iran),there was an opportunity to ‘buildback better’ with improved schoolsand learning spaces based on child-friendly standards. The recovery andreconstruction process involved theprogressive introduction of child-friendly features and standards overtime, resulting in a successful reformprocess. The reconstruction allowedinterventions to be initiated forchildren both in and out of school andalso demonstrated the importance oflearning materials for classroom andlearning space.Whatever furniture, equipmentand teaching aids are available,promoting learning depends on howthe teacher organizes and managesthe teaching-learning process. Achild-friendly classroom is a learningcommunity, and teachers are theprimary organizers of the atmosphere.Much will depend on how teachersinterpret child-centred pedagogyin their classrooms. Learning is notjust about individual comprehensionand skills acquisition; it is also aboutconstructing knowledge with others.Group activities and the sense of alearning community are important forchild-friendly schools. A child-friendlyclassroom includes individualized,gender-sensitive instruction togetherwith active, cooperative, democraticgroup learning activities that arerespectful of the rights of each child.When this approach works, it providesstructured content and makes use ofquality materials and resources. Itenhances a teacher’s capacity, morale,commitment and professional status.
162. 20CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSThe success of child-friendly schoolsdepends on the quality of pedagogicmaterials. Many primary schools indeveloping countries suffer from acuteshortages of teaching and learningmaterials. Progress in this area ismainly interpreted as improving theratio of textbooks to pupils, as researchhas linked textbook availability togains in learning achievement. Thechild-friendly school model, however,is not dependent on textbooksalone, especially in the early yearsof schooling. The ability of teachersto create appropriate teaching-learning aids, often from low-cost,locally available materials, bolsterssuccess. The approach also assumesthat teachers will involve children inhelping to produce learning materials,and that students’ schoolwork will beposted on school walls for instructionalpurposes and to instil a sense of pride.In Ethiopia, India and Kenya, teachersconsider pocket boards and wallblackboards to be innovative, low-cost and useful tools. The blackboardsmounted around the room and usedby children help teachers monitorlearners’ progress and identifystudents who may require personalizedattention and assistance. These boardsalso help teachers recognize pupilswho grasp concepts faster and canbe encouraged to assist their slowerpeers. Using small blackboards allowslearners to make mistakes and correctthem without having a permanentrecord of failure, unlike errors madein their exercise books. Children cantherefore go through a process ofconﬁdence-building while learning thatfailure is not permanent but simplypart and parcel of the learning process.6.5 PEDAGOGIC MATERIALSLOW-COST LEARNINGMATERIALSMaking teaching-learningmaterials from low-cost materialswas not new to many teachers,who apparently learned this intheir teacher training institutes.However, they never hadconsidered it useful practice inthe real classroom. They did notrealize the potential applicationsuntil they were introduced to therequirements of child-friendlyschool models.Source: Child and Learning-FriendlyEnvironment in Primary Schools:A documentation of the process,UNICEF Ethiopia, 2002.It promotes quality learning outcomesnot only by helping children learnwhat is prescribed in the curriculum,but also by deﬁning what theyneed to learn in order to becomeindependent learners (learning howto learn). In this regard, child-friendlyschools encourage children’s activeparticipation in numerous activitiesrelated to quality education, such ashaving children set their own codeof conduct for the classroom and theschool. (See Box Ethiopia: Children’sparticipation.)
164. 22CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSmust be committed to using locallyavailable materials.In Ethiopia, Kenya and many East andSouth Asian countries, teachers usepolystyrene packing material, packingboxes, tin cans, bottle tops, pebbles,ﬂowers, leaves and inexpensive, easilyobtained materials to make pocketboards, ﬂash cards, big books, chartsand models illustrating textbooklessons. By calling on their ingenuity,teachers’ latent talents are revealed andthey develop new conﬁdence and pridein their professional competencies.Moreover, production of innovative,low-cost teaching aids from locallyavailable resources requires wider,more regular consultation amongteachers within the school and clusters.This builds team spirit and forgescloser working relationships in supportof child-friendly school models.As we move up the education system,the need for more formal teaching-learning aids becomes more important.To ensure that children receive qualityeducation at higher levels of theprimary school and into secondaryeducation, basic instructional materialsand supplies need to be available forall children and teachers. Too often,there is a lack of basic teaching aidsand learning materials, yet withoutthem, teachers are hard-pressedto transform their classrooms intostimulating environments or tomaximize their students’ participationin the learning process. Educationsystems need to ensure that schools,teachers and children have accessto these materials in a reliable andsustained manner.The nature and cost of materialsdepend on curriculum requirements– not only on prescribed curriculumcontent, but also on the curriculum’sappropriateness, on whether teacherscan implement such a curriculum andits feasibility in terms of availableresources. Teachers seeking to utilizechild-friendly principles need tointerpret and adapt the curriculum toreﬂect these principles.The curriculum may inadvertentlyproject prejudice and discriminationtowards girls, children affected byHIV and AIDS or children with diversebackgrounds and abilities. Existingtextbook material may portray childrenliving on the streets as pickpockets,or working children may be depictedas uneducated even though theymay have strengths such as excellentsurvival skills. Likewise, children withdisabilities may be considered ‘slow’even though many have impeccablesocial skills. In a child-friendly school,these prejudices must be challengedthrough supplementary pedagogicmaterials purchased or developed byteachers and other experts engaged inpromoting child-friendly models.Inclusiveness is a major child-friendlyschool principle and must be reﬂectedin the nature and quality of learning-teaching materials. The school mustembrace diversity and nurture childrenwith different backgrounds andabilities. The pedagogic materialsneed to be relevant to all children’slearning needs and abilities; they mustbe culturally appropriate and valuesocial diversity. Only then will theybeneﬁt all children.Pedagogic materials are only partof what is required for child-friendlyschools to work. Another necessarycomponent is participatory learning-teaching methods, which give teachersvarious techniques to help differentlearners and allow them to explorealternative forms of discipline.
166. 24CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSSchool reforms based on child-friendly principles still have room forimprovement, although there is littledoubt that classroom interaction by allchildren, especially girls, has greatlyimproved. Children are acknowledgedby name and given personal valuein this interactive process. In someschools, children wear name tags andgirls are classroom monitors. Whereschools have adopted such innovationsand their beneﬁts have been noted,communities have felt more involvedin their children’s education. In someareas in Ethiopia, parents came toobserve and saw their children’s nameswritten on the blackboards, and thisimproved teaching-learning processes.With increased practical support forthe schools, the communities builtcluster resource centres to ensure asustainable teacher support system.Parents also became active in schoolmanagement, with more womeninvolved in school activities.If child-friendly schools are to succeedas part of general school reform, theymust embrace other innovations thatare critical for success. One of theseis multigrade teaching to make smallschools (especially in rural, remoteareas) viable for extending qualityeducation to all children. Research hasshown that full participation in smallrural or isolated communities occurswhen schools are located close to thecommunity in both geographical andcultural terms. In practice, however,the population of children may betoo small to sustain the number ofteachers required to serve each gradeover the full primary cycle. If schoolscannot afford a teacher for eachgrade, they need multigrade teachingin which one teacher can facilitatelearning for children at different gradelevels within the same classroom orschool space.6.6.1 Lessons learned frommultigrade teachingMultigrade teaching means teachingchildren of different ages, grades andabilities in the same group. It is themost appropriate way of reachingstudents from grades one to fourwhen remoteness and low populationundermine the viability of normalschool practices.Multigrade schools can be found inhard-to-reach locations in Sri Lanka,and they are common in parts ofMalaysia, serving people who aredisadvantaged, such as the Malayand Chinese schools in small villagesand settlements. The same is truein Mongolia. In countries such asColombia and Zambia, multigradeteaching is recognized by governmentsas an effective initiative for teachereducators and teacher trainees at thenational level. (See Box below.)MONGOLIA:MULTIGRADE TEACHINGIn hard-to-reach areas in remoterural communities, children attendboarding schools. However, parentsare reluctant to send young childrenaway from home, so they enrolthem in multigrade schools. Theteachers who run these schoolsare trained in methodologies andclass organization developed towork with children of different agesand different abilities in one class.After Grade 4, some children enrolin formal primary school in districtboarding schools, while othersjoin non-formal education in thecommunity to later be allowed toreturn to formal school or obtaincertiﬁcation of primary education.
167. 25CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALLessons have been learned fromexperiences with multigrade schoolsin Lesotho, Mexico, Peru, Sri Lanka,Western Samoa and Zambia. First,multigrade teaching is more commonthan previously realized. Schoolswith more primary grades thanteachers must organize learningalong multigrade lines some ofthe time. Too few ministries ofeducation, curriculum developersand teacher education institutionsfactor this reality into their plans andprogramming. Textbooks on curriculaand teaching methods, teacher guidesand education pedagogy in collegesand universities do not incorporateenough of the knowledge, skills andvalues required for teachers to applymultigrade teaching methodologiessuccessfully (Little, 1995).There are several elements in themultigrade strategy that are alsofound in child-friendly school models.These include teacher trainingin the design, reproduction anddistribution of large numbers ofpedagogic materials (teacher-madeand self-study materials), peer andsmall group learning, procedures forevaluating learning improvement andachievement, and forms of internalschool and classroom organizationestablishing routines centred onstudents rather than teachers.6.6.2 Classroom discipline andmanagement practicesLike any other model of qualityeducation, child-friendly schoolsinclude systems for discipline andorder. These schools encourage rulesand regulations, but also emphasizethat they must be in the best interestof children and applied in a fair,transparent manner. Classroomsand learning spaces should be safeplaces for children to learn. In child-friendly schools, teachers need tohave the skills to apply alternativeforms of discipline instead of fallingback on corporal punishmentand other forms of physical andverbal abuse. Teachers should bemade aware of the emotional andpsychological damage these practicescan do to children. For example,threats or promises of rewards togirls in exchange for sexual favoursare intolerable. Teachers also needto understand why violent formsof discipline such as corporalpunishment are harmful to children.(See Chapter 5.)Teachers require training inconstructive discipline practices topromote orderly and fair conditionsfor learning in classrooms andlearning spaces. School managers,teachers and other school personnelalso need training and supportin human rights education thatfully recognizes the importanceof tolerance and peaceful conﬂictresolution and the signiﬁcance ofchild participation. Ensuring thatteachers’ rights are respected is theﬁrst step towards ensuring respect forchildren’s rights. This mutual respectrequires teachers to reach out tochildren in an affable manner whilemaintaining dignity and respect asauthority ﬁgures in the classroom.Child-friendly schools encourage apedagogic approach that emphasizesthe acquisition of knowledge,development of abilities andunderstanding of concepts in aholistic manner. The approach offersteachers latitude to plan interactivesessions in varied settings and tocontinuously assess the qualityand effects of their interventions inthe classroom. In a child-friendlyclassroom or learning space, the
168. 26CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSteacher is the mentor, the facilitatorof learning and the coordinator ofall learning activities. Creativity,openness, ﬂexibility, tolerance,good leadership and organizationalskills become the avenues throughwhich effective learning-teaching ismaintained. Classroom managementthat enhances learning is child-centredand promotes active learning. Theteacher’s role must be to observe,discuss, probe, extend ideas andengage children in meaningful,positive learning experiences.KEY STAGES AND NATIONAL CURRICULUM LEVELSAGE STAGE YEARS TESTS4–5 Foundation (Early Childhood Education)6–9 Key stage 1 (Lower Primary School) 1– 4 Year 4 national tests10–13 Key stage 2 (Upper Primary) 5–7 Year 7 national tests14–16 Key stage 3 (Junior Secondary School) 8–10 Years 9 or 10 national tests17–18 Key stage 4 (Senior Secondary School) 11–12 Year 12 national tests6.7 CURRICULUMMany developing countries have anational curriculum that serves asthe blueprint for consistent learningand teaching standards in schoolsthroughout the system. There isusually some ﬂexibility for schoolsto implement the national curriculumto ﬁt with their particular strengthsand challenges and for schools tointroduce other activities that extendthe learning experience for the pupils.Generally, the national curriculum:• Delineates the most importantknowledge, skills, attitudes andvalues that every child has a rightto learn;• Provides a ﬂexible governmentframework to teachers to ensurethat all schoolchildren learn in abalanced, manageable way, whilestretching to challenge studentsand meet their diverse needs;• Sets standards that measurechildren’s progress in eachsubject to help teachers monitorachievement and plan to helpstudents do even better.The national curriculum shown belowdeﬁnes a child’s progress in broadkey stages. Schools and learningspaces are usually given someleeway to organize teaching withinthis framework in a manner that bestsuits the reality of the children in theircare. The schools create their ownplans, term by term and year by year.At the end of key stages 1, 2, 3 and 4,a child may take a national test. At theend of key stage 4, the national ﬁnalexaminations determine eligibility forthe next stage of education.
169. 27CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALIn May 2001, Uganda’s Ministry ofEducation and Sports and its partners,UNICEF, the Institute of TeacherEducation, Kyambogo, and the NationalCurriculum Development Centre,began a pilot project to teach locallanguages, using the Breakthrough toLiteracy (BTL) methodology. Originallydeveloped to teach functional literacyskills to learners in their ﬁrst language,BLT brings the language used in thehome into the classroom. The approachhelps children recognize words they areaccustomed to hearing and speakingwhen they see them translated into awritten code; it then helps them readand write the language themselves.The learning environment in a BTLclassroom is organized into socialand ability groups, which performinteractive tasks in a relaxed andstimulating atmosphere. BTL Ugandaaims to develop functional literacyskills in young learners, so that 85 percent of both girls and boys are able toread and write in local languages bythe end of Primary 3 (P3). It promotesother important features of theeducation landscape in Uganda, suchas establishing child-friendly learning inall lower primary schools and learningcentres, and ensuring that learnersdemonstrate proﬁciency in at least threeselected life skills by the end of P3.The BTL methodology has been aresounding success, in terms both ofincreasing reading proﬁciency in thepilot schools and promoting severalaspects of child-friendly learningenvironments. The mean score forall BTL learners, including those whofailed to attain the required readingproﬁciency, was 50.7 per cent comparedto 26.0 per cent for the non-BTL group.Compared to their grade cohort, theBTL learners have outperformed thenon-BTL Primary 2 (P2s) by more than40 percentage points (50.7 per cent BTLcompared to 10.2 per cent non-BTL).The non-BTL learners are most deﬁcientin reading comprehension, the mostimportant skill for future learning. TheBTL methodology was found to workequally well with boys and girls (meanof 50.9 per cent and 50.6 per cent,respectively) (Letshabo, 2002).At the classroom level, it is theteachers’ responsibility, with supportfrom the school head, governmentauthorities and parents, to ensurethat children learn at or above theeducational standards for all primaryschoolchildren in literacy, numeracyand life skills. There is ﬂexibility in howthis may be achieved. Most successfulliteracy teaching is interactive, withchildren encouraged and expectedto contribute. Several developingcountries are implementing effectivemethods for teaching literacy in themother tongue. A case in point isthe Breakthrough to Literacy (BTL)programme in Uganda. (See Boxbelow.)The BTL approach is also used inBotswana, Lesotho, Malawi and theLimpopo Province in South Africaand has yielded good results. TheUnited Kingdom Department forInternational Development (DIFD)is funding BTL in both Lesotho andMalawi. In Botswana, BTL is fundedby the Government and has beenexpanded nationwide. The majordrawback of the approach is that itends at the lower primary school level.When the children reach the upperUGANDA: BREAKTHROUGH TO LITERACY
170. 28CHAPTER 6: LEARNERS, TEACHERS AND SCHOOL MANAGERSprimary level, they are confronted forthe ﬁrst time by the harsh realities ofdidactic and teacher-centred learning-teaching methods. The governments inthese six countries need to organize asubregional seminar on BTL to discussthe challenges, especially thoseconcerning costs and the scaling up ofthe initiative, lessons learned and goodpractices.Child-centred curriculum planningand development combined withinteractive and participatory teaching-learning approaches increaseopportunities for children to worktogether and share their knowledgeand educational experiences.Curriculum content in the areas ofnumeracy, literacy and life skillseducation must be gender-sensitiveand participatory. (See Box, this page.)The increased attention thatchild-friendly schools give to thedevelopment of curricular activities,such as lesson planning andpreparation, and use of teachingaids and classroom management,has contributed to an increasingconﬁdence, motivation and ownershipof the teaching process.Child-friendly schools and learningspaces encourage the developmentand application of principles ofcurriculum and pedagogy that promotepeace, human rights and non-violence.Curriculum content should includechildren’s rights, human rights andpeace education within the frameworkof communication strategies that aredeveloped by and for young people.Teachers should be given relevantpreservice and in-service educationin ways that are participatory anddemocratic.The transition to constructive andpositive pedagogic methods maybe extremely difﬁcult for teacherswho themselves were taught withauthoritarian and didactic approaches.Ways must be found to overcomethose autocratic barriers to moreprogressive, democratic pedagogicpractices, which may also play a rolein reducing and ultimately eliminatingschool violence. Student andcommunity participation is also vital tochild-friendly curriculum development.The preparation of class activitiescan demand more time than ‘chalkand talk’ methods, but the beneﬁtsoutweigh the workload.SOUTH AFRICA: ONE TEACHER’SEXPERIENCEI teach Grade 1 in a rural school in SouthAfrica. I have a class of 40 six- and seven-year-olds – 25 girls and 15 boys. In the lifeskills education class today, I was teachingthem about personal hygiene and readinga story about the hospital. The short storyhad lovely pictures, but several worryinggender stereotypes. The pictures of doctorswere men and those of teachers were men.The people queuing to see the doctor werewomen; and all parents holding babieswere women.After reading them the story, I organizedthe children to perform a simple, short roleplay, showing parents with a sick child inthe doctor’s room and the doctor with anurse examining the child and giving aninjection. One group of pupils were directedto select a boy as a nurse and a girl as adoctor and the other group selected a girlas a nurse and a boy as a doctor. The pupilshad great fun doing the role play. At ﬁrst,the girls were too shy to play doctors andthe boys were reluctant to play nurses. Butwith encouragement, they did. I often userole play to break stereotypes and stigma –and it works.
171. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 7Costs and beneﬁts7.1 ‘Costing’ the elements7.1.1 Policy simulation and costing7.2 Estimating resource requirements7.2.1 Programme design and policy7.2.2 Use of simulation models for costing7.2.3 Other issues in costing
172. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALCosts and beneﬁts of implementinga child-friendly school policy areoften the deal makers or breakers.Estimating costs will be based on whatkey elements are required to makeschools child-friendly in a particularcountry. This depends on how broadlythe government intends to implementchild-friendly schools and howcomprehensive a model it decidesto adopt.Starting from the child rights principlesthat underpin CFS models, the desiredcharacteristics for child-friendlyschools in a country can be determinedthrough a consultative process or bya representative team of stakeholdersmandated to execute this task. Thelist of characteristics can be groupedinto categories, which will make theplanning process more manageable.Some of the desired characteristics canbe grouped, for example, under safety,security and well-being. (See Chapter5.) Other characteristics can be placedwithin the area of curriculum contentand pedagogic style (see Chapter6), or location, design, infrastructureand services. (See Chapter 3.) Othercharacteristics can be grouped undercommunity characteristics, bothschool as a community and school aspart of the community it serves. (SeeChapter 4.)Grouping desired characteristics makesit possible for planners to ask additionalquestions rather than be restricted tothe characteristics generated from basicCFS principles. These include suchquestions as: Are all aspects of safety,security and the well-being of learnerscovered? Are some characteristicsunder curriculum content feasible fora system with a centrally determinedcurriculum?After identifying, generating andgrouping desired child-friendly schoolcharacteristics, the next step is to setstandards – both national and local –for these characteristics. This is wherequantifying child-friendly schoolelements begins to take shape. Forinstance, a desired characteristic maybe spacious classrooms where childrencan move around, work in small groupsWhat are the costs associated with child-friendly schools, and howdo they differ from costs typically linked to schools in a given countrycontext? What are the beneﬁts and added value offered by child-friendlyschools, and how do they compare with the levels of investment requiredto generate such beneﬁts? These critical questions can help a countrydetermine if it will use a child-friendly school model to improve thequality of education in its school system.7.1 ‘COSTING’ THE ELEMENTSCHAPTER 7COSTS AND BENEFITS
173. CHAPTER 7: COSTS AND BENEFITS2or display their work, rather thancramped classrooms where childrensit in ﬁxed rows, facing the blackboardand listening to the teacher. Settingstandards then requires specifyingthe minimum ﬂoor space (square feetper child) required for a child-friendlyclassroom.In the same way, ‘playtime’ standardscould be set according to guidelineson how much school time (hours orperiods per week) should be devotedto recreational activities. Similarly,standards can be set for stafﬁng bydetermining the basic courses (in-service and pre-service) required forteachers to become ‘child-friendly-school trained’ or by recommendinga ratio of pupils to each ‘child-friendly-school-trained’ teacher. Inall cases, setting standards is notmeant to establish a rigid blueprintfor implementation but to provide aquantiﬁable basis for estimating thecosts of making schools child-friendlyin a given education system.Once child-friendly school standardshave been set, the next step is touse these as the main variablesin determining the cost of makingschools child-friendly over a givenperiod of time. Planning for child-friendly schools in this way may focuson all schools in general or in someorder of priority, perhaps focusingon the most dysfunctional schoolsﬁrst. It may also concentrate on onlyparticular categories of schools as amatter of policy, such as rural schoolsor schools in minority communities.Whatever the policy or focus, thesedesired characteristics and standardsprovide the basis for estimating costs.The plan could be about speciﬁcmilestones, such as a goal that 20 percent of schools become child-friendlyannually, or about a long-term goal,e.g., all schools will be child-friendlyin ﬁve years.In general, there are three basicrequirements for estimating the cost ofmaking schools child-friendly:• Data on the current state of themain variables;• Monetary values that can bereadily assigned to these variables;• Projections of data and monetaryvalues for future child-friendlyschool scenarios.Typically, data on the condition ofthe main variables can be obtainedthrough school surveys, situationanalyses, research studies, deskreviews of well maintained recordsin ministries of education and othersources. For efﬁciency, data shouldbe grouped by appropriate categoriesfor the main variables. In lookingat child-friendly school design andinfrastructure, for instance, once thephysical state of existing schools hasbeen catalogued, the child-friendlyschool standards set for this variablecan be used to gauge the design andinfrastructure of existing schools.Analysis is more efﬁcient when theseschools are grouped based on whetherthey require major reconstructionand full-scale refurbishment, requiremodest reconstruction and partialrefurbishment, or require minorrefurbishment and upgrading. Thenumber and percentage of schoolsrequiring these different treatments,together with the estimated unit costfor each treatment category, providea useful estimate of the total cost formaking all schools child-friendly interms of design and infrastructure.Likewise, data on the teaching forcecan be used to determine the numberand percentage of teachers whorequire major training in child-friendlyschool methodologies, require trainingin some aspects only or just require
175. CHAPTER 7: COSTS AND BENEFITS4formulated. This is important becausechild-friendly schools cannot beimplemented instantaneously, anddata and unit costs are subject tochange over time, as are changes inenrolment, stafﬁng and currency value.Expanding enrolment will increasethe cost of those elements that aredependent on the number of pupils, justas additional schools to accommodatethis expansion will increase the costsof elements that are dependent on thenumber of schools. Existing teachersand school managers will retire orleave the profession and need to bereplaced by new teachers, just as thecost of providing training for theseteachers and learning materials inschools will also change over time. Asthoroughly and accurately as possible,all probabilities must be factored intocost projections for making all schoolschild-friendly over a given time period.7.1.1 Policy simulationand costingSimulation models are conventionalways of using data on the existingsystem, along with unit costs, to makeprojections and calculate total costs.These models can be used for differentpurposes and can readily be adaptedto cost estimates for implementing achild-friendly school policy. Simulationis used to understand the behaviourof the education system when certainkey variables and conditions change invalue. In this sense, simulation modelscan be used for advocacy by showinghow the education system wouldbehave if certain policy changes areimplemented versus if such changes arenot implemented. This is essential forevaluating such major policy changesas ‘making all schools child-friendly’.They may also be critical in negotiationswith interest groups – for instance, withteachers’ unions eager to understandthe impact of policy on teachers.Simulation models can show howlearners, schools and the educationprocess would change as child-friendlyschool elements are implemented. Forinstance, while there may be additionalcosts involved in changing the system,there also are likely to be gains inefﬁciency, school governance andcommunity beneﬁts. Strengtheningthose factors will most likely improveoverall quality and outcomes ofeducation.Apart from advocacy with the variousstakeholders whose support is vitalfor establishing and implementing achild-friendly school policy, simulationscan be used to assess the feasibilityof the policy itself in terms of overallresource implications (ﬁnance, humanresources, etc.). Through this type ofexercise, it is possible to make criticaldecisions on the scale and scope ofchild-friendly school implementationthat will be affordable and sustainablefor a country. Ofﬁcials can review thequality parameters, for example, andadjust them in line with the principle ofprogressive realization. (See Chapter6.) A country can then accomplish whatis affordable now while aiming forhigher quality standards in the future.A simulation exercise can identify andapply ways of reducing costs withoutcompromising basic child-friendlyschool principles. This is helpful inboth policymaking and design ofimplementation strategies for makingschools child-friendly.The Education Policy and StrategySimulation Model (EPSSim) is aUNESCO-designed tool with a UNICEF-supported module for costing child-friendly schools. It is generic and canbe adapted to country-speciﬁc nationaleducation systems. It captures the fullneeds of the education sector, covers allsubsectors from pre-primary throughhigher education, including non-formalschooling, and includes costing of
176. 5CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALcritical demand-side interventions, suchas HIV and AIDS impact and response,and teacher training. EPSSim has clearcategories of inputs, coverage andinterventions, is gender-disaggregatedand separates public and privatecoverage.The model estimates year-to-year needsin terms of teachers and staff, learningmaterials, classrooms, facilities andtraining required to achieve nationalgoals and policies; it projects the costimplications (divided between recurrentand capital costs); and it estimates theresource availability of the educationsector and ﬁnancial gaps whileaccounting for domestic revenue andhousehold and donor contributions.In this ‘demographic’ model,educational needs are the decisionvariables. The three stages are: (a)collection and input of baseline data,(b) setting policy goals, targets andoptions, and (c) projection of results.The model uses an Excel spreadsheetwith separate parallel columns for inputof baseline data and targets for eachcategory. Projections are displayed onthe remainder of columns. (See Table7.1 below.) Formulas are already inplace, so the user only has to ﬁll inthe yellow cells and the model makescalculations automatically.Depending on the country, furtheradaptation of these formulas maybe necessary. Once the country’sbudgetary framework data are entered,the model calculates the resource gaps.It also generates concurrent scenariosto compare results and guide policydialogue and decision-making that canstrike a sustainable balance betweenprojected resource requirements(teachers, materials, classrooms) andfeasibility and affordability. Policyoptions can be changed to immediatelysee the potential impact of bothquality and costs in order to assesspolicy decisions and make necessaryadjustments.The tool can be used at all stages ofstrategic planning, from sector analysisto policy formulation, action planningand monitoring. It allows for informed,evidence-based policy dialogue andnegotiations with ministries of ﬁnance,donors, partners, civil society, teachers’unions and so forth.TABLE 7.1
177. CHAPTER 7: COSTS AND BENEFITS67.2.1 Programme designand policyIn addition to serving as a costingtool, EPSSim can play a role in policyformulation and programme design.As countries endeavour to make theirschools child-friendly, EPSSim will helpthem narrow the gap between policydecisions and likely results; revise theireducation plans and policies and makenecessary adjustments; design long-term strategies and accurately cost theirsector plans to estimate funding gaps;and weigh policy options and allocateresources in response to child-friendlyschool requirements.The EPSSim model includes a sectionon child-friendly schools. This sectionis linked to the rest of the model, sotargets are drawn from the systemas a whole. The model contains alist of quantiﬁable options for child-friendly school features that can enablecountries to identify the resourceneeds of schools, as well as the actionsnecessary to create enabling andprotective environments. The toolcan serve as an expanding checklistor guideline of key features based onnational child-friendly school standardsand can generate the estimatedcosts involved in implementing suchstandards.In general, child-friendly schoolinterventions in the model are dividedinto the following categories:• Safety, security and well-being oflearners and teachers;• Schools as a community andschools in the community;• Child-friendly curriculum (content,teaching, learning methods);• Infrastructure and design (facilities,equipment, resources).Under each category, countries canselect from various items that makeschools more child-friendly to determinethe resource requirements and gaps.This exercise can help ministries ofeducation determine such requirementsas the number of schools to includehealth care, school feeding, counselling,safe water, trained staff for emergencypreparedness, protective school spaces,gender-sensitive curricula, ﬂexiblefurniture, new latrines and playgroundsin annual incremental needs.7.2.2 Use of simulation modelsfor costingOnce the difﬁcult-to-quantify resourcessuch as safe environments have beenestimated on the basis of proxies, otherelements such as skilled staff, materialsand infrastructure are more readilycalculated, and the total requirementscan then be fully ‘costed’. In each case,under the targeted number of schoolsor students to be covered, unit costsare applied as a means of estimatingthe resource requirements and fundinggaps over a speciﬁed number of years.Using infrastructure, for instance, thestatus of existing schools is enteredﬁrst (expressed as the percentage ofschools that need to be refurbished),then targets are set in terms of thepercentage of these schools to beconverted to child-friendly schoolstandards during the programmeperiod. The projected needs basedon the percentage of facilities to bereconstructed, along with the inputof unit costs, determine the resourcerequirements and gaps.7.2 ESTIMATING RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
178. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALTABLE 7.2A: RESOURCE PROJECTIONChild-friendly content, teaching and learning methods (gender-responsive and age-appropriate)Students Unit costsStudents having access to gender-sensitive and relevant textbooksStudents having access to hygiene, HIV pevention, preventive health lifeskills programmesStudents having access to curriculum on life skills for peacebuilding,environmental protection, etc.Students having access to curriculum on emergency prevention,preparedness and responseTeacher students with additional teacher training for child-centredpedagogy$3.00 <= per pupil unit cost$7.00 <= per pupil unit cost$7.00 <= per pupil unit cost$3.00 <= per pupil unit cost$40.00 <= per pupil unit costStaffTeachers receiving in-service training on child-centred pedagogyTeachers using instructional/teaching materials on child-centred pedagogy$50.00 <= per teacher unit cost$10.00 <= per teacher unit costTABLE 7.2B: SERVICES PROJECTIONCFS STARTYEARPOLICY OBJECTIVES PROJECTION RESULTS2007/2008Target/optionsNumberof yearsAnnualincrement2007/20082008/20092009/20102010/2011Safety, security and well-beingStudents% having access to healthchecks (vaccination,deworming, monitoringadherence to medication, etc.)10% 30% 10 2.0% 10% 12% 14% 16%% receiving health kits 10% 40% 10 3.0% 10% 13% 16% 19%% receiving proper nutrition(including school meals)5% 60% 10 5.5% 5% 11% 16% 22%% having access tocounselling (violence,disabilities, HIV and AIDS,orphanhood, etc.)5% 60% 10 5.5% 5% 11% 16% 22%% receiving training inemergency preparedness andprevention0% 60% 10 6.0% 0% 6% 12% 18%% having access to safetransportation2% 25% 10 2.3% 2% 4% 7% 9%
179. CHAPTER 7: COSTS AND BENEFITS8Costing related to safety, security andthe school population’s well-being canbe done in a similar manner. Under thiscategory, the resource requirementsrelated to the safety, security and well-being of students, teachers and otherschool staff can be projected. Safety andsecurity elements would include accessto health care, nutrition, emergencypreparedness, non-violence in schoolsand safe transportation. Tables 7.2Aand 7.2B provide an overview of someitems that can be projected in relation tostudents. Once the number of studentsin the system is determined, unit costsare entered to calculate overall costs forthis category. Countries may decide toinclude a certain number of these itemsin their policies or add others to adapt itto their context and needs.7.2.3 Other issues in costingThere are special considerations forestimating additional costs and beneﬁtsrelated to mainstreaming child-friendlyschools in the education system. Somechild-friendly school elements may notbe readily quantiﬁable for cost purposesyet need to be part of mainstreaming.Institutional ethos is one such complexelement, as it involves maintaining,strengthening or changing the rituals,routines, norms, values and activitiesthat shape the everyday character ofthe school as an institution and learningcommunity. How this is done varies fromschool to school. But for mainstreamingpurposes, it may be best to amalgamateethos by school type, such as religious,private, community or government. Itthen becomes a matter of estimatingcosts for key components. These mayinclude extra-curricular activities, spaceand facilities for daily assembly, facilitiesand equipment for major sportingevents, grants to cover annual festivitiesand school anniversaries, joint activitieswith the local community, or eventsand anniversaries involving thecommunity of past students.Once a complex element likeinstitutional ethos is broken down intocomponents, it becomes possible toquantify and cost the mainstreamingrequirements for this aspect of child-friendly schools. Some of these costswill be provided for in the educationbudget, while others will be met bylocal communities, associations of paststudents or other outside organizations.By using a suite of simulation models,it should be possible to interpretsuch complex child-friendly schoolelements and then review their costimplications. Setting standards in thisway enables planners to specify whatevery school ultimately requires, linkedto an appropriate target ratio, such asper pupil, classroom or school. Thegoal is to guide policymaking andthen help translate policy into practicethrough projections based on feasiblechild-friendly scenarios that can beimplemented over an agreed-uponperiod of time. A country may decideto make all of its schools child-friendlyover a plan period, with clear standardsas to how comprehensively the child-friendly school principles are applied.It may decide to make some categoriesof schools (e.g., in poor rural areas)child-friendly during the plan period,while expecting schools in afﬂuentcommunities to take on the processof becoming child-friendly throughtheir own efforts. Whatever the policydecision, successful implementationwould depend on national capacity aswell as the level of resources requiredin relation to available budgets andexternal ﬁnancial assistance. In all,quantifying, costing and projectingkey variables for making schools child-friendly will be critical. Educationplanners will therefore be central in allefforts to develop and implement child-friendly school policies.
180. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 8Monitoring and evaluating8.1 Why monitor and evaluate?8.2 What needs to be monitored and evaluated?8.2.1 Assessing effectiveness, efﬁciency and equity8.2.2 Outcome-level evaluation and indicators8.3 A focus on dynamic monitoring and evaluation8.3.1 Monitoring and evaluation to support organizational learning8.3.2 Schools as self-improving organizations8.3.3 Teachers as reﬂective practitioners8.4 The learner as the focus of monitoring and evaluation8.4.1 Creating a learning management system: Case study from Thailand8.5 Monitoring and evaluation to support CFS mainstreaming8.6 Monitoring and evaluation to support investment8.7 An overview of experience with CFS monitoring and evaluation8.7.1 Child-friendly schools and learning spaces evaluation examples8.8 Who should monitor and evaluate, and what are their potential roles?8.9 Other issues on monitoring and evaluation of CFS models8.9.1 How should monitoring and evaluation be built into overall project design?8.9.2 When should monitoring and evaluation occur?8.9.3 Why are baselines important, and what should they measure?8.9.4 Empowering communities and other stakeholders8.9.5 Gauging the impact on the education system as a whole8.10 The way forward
181. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALThe objectives of monitoring andevaluation vary, depending on the typeof programme or project. Generally, thepurpose is to assess the effectivenessand efﬁciency of the programmeand its efﬁcacy in relationship to theoriginal expectations. Monitoring andevaluation also depend on who is theend user and what are the expectationsof the endeavour. An end user maysimply be interested in knowing if theprogramme delivers on its objectives.In some cases, they may also wishto assess the cost of achieving theseobjectives and whether the resourcesinvested could have been put to betteruse. Other times, they are interestedin measuring the programme’s impactbeyond simply achieving a set ofprescribed objectives.Although monitoring and evaluationare usually linked, it is important todistinguish their purposes. Monitoringis a more immediate and continuousprocess meant to keep things on trackand ensure that the right inputs areincluded for successful implementationof a model. For a child-friendlyschool (CFS) programme, monitoringis usually undertaken by projectmanagers within education ministriesand implementing partners who collectschool, community and student-relateddata. The purposes of monitoringinclude:• Recording and reportingchild-friendly school and learningspace activities, inputs, processesand outputs;• Tracking progress on CFSinterventions to inform ongoingactivity;• Providing evidence of progress foradvocacy and mobilization.A key feature of child-friendlyschools is the active and meaningfulparticipation of students andcommunity members, along withteachers, school administrators,supervisors, inspectors andeducation system ofﬁcials, in themonitoring process.As with any major innovation, UNICEF’s experiences with child-friendlyschools and learning spaces raise questions about monitoring andevaluating performance. Why do child-friendly schools/learning spacesneed to be monitored and evaluated? How should they be monitoredand evaluated? What exactly needs to be monitored and evaluated? Whoshould be involved in the process, and what are their respective roles?Who needs to know what and for what purpose?8.1 WHY MONITOR AND EVALUATE?CHAPTER 8MONITORING AND EVALUATING
183. 3CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALIn general, the child-friendly schooland learning space model should bemonitored and evaluated to provideministries of education the necessaryevidence to assess its effectivenessand efﬁciency in helping achievethe Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) and Education for All (EFA)targets. The success of child-friendlyschools would therefore be measuredby their ability to support the statedobjectives of these internationallyendorsed educational goals. (See Box:Millennium Development Goals andEducation for All.)8.2.1 Assessing effectiveness,efﬁciency and equitySpeciﬁc targets and indicators thatmeasure the effectiveness, efﬁciencyand equity of the CFS model arecrucial. This assessment needs togenerate evidence that will allowstakeholders to measure whetherthe model provides affordable andsustainable quality basic education.The evidence obtained frommeasuring CFS model indicators isused to complement informationderived from monitoring progresstowards the standard educationalMDGs and EFA targets and indicators.Analysis of this evidence can explainwhy and how a child-friendly schooland learning space package helpsachieve MDG and EFA objectives, aswell as how it inﬂuences the wholeeducation system from the child to theclassroom to the school and beyond.8.2.2 Outcome-level evaluationand indicatorsOutcome evaluation measureswhether and to what extent objectives8.2 WHAT NEEDS TO BE MONITORED AND EVALUATED?KEY QUESTIONIf the challenge of the Millennium DevelopmentGoals and Education for All is to provideaffordable, sustainable quality basic educationfor all children under all circumstances, dochild-friendly schools and learning spaces offerthe most appropriate response?MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALSAND EDUCATION FOR ALLThe MDGs include the educational goal toachieve universal primary education (the targetfor 2015 is to ensure that all boys and girlscomplete primary school); and goals on povertyand hunger, gender equality, child mortality,maternal health, HIV and AIDS, malaria andother diseases, environmental sustainabilityand partnerships for development. These canall be inﬂuenced by education.The EFA targets include: ensure that by 2015 allchildren, particularly girls, children in difﬁcultcircumstances and those belonging to ethnicminorities, have access to, and complete, freeand compulsory primary education of goodquality (goal 2); ensure that the learning needsof all young people and adults are met throughequitable access to appropriate learning andlife skills programmes (goal 3); eliminategender disparities in primary and secondaryeducation by 2005, and achieve gender equalityin education by 2015, with a focus on ensuringgirls’ full and equal access to and achievementin basic education of good quality (goal 5);improve all aspects of the quality of educationand ensure excellence of all so that recognizedand measurable learning outcomes areachieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracyand essential life skills (goal 6).EFA has established 18 indicators to measureattainment of these goals.
184. 4CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGEXAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR OUTCOME EVALUATION OF CHILD-FRIENDLYSCHOOLS AND LEARNING SPACESWhat do administrators, teachers, students and parents think of the policies toimprove the school’s physical environment?Is there an improved sense of community within the school as a result ofCFS measures?Has the health status of the students, school staff and community improved?Has life skills-based health education fostered the knowledge, attitudes, beliefsand skills needed to adopt healthy behaviours or create conducive conditionsfor health?Does the school have an adequate number of separate toilets for boys and girlsthat are regularly used, well cleaned and have access to water?have been achieved, what concretechanges have resulted from CFSinputs and processes, and whetherinterventions have been able toinﬂuence the knowledge, attitudes andbehaviour of students, school staff,community members and educationsystem ofﬁcials. Outcome indicatorsmay include information on changesin enrolment, repetition and drop-outrates for boys and girls. Under theCFS framework, assessment toolson outcome indicators must coveradditional aspects including child-friendly criteria and the enablingenvironment (the optimal conditionsfor children’s learning, cognitive, socialand psychological development).• Effectiveness is determined bycomparing the actual results againstthe targets. Outcome evaluationsof child-friendly schools could usestandard MDG/EFA indicators toshow that the model delivers onwhat it promises: quality basiceducation for all children.• Cost-effectiveness determinesthe cost required for a packagedesigned to produce a set ofagreed-upon outcomes in oneschool. This information isespecially valuable in designing‘follow-on’ initiatives to take child-friendly schools and learningspaces to scale.• Equity refers to non-discriminatoryaccess and outcomes for childrenregardless of their sex, ethnicgroup, caste, religion, socio-economic status, geographicallocation or risk group. Outcomeevaluation looks at such disparitiesas enrolment, absenteeism anddrop-out rates from the programmeto the school level. Informationon disparities is fed into decision-making processes at theprogramme and policy level. It alsoinforms the school self-assessmentprocess for identifying causesand formulating actions to beincorporated into plans to improvethe school’s child-friendliness.
185. 5CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALChild-friendly school models arethe means to support a dynamic,constantly evolving improvement inoverall education quality. Therefore, itwould be inadequate and inappropriateto simply apply a set of standardmonitoring and evaluation techniquesto assess the model. Monitoring andevaluation should also be a means ofdriving forward the dynamic process ofchange while keeping track of progressin effectiveness, efﬁciency and impact.Schools as institutions should beengaged with the monitoring andevaluation process, not only to provideanswers to authorities but also toimprove their own practice. Teachers,pupils and school administratorsshould be fully engaged in the process,not simply involved in ﬁlling outquestionnaires or being interviewed.Monitoring and evaluation should takefull account of their roles as principalactors who need to learn from theirown practices in order to reﬂect andmake changes that improve thosepractices. This approach yields vastbeneﬁts for the CFS model, thoseimplementing it, those who are themain beneﬁciaries and those who areinvesting resources to mainstreamthe model. These aspects need tobe explored and highlighted so thatcountries do not just adopt standardmonitoring and evaluation techniquesas a means of making decisions andinvesting in the model.8.3.1 Monitoring and evaluationto support organizationallearningIn the context of child-friendly schools,it can be argued that the fundamentalrationale and most critical reasonfor engaging in monitoring andevaluation is to enable implementingorganizations to gauge progress anddetermine whether the innovation isworking as expected. This is signiﬁcantbecause innovations are often judgedto have failed when in fact they simplyhave not been properly implementedor given a chance to work.Schools as implementing organizationsneed to know if they are putting inplace all the elements necessary tobecome child-friendly. In this way,they can also lay the foundation forassessing at various stages whetherthe expected results are beingachieved. Thus, schools are identiﬁedas learning organizations that improveon their practice through monitoringand evaluation as implementationtakes place. This helps keepinnovations on track and allows forcorrective measures to be taken in atimely manner. Also, when schoolsoperate in this way they becomeself-renewing organizations that canconstantly improve the quality of theirpractice if given the right tools andresources.An early assessment at the schoollevel is central to guiding this type ofmonitoring and evaluation – requiredfor self-improvement – as well as amore rigorous evaluation at prescribedstages (midterm, end) of the project/programme cycle. This assessmenttakes stock of the initial situation in theschool. Progress then can be gaugedgoing forward, and at some pointin the future, outputs and outcomesof the CFS model can be properlyevaluated.8.3 A FOCUS ON DYNAMIC MONITORING AND EVALUATION
186. 6CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGMonitoring progress during theimplementation process (formativeevaluation) requires answering suchquestions as: How fully do key actorsunderstand the main elements of child-friendly schools? How extensively arelearners, teachers and school headsincluded in the process of change? Arethe necessary technical guidance andfull range of resources available forimplementing the CFS model? Howfully does the community support thechange process? What are the barriersto CFS implementation, and how canthey be addressed?All these questions need to beassessed in the formative evaluationthrough appropriate indicatorsand other documented evidence toestablish a baseline or starting pointagainst which the school can measureprogress over time. This assessmentprocess then becomes the meansby which all members of the schoolcommunity – inside and outside theschool walls – can progressivelydetermine how closely schools arerealizing their vision of what child-friendliness means and reﬁne thatvision as they proceed.Evaluating progress towards child-friendliness as a form of organizationallearning means that all schooldimensions and actions must be opento review by school heads, teachers,pupils, parents and communityleaders. Every aspect needs to beconsidered and reviewed throughthe lens of child-friendliness andthe Convention on the Rights of theChild, which underpins the CFS model(Bernard, 1999).Each school, however, has its owninstitutional ethos or school culturethat will determine its organizationallearning style. The processes,methods, tools and indicators usedto monitor and evaluate self-learningneed to be ﬂexible and responsiveto the school culture as well as localcommunity conditions. These factorsdetermine how much time and otherresources, as well as the necessaryauthority, will be available to supportself-learning through monitoring andevaluation. Schools have a vestedinterest in monitoring and formativeevaluations to determine if they aremoving along the right path andwhether CFS as an innovation isbeing given a reasonable chance forsuccessful implementation.8.3.2 Schools as self-improvingorganizationsSuccessful child-friendly schools areby deﬁnition self-improving becausequality improvements cannot beimposed from the outside. Despitethe critical importance of this typeof monitoring and evaluation fororganizational learning and self-renewal, the reality is that schoolsoften do not have the means orinclination to engage in monitoringand evaluation. School personnelare more accustomed to a process inwhich they complete questionnairesand answer questions for thosewho do monitoring and evaluation‘professionally’ (researchers andevaluators).Monitoring and evaluation tends tobe done on schools rather than byschools or with schools. They are notseen as research organizations, andteachers are not regarded as trainedresearchers. The prevailing view isthat schools and teachers shouldnot be involved with monitoringand evaluation beyond ﬁlling outquestionnaires, answering interviewquestions and opening up theirpractice to observation.
187. 7CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALOn this basis, schools must rely ondirectives, advice and suggestionsfrom others on how to improve theirpractice. This approach does notprovide the necessary motivation,incentive or means for schools to takeresponsibility and be accountable forimproving education quality. It is alsoinimical to progress for CFS models,which by deﬁnition involve an ongoingprocess of change and improvementalong a quality pathway.For CFS models to be successfullyimplemented on a sustainable basis,schools must have the means as wellas the incentives to monitor their ownprogress and learn from the processin order to take the action necessaryto keep implementation on track.For this to happen, child-friendlyschools need to borrow from theexperience and lessons of a range ofschool-based programmes related tomonitoring, evaluation and researchfor organizational improvement.Programmes and projects thatpromote schools as self-improvingorganizations have been widelydocumented. Many countries havetried various versions of ‘schoolimprovement programmes’ thatinvolve schools in designingdevelopment plans in consultationwith their communities, alumnigroups or the ministry of education.Institutional development goals arenegotiated, resources are secured, andthe school generally monitors progressof implementation and evaluates theoutcomes at speciﬁed stages in theimplementation process.Where school improvementprogrammes are linked to the CFSmodel, monitoring and evaluationwithin the school should leadto progress at the individual,organizational and community levelsas strengths, weaknesses and areasof improvement are identiﬁed. Theschool’s CFS development planshould be informed by school-levelevaluations to ensure that a culture ofcontinuous improvement is generatedand sustained. To achieve this, aclimate of trust and transparencyneeds to be established in which keystakeholders buy into the concept ofevidence-based planning. This is achallenge in countries where thereis a perceived beneﬁt to distortingdata, not least because educationfunding is often on a per capita basisand districts and schools may receiveadditional resources if they inﬂateenrolment ﬁgures.Another type of programme fromwhich child-friendly schools couldlearn is the ‘school accountability’programme. These involve schoolsassessing their own progress indelivering results that meet theexpectations of different stakeholdersto whom they are accountable.Stakeholders include educationministries, parents, communities,pupils, religious bodies, employers andteachers’ unions. Schools that adoptthis approach operate proactively,engaging with diverse stakeholdersand negotiating the expectations thatschools should strive to meet and howthey can be made more accountable.School accountability is a progressiveand demanding approach to schoolimprovement and is only viable ifthe school head and teachers aresufﬁciently skilled, motivated andempowered through their relationshipwith stakeholders. Ministries ofeducation need to trust, support andencourage schools that adopt thisapproach rather than simply imposean inspectorate regime that dictatesstandards and demands conformity.Such schools also need support and
188. 8CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGtechnical links with universities andteacher education institutions fromwhich they can receive guidanceand training to design and implementa credible school accountabilityapproach to institutionaldevelopment.8.3.3 Teachers as reﬂectivepractitionersTeachers play a pivotal role in theprocess of promoting change withintheir own classrooms as well asin schools and education systemsgenerally. The success of child-friendly schools will depend to alarge extent on the teachers involved.Qualiﬁcations and experience are veryimportant in this regard, but moresigniﬁcantly, the pedagogic stylepractised by teachers will need to bechild-centred to address classroomlearning and school-based practicesthat put the best interest of childrenat the centre of all decision-makingprocesses. Much of what is requiredto encourage teachers who cansuccessfully implement CFS modelscan be achieved through educationand training. But critical elementsof this teacher proﬁle can best beacquired through a mentoring processand a self-renewing practice thatlearns from reﬂection and correction.This is where genuine involvementof teachers in the monitoring andevaluation process can be beneﬁcialfor child-friendly schools.When a teacher operates as areﬂective practitioner she or he takesstock regularly and routinely of theclassroom process and its outcomes:What went right, what went wrong?Why do some of the learners stillnot grasp the lesson, why are somechildren so disinterested in whatis going on? And how can I makethings better? Teachers who arereﬂective practitioners understandthat their role is not to act as a fountof knowledge, dispensing informationand skills that pupils simply have toabsorb successfully.Reﬂective practitioners are teacherswho recognize that at the heart ofgood practice is the role of being agood facilitator of learning. This isabout engaging minds and initiatinglearners into a world of knowledge,skills, attitudes and values aboutwhich they are intrinsically curiousand that is part of their heritage ashuman beings. Teachers all overthe world successfully perform thismiracle daily in their classrooms,using a combination of knowledgeof subject, pedagogic skills and anabiding passion for bringing outthe best in each learner entrusted totheir care.One of the ways in which the role ofthe teacher as a reﬂective practitionerhas been strengthened duringrecent years is by engaging teachersin ‘action research’. This can bedistinguished from the more esotericand rigorous research processes thatdeal with issues of correlation andcausality, while developing evidencefor certainty in the ﬁeld of knowledgebuilding and theory construction.Action research is concerned with aheuristic understanding of practiceand with building knowledge as abasis for changing practice and takingaction in real-world situations.In Africa and Asia, versions ofCollaborative Action Research inEducation (CARE) have been usedsuccessfully to engage teachers
189. 9CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALand school managers as genuinepartners in monitoring, evaluationand research exercises. In this regard,great value has been attached tothe unique experience and insightteachers bring to such exercises. Mostteachers experience a professionaltransformation through theirinvolvement with action research andgo on to become more reﬂective intheir own classroom practices. Theytend to seek professional knowledgemore routinely through availabletraining programmes, engage moreoften with their peers on issues ofgood practice and develop a self-interrogating approach to facilitatinglearning in their school. Promotingthis approach to monitoring andevaluation provides evidence formaking decisions about CFS models,and it yields beneﬁts in termsof professional development forteachers and school heads.8.4 THE LEARNER AS THE FOCUS OFMONITORING AND EVALUATIONAn essential monitoring feature ofCFS programmes is a school-basedmanagement information system thatideally tracks individual children frompre-enrolment through completionand transition to the next level ofeducation. In East and Central Asia,for instance, more than 10 countriesnow use computerized, MicrosoftExcel systems based on a prototypedeveloped in Thailand. Thesesystems – which can also be usedon calculators – maintain individualstudent learning proﬁles and earlywarning information on child learningthat identify individual strengths,weaknesses, talents, abilities andlearning difﬁculties. Students’learning is tracked, and special needs,issues of protection, or causes offaltering are identiﬁed. Based on thisinformation, appropriate proactiveschool, family or communityinterventions are developed tomitigate learning obstacles. Theexpectation is that children willlearn and, if they do not, thattheir problems will be quickly andaccurately identiﬁed and acted upon.These systems differ from traditional,standardized information systems.The traditional educationalmanagement information systems,or EMIS, use data sets identiﬁedand analysed by central-leveldecision makers for planning andpolicymaking to maintain educationsystem quality. CFS child-trackingsystems use data sets identiﬁed andanalysed by schools and communitiesbased on local conditions and usedfor local-level action to improve childlearning. These are known as learningmanagement information systems,or LMIS.LMIS generate computerized ornon-computerized ‘ﬁles’ containinginformation compiled throughout achild’s school career on:• Academic performance (grades,attendance);• Physical conditions (health,nutrition);• Family background and localfactors that may affect childlearning.
190. 10CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATING8.4.1 Creating a learningmanagement system: Casestudy from ThailandThe development of an LMIScan be streamlined by setting upclearly deﬁned steps. Thailand’slearning management system isa solid example of what goes intothe process (Institute of Nutrition,Mahidol University, Thailand, n.d.).Step 1 – Educational assessment• Teachers and children collectstudent educational scores fromevery term the student has beenenrolled, using data from existingrecords.• These scores are recordedas a class educational proﬁle(spreadsheet) with numericalscores converted into lettergrades (A, B, C, D) on a curve foreasier reading.• Teachers then identify childrenwho fail temporarily, sporadicallyor chronically.Step 2 – Individual and familyassessmentAlong with the educational proﬁle,teachers and students create twomore spreadsheets: an absenteeism,health and nutrition proﬁle anda family background proﬁle. Thefamily background proﬁle containsinformation collected through a two-page survey, with all results encodedto ensure conﬁdentiality.Schools may develop their ownfamily indicators based on localcircumstances. Some indicators onthe family background proﬁle include:parental mortality, education levelsand migration status; primary andsecondary parental occupations andmonthly income; land ownership;family disruption issues (widowhood,divorce with no remarriage,separation); number of preschoolchildren in the family; number ofprimary and secondary students andwhat school(s) they attend; numberof uneducated family members; mainchild caregiver; other members ofthe household and total householdsize; and participation in villagedevelopment committees. Theseindicators are closely related to childprotection issues.Step 3 – AnalysisUsing the three proﬁles – educational;absenteeism, health and nutrition;and family background – teachersidentify children who have failed anddetermine what could be causing thisfailure. The most common reasonsfor student failure are:• Low parental education;• Parental occupation (nosecondary occupation);• High level of land ownership;• Low average monthly income;• Parental migration, especiallyfathers;• Poor nutritional status;• Poor health;• High absenteeism.Step 4 – ActionDepending on the child learningfactors, teachers work with familyand community members to initiate
192. 12CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGPHILIPPINES: PUTTING A FACE TOEACH NAMEOne strategy that helps schools seekout and assist hard-to-reach, at-risk andfaltering children is the Student TrackingSystem. The system is being pilotedin 2,000 of the more than 3,500 child-friendly schools in the Philippines. Beloware excerpts from an interview withMrs. Erlinda J. Valdez, the principal ofF. Benitez Elementary School, one of thepilot schools (UNICEF, 2002 – TeachersTalking).1. What is the Student Tracking System?The Student Tracking System is a systemof organizing important data aboutlearners – their academic performance,physical and mental cognition and theirsocial background. It puts together acomprehensive view of the ‘whole’ childthat allows teachers and administratorsto understand the total environment inwhich children are learning. In summary,it puts a face and memory to each name.The system is also an early warning thatwill identify children who need specialattention, are at risk of being abused, orare at risk of faltering and leaving school.It is a system that determines the patternand frequency of poor learning andidentiﬁes children who need immediateassistance.2. When and how did you startimplementing the system?It all started in May 2001, when I andtwo of my colleagues from this schoolwere trained on the system. Thetraining equipped us with the skills andknowledge to create, use and applythe system in our school, using thecomputer-based model.When we came back from the training,we oriented all teachers on the system,advocated to parents and asked for theirsupport, particularly in completing thefamily background questionnaire for eachof their children enrolled in school. Tovalidate some questionable entries, weconducted interviews with students, otherfamily members and community leaders.While the data gathering for familybackground information was ongoing,our school nurse was also doing healthand nutrition monitoring for all students– after which, all teachers were asked toconstruct the learning proﬁles of eachstudent, dating as far back as their ﬁrstyear in the school.The teachers in charge summarized allthe data and, together with the gradechairman, jointly identiﬁed learningfalterers. Falterers were classiﬁed intothree categories: chronic – those whoconsistently failed; sporadic – those whoalternately pass and fail; and temporary –those who failed once but had no historyof failure. Records of falterers (who werelovingly called ‘stars’, short for ‘studentsat risk’) were analysed. Conclusions ofthe analysis became the basis for theinterventions rendered to the children.The school is now completing a researchstudy entitled ‘Faltering at F. BenitezElementary School: Causes, effects andpossible solutions’, which we hope willguide our future interventions.3. What beneﬁts do you get fromimplementing the Student TrackingSystem?Our experience with the system isstill very new, but we are seeingpositive behavioural changes amongour teachers. Teachers, by their owntestimonies and as observed by theirpeers and students, have become morepatient and understanding of studentswho falter, miss or misbehave in class.In the past, they considered falterers andabsentees as problem students; now theysee them as students with problems.They have also come to know more oftheir students – their family backgroundand their special circumstances. This,we believe, is a major step in genuinelyhelping students at risk.
193. 13CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALWe also have noticed closer teacher-student relationships now. Somestudents with special problems conﬁdein their teachers and run to the schoolfor refuge and consolation when theirown families fail to give them theattention and care they need. Finally,the system has helped us deﬁne ourschool’s research agenda for the nextyears. Since our school’s goal is toprovide quality elementary educationto our students, it is incumbent uponus to ﬁnd ways to make this into reality,to ﬁnd causes of and address highlevels of absenteeism, dropouts andunderachievement. And the system isshowing us how – it has given us a toolto ﬁnd out the whys of the problems sowe can address the ‘hows’.4. How did you motivate overworkedteachers to support the system?When we ﬁrst introduced the system toour teachers, they had mixed reactions.Some were supportive, but many wereindifferent, sceptical and unimpressed.So we advocated to them, emphasizingthe potential beneﬁts of the system tothem and to their students. We alsoensured that their support of the systemtranslated into additional points in theirperformance evaluation. Furthermore,we made it a school undertaking toconduct the research study ‘Faltering atF. Benitez Elementary School: Causes,effects and possible solutions’, whichgenerated funds for the school.5. What were the challenges you facedin implementing the Student TrackingSystem?The challenges we faced in starting thesystem can be categorized into three:a. Generating support from teachers –At ﬁrst, this was hard, as a numberof teachers were disinterested andunconcerned. But through a creativecombination of persuasion andrecognition of their contribution, wewere able to generate support fromthem.b. Getting correct information fromparents – There were manyquestions in the family backgroundproﬁle that were ‘sensitive spots’ forparents, for example, educationalattainment and family income.To get correct information fromparents, we had to befriend themﬁrst, assist them in completingthe questionnaires and validatethe information gathered byinterviewing their children.c. Overlapping of reports – The schoolsystem requires many reportsfrom the schools and, more oftenthan not, schools are burdenedin preparing these reports. Weare, therefore, exploring ways tointegrate all these databases andreports so that less time and effortis spent in preparing all of them.6. What are the lessons learned and thefuture direction?• A better understanding of thestudents’ family backgroundhas much to do with improvingacademic achievement.• Knowing the child fully helps ineducating him or her well.• The key to teachers’ support isproper acknowledgement andrecognition of their efforts.In the next months, we intend tocontinue to use and strengthen thesystem and complete our study onstudent faltering. We also plan toconduct workshops, where all teacherswill jointly identify systematic waysof addressing factors of faltering,absenteeism and dropouts. In themeantime, we will also help advocatefor the expansion of this initiative toall schools in the Division of Manila.Source: <www.unicef.org/teachers/forum/0302.htm>.
194. 14CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATING8.5 MONITORING AND EVALUATION TOSUPPORT CFS MAINSTREAMINGAt the macro level, those who facilitateand advocate for child-friendly schoolsmust generate evidence that supportsfurther investments in scaling up andmainstreaming the CFS model intoeducation systems. Such evidencehelps persuade governments and otherpartners to support the necessaryinvestment and be committed tousing the CFS model as a means ofimproving the quality of education.The type of evidence required comesmainly from monitoring and evaluationexercises. In this regard, two pointsmust be emphasized: Adherence totechnical evaluation standards is criticalto ensure the credibility of presentedevidence. And the evaluation must bedone by specialists who are largelyat ‘arm’s length’ from the groupsinvolved in designing, implementingand advocating for the CFS models.These measures enhance the value ofthe evidence in terms of objectivity andadherence to technical standards.The accepted criteria of reliability,validity and generalizability areessential in the design of monitoringand evaluation tools and studies. Thecost of such evaluations and studiescompetes with the demand for teachingand learning resources; thereforeit is important to use existing datagathering and planning processesas much as possible. This reducescosts and encourages monitoring andevaluation as part of the process ofmainstreaming CFS models.A wide range of data sources is usedto monitor and evaluate child-friendlyschools and spaces in support ofscaling up and mainstreaming. Forstandard survey techniques typicallyused in evaluation, the existingeducation system statistics are a goodsource of data for core indicators suchas EFA gauges. In evaluating CFSmodels, however, it is critical thatchild-friendly school principles andissues are fully incorporated into thedesign of the evaluation. Crediblemonitoring and evaluation involvein-depth probing at the school,community and local governmentlevels to tease out the variables thatinﬂuence changes attributable to theimplementation of the CFS model. Inaddition to quantitative data from theeducation system and other sources,there should be extensive use ofan assortment of qualitative dataand factors – including process andcausal factors – which will need to beidentiﬁed and explored as part of theevaluation.Process evaluation assesses theextent to which planned outputswere produced on schedule, theefﬁciency of resource managementin achieving these planned outputsand how well the interventions havebeen implemented by schools. It alsoidentiﬁes key factors that hinder orpromote implementation. Processevaluation of child-friendly schoolsoften includes indicators that assesschildren’s, communities’ and teachers’participation in decision-making.Indicators that focus on processes canexamine whether student clubs orstudent councils have been formed orwhether parent-teacher associationsmeet regularly and what role they playin school development plans. Processindicators also can assess classroompractices, methodologies and use ofchild-centred learning activities.
195. 15CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALIn general, there needs to be ajudicious balance of quantitative andqualitative data. Depending on theinformation sought, a variety of toolscan be used – including individualinterviews, focus group discussions,questionnaires, classroom observationand document analysis. Checklistsoften provide answers to the ‘what’,‘how many’ or ‘how often’ questions,whereas the key ‘why’ questions thatexplain causality may require moreopen-ended approaches. ‘Yes or no’questions are of limited use becausethey do not measure progress. Likertscales are more useful. (See Box:UNICEF East Asia and Paciﬁc regionalindicators, right.)The above scale allows for themeasurement of progress over timeand encourages school authoritiesto keep toilets clean and provide asufﬁcient number of toilets for girls.An additional question is required,however, to establish the actualnumber of toilets provided by sexand the student-toilet ratio.Qualitative data strengthen andenrich the overall quality of evidenceprovided by the evaluation exercise.This gives greater insight for makingdecisions on mainstreaming and helpsaddress the more nuanced constraintsthat may affect mainstreaming ofchild-friendly schools. Although readilyavailable quantitative data from ofﬁcialstatistics are attractive sources forany CFS evaluation, it should be keptin mind that there are risks in somecontexts concerning the reliability ofEXAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR OUTCOME EVALUATIONSDoes the school have policies to improve and maintain a healthy physicalenvironment? Are policies implemented and enforced?Do policies address all aspects of the physical environment (air, water, sanitation,waste, location, hazardous chemicals, transport, food, disease vectors)?Are goals and objectives well deﬁned, and do they establish criteria to measureand evaluate intervention activities and outcomes?Are students, teachers, school health personnel, food service personnel, parentsand community members involved in planning interventions?Is locally relevant health education integrated into the curriculum and extra-curricular activities?Is in-service training provided for the educators who are responsible forimplementing life skills-based environmental health education?Do teachers feel comfortable implementing the curriculum?Do school health services periodically screen for environmental health problems?UNICEF EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC REGIONALINDICATORS:TOILET FACILITIES5Separate facilities used by each sexand regularly kept clean4Separate facilities used by each sexbut not kept clean3Same facilities used by both sexesand regularly kept clean2Same facilities used by both sexesand not kept clean1 No toilet facilities
196. 16CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGMonitoring the ﬁnancial outlay forchild-friendly schools is critical foraccountability, transparency andequity. Audit chains can be developedto track inputs throughout the system.For example, an audit chain couldfollow textbook purchases to thehands of students. As it tracks thetextbooks’ journey, it could assesswhether the textbooks have reachedgirls or marginalized children and howeffectively teachers use the texts. Such‘end-user’ auditing occurs in Kenyaand Uganda through the Books inthe Hands of Children campaign. InUganda, school budgets are posted onthe walls to ensure accountability tocommunities. This type of monitoringhelps ensure that resources invested inCFS are in fact being used as intended.Innovations often fail not becauseinvestments are inadequate butbecause the resources are not used inthe intended manner to achieve thedesired outcomes. Measuring the costofﬁcial statistics. Besides, numbersdo not often tell the whole story forcomplex models such as CFS.Any credible CFS evaluation shouldalso make use of case studies ofgood practices, especially if they canbe replicated at the classroom andschool levels in a variety of contexts.Similarly, case studies about child-friendly schools’ positive effect onindividual children can be powerfuland descriptive evidence to enrich anevaluation. In general, case studiesare good at anchoring evaluationsthrough illustrative slices of reality.This may be just as important as themost sophisticated statistical analysiswhen it comes to convincing decisionmakers about the beneﬁts of the CFSmodel.In measuring the impact of child-friendly schools, qualitative data suchas pupil and parental attitudes shouldpreferably be quantiﬁed through useof standard instruments such as theLikert scale for measuring attitudinaland affective changes. Studies alsoneed to go beyond the school level toassess why children are not comingto school and to disaggregate dataaccording to such criteria as ethnicity,class and gender. Child-to-childcensuses recently supported byUNICEF in such countries as Kenyaand Uganda are good examples ofutilizing community demographicsand situations to better understandschool issues. Data from othersectors, including health records fromlocal public health centres, can alsobe used to gauge the impact of theschools on key MDG health indicators.Longitudinal data would typicallybe required to measure changeover time and assess the impactof implementing CFS models.Alternately, comparative data can beused for this purpose by selectinga sample of child-friendly schoolsand a control group of schools fromsimilar socio-economic, ethnic andgeographical settings in order tomeasure the impact of CFS models.This was done in Nigeria’s 2004CFS-baseline study, which revealedthat child-friendly schools weremore popular than regular schoolswhen compared to those in thecontrol sample.8.6 MONITORING AND EVALUATION TO SUPPORT INVESTMENT
197. 17CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALTracking the outcomes of child-friendlyschools and learning spaces and theirprogressive movement towards thechild-friendly ‘ideal’ is an ongoingchallenge. Country case reviews of CFSinitiatives have produced relativelyfew examples where output andoutcome results have been reportedor evaluated. It is far more common tosee reports primarily showing activitiescompleted and inputs provided.Monitoring and evaluation of CFSmodels have tended to yield patchyevidence to support them. Thereare many examples of useful andinteresting evidence that show promisein terms of advocacy. But for the mostpart, CFS projects have not tailoredtheir design, baselines or monitoringsystems and indicators in terms of thegeneric CFS framework and its coreprinciples as a dynamic ‘package’.Since the CFS model has shifted from arigid blueprint of set characteristics orkey dimensions, aspects of the ‘ideal’can now be identiﬁed and detailedthrough a common format with adegree of built-in ﬂexibility. Inputs,activities and results can be labelledas belonging to one or another of thecore principles of the CFS framework.They can then be reported in a way thatwould help compile results. This wouldprovide a clearer picture of the status ofimplementation at the country, regionaland global levels.In general, however, few projects arebeing managed in a way that allowsthem to report on their progress increating schools that embody the CFSconceptual framework and in realizingthe beneﬁts that accrue from suchprogrammes. This situation has arisenacross all regions for much the sameinterrelated reasons:• Projects have tended to implementchild-friendly schools progressively(in some cases, almost on an ad hocbasis) in terms of dimensions thatmost readily ﬁt with or build uponexisting programmes and localpriorities. It appears that none of theprojects began on a comprehensivechild-friendly, school-oriented basis.Although it makes programmaticsense to build on the ‘readiness’of existing partnerships, fundingresources, expertise and a proventrack record, this approach hasmade tracking progress of the child-friendly school as a whole conceptdifﬁcult.• Few projects developed school-tailored baseline measures withrespect to the status of all CFSdimensions, either separately,as a whole, or in terms of howthese dimensions related tolocal education systems, partnercommunities, schools and families.• Projects have reported activitiesand results according to the speciﬁc8.7 AN OVERVIEW OF EXPERIENCE WITHCFS MONITORING AND EVALUATIONof CFS is also crucial for demonstratingthe ﬁnancial feasibility of scaling upchild-friendly schooling as a rights-based approach to quality educationfor all. The Essential Learning Packagethat UNICEF recently launched willbe an important tool for ‘costing’ theminimum learning package for child-friendly schooling.
198. 18CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGstrategies and elements of theirown CFS programmes rather thanthe ‘ideal package’. In some cases,the resulting pictures are detaileddescriptions of the separate child-friendly school strands. They areless informative as snapshots ofwhether or how these strandsweave together to become morethan the sum of their parts –something anticipated by the ideaof the child-friendly school as anintegrated conceptual and actionframework.While child-friendly school andlearning space projects are evolvingand likely improving in terms ofreach and effectiveness, the natureand impact of this evolution arenot fully evident due to a lack ofgood monitoring and evaluation.Furthermore, the dearth of evidencefrom cost-beneﬁt analysis is asigniﬁcant constraint to the successfuladvocacy and fund-raising that areneeded to take child-friendly schoolsand learning spaces to scale.8.7.1 Child-friendly schoolsand learning spaces evaluationexamplesThe child-friendly school initiativein Nigeria: The ‘Federal Governmentof Nigeria-UNICEF Mid-Term Review’(2004) noted that 286 primary schoolsnationwide had been accorded child-friendly status. Various ﬁeld reportsalso detailed the effects of CFS onenrolment and retention. UNICEFNigeria, however, required more dataon processes and pupils’ achievementin child-friendly schools, the overallimpact of these schools, and a cleareroverview of inputs and activities insupport of child-friendly schools.Consequently, a baseline studyof classroom interaction patterns,community participation, schoolinspection and supervision, attitudestowards education – especially girls’education – and school planningand management was designedand implemented. The baselinestudy assessed the impact of pastinterventions and provided a startingpoint for future impact studies.The baseline assessment utilizeda range of studies employing bothqualitative and quantitative methods.Selection was by random stratiﬁedsample, ensuring that the schools’communities had similar proﬁles forsuch factors as urban-rural mix.The evaluation assessed the impact ofthe CFS initiative in terms of:• Outcomes – enrolment, primaryone intake, gender gap, drop-out rates, repetition, completion,learning outcomes and enrolmentin early childhood centres;• Processes and relationships – thequality of interaction betweenpupils and pupils, pupils andteachers, teachers and supervisorsand inspectors, and the school andthe community as well as attitudesand interaction patterns;• Classroom interaction – discourseanalysis and timeline analysis tomeasure the quality of interactionin a subsample of the school,using video and direct dataobservation as a data-gatheringprocess.Viet Nam’s Child-Friendly LearningEnvironment project: A majoremphasis is placed on developmentand application of the Community-
199. 19CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALbased Monitoring and ProgrammeAssessment System (COMPAS).Addressing three priority areas of theproject – monitoring and evaluation,school-based management andschool-community partnership –COMPAS is a project-wide datacollection system aimed at creatinga centralized database. It is expectedto be used on a regular basis to guideproject implementation in Viet Nam.COMPAS is being developed andpromoted as a mechanism and aforum that:• Introduces and advocates childrights and child-friendly schools;• Enables school self-assessmentand planning;• Provides data that willcomplement provincial, districtand local planning;• Tracks children, particularly girlsand poor children;• Creates enabling conditions tofurther development of the child-friendly learning environment;• Converges with key interventionsand generates strongercommunity participation;• Assists principals in managingthe school in more effective,participatory ways.COMPAS includes baseline surveysthat are conducted in 200 schoolstwice annually, at the beginningand end of each academic year. Itsupports training for local ofﬁcials insurvey techniques and use of data indecision-making and management.COMPAS is intended to work as aforward-moving cycle: advocacyand data collection training -> ﬁeldcollection of data -> analysis -> schoolaction planning -> child-friendlylearning environment implementation-> further ‘assessment of progress’data collection. The analysis is usedboth formatively at the local level forschool improvement and as input forthe central database of Viet Nam’sMinistry of Education and Training forplanning and resource allocation.The Philippines’ Child-FriendlySchool System project: In 2003,the Asian Institute of Journalismand Communication, the Philippines’Department of Education and UNICEFundertook case studies to documentbest practices in CFS implementation.Using observation and interviewswritten as relatively unanalysedvignettes, the case studies provide adifferent and interesting perspectiveon the project outcomes – a ‘window’on what users and beneﬁciariesbelieve child-friendly concepts andpractices have produced (Lopez, 2003).The case studies are grouped in thefollowing areas:• Making it work – CFS systemimplementation;• Liking school and staying –students;• From teacher with love – teachers;• Leading by example –administrators;• Building together – community;• For the children’s sake – studenttracking.
201. 21CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALSTAKEHOLDER ROLE PURPOSE REMARKSThe ministry ofeducation (MOE)and its directorates,including planning,examination boards,inspectorate and keyparastatals.MOE should be centralto the whole processof monitoring andevaluation (M&E).Ensure linkage betweenM&E of child-friendlyschools (CFS) andmainstream data onschools, early childhooddevelopment and non-formal education centres.Capacity developmentmay be required.State, district and localgovernment authority(LGA) levels areinvolved. Focus:Policy and data analysisfor sector.Other ministries,such as water supply,environment, health,women’s affairs, socialwelfare and finance.Advisory, throughintersectoralcommittees.Ensure that health, water,sanitation, energy andgender are given dueprominence, and providea minimum packagefor reducing risk andadapting to climatechange.Other ministriescould assist in overalldesign and oversightof the M&E process atdifferent levels in thesystem and in the actualM&E process at LGAlevel.Academic institutions,teacher traininginstitutions andconsultancy agencies.Technical support toensure quality M&Eand research.Ensure quality andlinkage between M&Eand training of teachersand government officials.Mainstream systems,such as localuniversities and teachertraining colleges, shouldbe involved as much aspossible.Major internationaldevelopment partnersin education.Could be representedin an overall steeringcommittee or inagreement on keyindicators andreporting systems.Ensure consensus aroundoverall M&E design andapproach, especially forselected key indicators.UNICEF may or maynot take lead. Linkedto overall educationmanagement informationsystem (EMIS) andquality assurance. Field-based developmentpartners may be directlyinvolved at differentlevels.International non-governmentalorganizations (NGOs),large national NGOswith field networks,local NGOs andcommunity-basedorganizations, and theprivate sector.Could be representedin an overall steeringcommittee or inagreement on keyindicators andreporting systems.Ensure consensusaround key criteria andindicators.Involved at all levels,including internationalNGOs and large nationalNGOs, ensuring linkagewith field-based NGOsand community-basedorganizations andsupporting advocacy.Local governmentofficials.Monitoring schoolsaccording to agreed-upon CFS principles,including efficientutilization of funding.Ensure that effectiveinformation is gatheredand analysed at this level.Some LGAs haveinspectorate orsupervisor systems aswell as EMIS.TABLE 8.1
202. 22CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGReligiousorganizations.Consultative ormonitoring andadvocacy – theyneed to share CFSprinciples, which alsoneed to reflect theirbeliefs.Ensure that childrenunderstand and embracecommon ethics andvalues and demonstratemutual respect forfellow students and theircommunity in line withlocal norms and customs.Involving such bodiesis critical in countrieswhere their support isrequired in achievingEducation for All (EFA),for example, Muslimclerics in Pakistan andNorthern Nigeria.Traditional leaders. Consultative ormonitoring andadvocacy– theyneed to share CFSprinciples, which alsoneed to reflect theirbeliefs.Ensure cultural fitbetween school,community and localenvironment.Traditional leadersmay have as greatan influence in somesystems as thegovernment and can bekey agents in achievingEFA.Communities andparents.Active participantsin school M&E at thecommunity and schoollevels.Ensure transparency,accountability, ownershipand sustainability.Through involvement invillage or community andschool committees. Mayinclude parent-teacherassociations (PTAs) andMothers’ Clubs.Head teachers,teachers, non-formaleducation instructors,caregivers.Keeping classand school/centrerecords on education,health, age and otherindicators.Ensure effectiveinformation-gatheringand use at school level.Effective EMIS dependson adequate informationgathering at the school/centre level, as doessuccessful schoolplanning.Pupils. Consultation andmonitoring, includingmapping out-of-schoolchildren and input intoM&E criteria.Ensure that CFS criteriaare generated by pupils.Pupils can be involvedin school committees orparallel structures and inclubs where M&E is partof the function.8.9 OTHER ISSUES ON MONITORING ANDEVALUATION OF CFS MODELSIn general, monitoring and evaluationencompass a wide range of issues;CFS models spur even more. Theemphasis of monitoring and evaluationexercises is not only to provideevidence for decision makers butalso to help schools and reﬂectivepractitioners improve, and to beneﬁtlearners. Additionally, monitoringand evaluation must be integral partsof any CFS programme from theonset, rather than tagged elementson as an afterthought. If CFS is beingmainstreamed, then monitoring andevaluation should be fully integratedinto existing education systemprocesses, rather than being treated asa separate or one-off exercise divorcedfrom the rest of the system. Timing isalso important. Monitoring should startearly and be included strategically andthoughtfully throughout the stages
203. 23CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALof the programme cycle. The reviewof these and other key issues is anessential part of capacity-building forchild-friendly schools.8.9.1 How should monitoringand evaluation be built intooverall project design?Monitoring and evaluation proceduresshould be clearly delineated in theoverall project design, the EducationSector Plan (if the child-friendly schoolis integrated within the plan) and atthe various levels being monitoredor evaluated – school, community,and local and national governments.A logical framework approach, oran adaptation, that clearly linksobjectives, key indicators and meansof veriﬁcation (the how) and identiﬁeseach partner’s role should be used.This avoids duplication and ensuresthat child-friendly schools ﬁt withinthe overall government policy andplanning structures.8.9.2 When should monitoringand evaluation occur?Monitoring should be ongoing andinvolve all stakeholders. Evaluationsshould be carried out accordingto agreed-upon cycles, both inmainstream government systems suchas annual censuses or biannual panelinspection visits and in agreed projectmemoranda of understanding whenchild-friendly schools are supportedthrough speciﬁc projects.Impact evaluations that assesschanges attributable to child-friendlyschools should allow reasonabletime between implementationand assessment. Interventionsand processes may not take effectimmediately. Teacher training, forexample, will take a while before itinﬂuences teacher behaviour, and thatin turn means learning outcomes willnot be affected immediately. A periodof at least two years between baselineand impact studies is normallyadvisable. The principal baseline canbe complemented, however, by rapidappraisal baselines at the individualschool level, thereby ensuring thateach school has its own baselineto assist in drawing up the schooldevelopment plan.Monitoring occurs at various levels,from the global (using EFA targets)to the state and other governmentlevels, the community, school,classroom and individual child. Thequality of the school’s record-keepingshould be considered an essentialelement of the child-friendly learningenvironment. Effective, inclusiveschool management committeesare indispensable to ensure thecommunity’s involvement in planningand monitoring school activities.8.9.3 Why are baselinesimportant, and what should theymeasure?One of the problems in ‘selling’ theconcept of child-friendly schoolsto development partners andgovernments has been the absenceof baseline and impact data thatdemonstrate the effectiveness ofactivities and inputs on learningprocesses and outcomes. Baselinedata can be provided by governmentsthrough such tools as EMIS, nationalsurveys (including educationsector analyses), inspection reportsand documents such as budgetsand expenditure accounts at allgovernmental levels. This data
204. 24CHAPTER 8: MONITORING AND EVALUATINGshould be complemented by morespeciﬁc data on key CFS indicatorsrelated to processes, relationshipsand outcomes. A critical outcomethat must be measured is theimpact of the school on students’competencies and skills, includingliteracy, numeracy and life skills.Mainstream instruments can be used,such as those included in MonitoringLearning Achievement surveys.An important element in child-friendly schools is pupil participationin classrooms (measured throughclassroom interaction analysis) and indecision-making. The impact of child-friendly schools on the attitudes andbehaviours of pupils, their familiesand communities in regard to suchissues as health, sanitation andgender also needs to be measured.This involves studies within theschool and community that measurechild-friendly schools’ inﬂuence onensuring that messages pass fromchild to child and from child to familyand community.8.9.4 Empoweringcommunities and otherstakeholdersIn child-friendly schools, community-based monitoring and evaluationis an integral part of the process.Therefore, building the community’scapacity to participate in the processis essential. To achieve this, trainingcan be linked to broader skillsdevelopment through participativeappraisal approaches. Using well-tried methods such as Reﬂect,which combines needs analysis withliteracy development, can bolster thecommunity’s capacity to monitor andevaluate. Communities then becomepartners in gathering, analysis anduse of data as they inform schooldevelopment plans.Evaluation and monitoring mustbe presented to communities in acomprehensible manner if they areto participate meaningfully in theprocess. Capacity development isalso critical for teachers, school headsand government ofﬁcials. In the caseof teachers and other professionals,training in action research is essentialif they are to develop as reﬂectivepractitioners attuned to the needsof their students. Similarly, childrenmay keep introspective diaries andreceive training in basic researchmethods. The Girls EducationMovement in Uganda, for example,provided training for young childrenin basic research skills. Excellentexamples of community involvementin monitoring and evaluation arefound in Malawi, Uganda and theUnited Republic of Tanzania, wherecommunity participation was integralin data gathering on early childhoodissues and tracking orphans withinthe community.In Kenya, schools receivea cheque directly from theGovernment for textbooks, andschool textbook managementcommittees manage andmonitor procurement andutilization.Kenya, Nigeria, South Africaand Uganda have incorporatedstandard Monitoring LearningAchievement tools into theirbaselines.
205. 25CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUAL8.9.5 Gauging the impact on theeducation system as a wholeThe impact of replicating andmainstreaming CFS initiatives ongovernment systems should be measured.Data can be used to help governmentsrecognize the merits of child-friendlyschool integration into mainstreampolicymaking and planning.If child-friendly school status is awardedon the basis of a school attaining certainchild-friendly benchmarks, motivationfor improvement will be enhanced.On a more local level, the inﬂuence ofchild-friendly schools on nearby schoolsshould also be measured when thecluster model is employed. The impactof the school on education in the localgovernment authority can also begauged. Additionally, progress towardssustainability needs to be monitored.UNICEF should have ‘phase-out’ strategiesfor all schools it supports where child-friendly learning environments will besustained in the medium and long termafter external support has ended.The data gathered on schools should beincluded in an overall database such asDevInfo, which encompasses a wide rangeof development indicators. In this way,connections can be made between theinformation generated by the educationsector and data from other sectors. Thisis crucial for measuring progress towardsrelated MDGs.8.10 THE WAY FORWARDEffective monitoring and evaluationare necessary to improve schools andmake them more child-friendly. Thereneeds to be tangible evidence thatschools will provide all children withquality education and that students willacquire relevant skills and competencesthat enable them to exercise their fullrights in society. Involving all majorpartners at the national and districtlevels helps build consensus. School andcommunity involvement in the processincreases transparency, accountabilityand community ownership of the school.Additionally, evaluations need to reachbeyond the school to map obstacles toenrolment and attendance such as theeffects of poverty, discrimination or HIVand AIDS.The monitoring and evaluation processneeds to be rigorous and be trustedto generate reliable data that can bemade accessible through solid databasemanagement. Too often data aregathered but not effectively disseminatedor utilized. The focus needs to includeprogress monitoring and processassessment as schools evolve over timefrom using CFS principles to identifyingdynamic strategies that routinely lead tochild-friendly school improvements.In the ﬁnal analysis, however, two keyquestions will be posed to child-friendlyschools regarding their contribution toquality, rights-based education for all:How effective are child-friendly schools?And what will they cost? These are thechallenges to those responsible for themonitoring and evaluation of child-friendly schools.
206. TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 9Mainstreaming child-friendly concepts9.1 Understanding mainstreaming9.1.1 Scaling up9.1.2 Mainstreaming9.2 Simulation modelling and mainstreaming
207. 1CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALOnce the child-friendly school model issuccessfully implemented in a numberof schools in a country, the next step isto work with the government to makeall schools child-friendly over an agreedtime frame. There are two related waysto do this: (a) scaling up child-friendlyschool implementation throughout thecountry, and (b) mainstreaming child-friendly schools within the educationsystem. Although these two processesare strongly interrelated, there aresigniﬁcant differences.9.1.1 Scaling upScaling up involves a systematic, oftenrapid replication of the CFS model sothat within a given period all schoolscan be identiﬁed as child-friendly. Thiscan be done through the ‘big bang’approach, which uses major investmentsover a short time span to make allschools child-friendly. For instance,a large-scale project for training allteachers and school managers in child-friendly school methods, coupledwith extensive school construction,renovation and supply of pedagogicmaterials, can be used to create thenecessary CFS features in facilitiesacross the country.This ‘big bang’ scaling-up approachworks best where sufﬁcient ﬁnancialresources are available and the modelto be replicated has a high degree ofcertainty, with a ﬁnite set of well deﬁnedcharacteristics that vary little from caseto case. In this scenario, it becomes arelatively simple matter of building orrenovating schools, training teachersand supplying learning materials ona scale that covers the whole country.The rationale behind this approach isthat the education system has alreadyestablished child-friendly schools in away that makes large-scale replicationfeasible and straightforward.Although the broader, short-termapproach is deﬁnitive and efﬁcient, thelimited ﬂexibility it offers can result incostly errors if the replicated features donot work well for some schools or arenot in line with conditions in a particulardistrict. An alternative way to scale upchild-friendly schools is through the‘roll-out’ process: The CFS model isgradually replicated from one location toa manageable set of other locations andthen to a further set of locations until thewhole country is covered.The roll-out approach is mostappropriate where there is limitedﬁnancing in the short term and somedegree of uncertainty about what worksbest. This is especially true when themodel to be replicated is based on keyprinciples or on a set of hypotheses thatmay lead to varying characteristics andfeatures in a speciﬁc context. Successfulimplementation in a set of schoolsin one district, for example, can befollowed by efforts to replicate them ina number of schools in another district.The idea is to learn from the experienceof the ﬁrst district, using what hasworked and avoiding what may havegone wrong, while also putting in place9.1 UNDERSTANDING MAINSTREAMINGCHAPTER 9MAINSTREAMING CHILD-FRIENDLY CONCEPTS
208. 2CHAPTER 9: MAINSTREAMING CHILD-FRIENDLY CONCEPTSnew variations of CFS features in linewith particularities of the new district.This heuristic approach to scaling upmay appear to be slower and lessefﬁcient, but it allows for applyinglessons learned and making changesto improve the model as it is rolled outto more schools. It also avoids costlyerrors, which is especially importantwhen available resources are limited.9.1.2 MainstreamingAnother approach to making allschools in a country child-friendly isto mainstream the CFS model. Thisis not just about scaling up, but it isrelated. Mainstreaming infuses keyelements of the model into all aspectsof the education system, including theprocesses and parameters that shapethe system. This means that planning,implementation, ﬁnancing, stafﬁng,management, supervision, monitoringand evaluation of education in thecountry will intrinsically embrace theCFS model.Mainstreaming therefore involvesa ‘systems approach’ rather than a‘project approach’, which is typicallyused for scaling up. The systemsapproach is usually done throughsimulation modelling that allows forbuilding a range of scenarios with CFSvariables to show how the educationsystem would operate and what itwould cost to have CFS features inall schools. It also allows for nationalstandards to be set in key areas to guidepractice and help determine the budgetrequired for implementation across theeducation system within a given timeframe.The advantage offered bymainstreaming is that it promotessustainability. The model becomes anintegral part of the education systemrather than a project that needs to befully integrated into the system later asit takes hold in schools and districts.UNICEF recommends that partnercountries choose either themainstreaming approach or scalingup through a ‘big bang’ or a ‘roll-out’strategy based on a number of factors:• The extent to which key child-friendly school elements or fullCFS models have already takenroot across the country’s educationsystem;• How adaptable the educationsystem is to innovation in general;• The availability of adequateand predictable resources thatschools can use in ﬂexibleways to implement change andimprovement;• What best ﬁts the requirementsto make innovative models likechild-friendly schools take rootand become a sustainable part ofeducation throughout the country.What is most signiﬁcant aboutmainstreaming as distinct from scalingup is that it infuses key CFS elementsinto the process of planning andinvesting in an education system asa whole. Again, this is usually donethrough the use of simulation models.There are various simulation modelsavailable for planning, and, in general,they are used to better understandhow a system behaves as variables arechanged. They can be used to ‘try out’9.2 SIMULATION MODELLING AND MAINSTREAMING
209. 3CHILD-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MANUALtrade-offs between critical factors to helpprescribe appropriate national standardsand decide on optimum balancesbetween cost and quality of educationfor all learners.Simulation models are especiallyuseful for understanding the impactof policy decisions on performance,cost and outcomes of the system. Tosupport governments and partners inmainstreaming child-friendly schools,policy simulation models and costingtools can be used to assess the resourceimplications of various policy options inthe face of budget constraints. They canalso project alternative and feasible CFSdevelopment scenarios that will helpdetermine the best options for a givencountry.UNICEF promotes the use of theEPSSim model. (See Chapter 7.) TheEPSSim tool can utilize a checklist orguidelines generated by countries aspart of the process of setting nationalCFS standards and strategies. China, forexample, has developed such a checklistaround four categories of CFS principlesand is using this to set nationalstandards for child-friendly schools. (SeeBox, page 4.)Through the use of simulationmodelling, it is possible to show theimpact of decisions at the consultationstage, when key stakeholders useCFS principles to generate desirablecharacteristics for child-friendly schools.This can promote a healthy dialogue andgenerate a balanced approach betweenthe ideals of CFS and the practicalities ofwhat can be afforded over a given timeframe. Once broad standards have beenset for elements in the four categories,simulation modelling can be used toexplore speciﬁcs to be implemented inorder to make all schools child-friendly.Although the EPSSim model is morethan adequate for mainstreaming child-friendly schools in education systems,UNICEF appreciates a country’s need toutilize many other models in planningfor education development. These couldbe models recommended by a key donoror models that planners in the countryare already familiar with. In thesecircumstances, it is important to ensurethat mainstreaming of child-friendlyschools does not impose demandsby requiring major changes in thesimulation model already in use. Oneway to avoid this is to provide countrieswith a common suite of models theycan use as standard tools for differentpurposes in planning for educationdevelopment.In an effort to provide countries withappropriate models, United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP),United Nations Educational, Scientiﬁcand Cultural Organization (UNESCO),UNICEF and the World Bank haveconvened a working group of experts ineducation modelling to review currentmodels and use their key elements todesign a collection of interconnectedmodels for country use. Through thiseclectic approach, it is anticipated thatpartners can better engage countriesto explore policy options, formulatescenarios and project implications forcosts and results of various policies andstrategies, including mainstreamingchild-friendly schools.The path to child-friendly schoolsmay vary, but the goal is the same: toensure that all children have accessto quality education and are nurturedin a child-friendly environment wherethey can develop their full potential.This is central to the education-related MDGs and the EFA goals. Itis therefore important to advocatefor mainstreaming or scaling-up ofthe child-friendly school model asa ‘one-stop’ shop for designing andimplementing quality education for all.
210. 4CHAPTER 9: MAINSTREAMING CHILD-FRIENDLY CONCEPTSCHINA DEVELOPS NATIONAL CFSSTANDARDS“All-rounded development of all children”and the ﬂourishing of creative humanpotentialSuccessful piloting of the child-friendly schoolmodel in 1,000 schools in China informedthe Government’s decision to use the CFSapproach as its model for improving thequality of primary and secondary education inimplementing its new governance measures.Supported by UNICEF, the Ministry ofEducation set out to develop nationalstandards on school quality and learners’achievements in late 2006. The standards’framework integrated the Convention on theRights of the Child, the country’s developmentgoal in basic education deﬁned in its ‘lawof nine-year compulsory education’ and thepriorities of four departments of the Ministryof Education. With technical support fromthe China National Institute for EducationalResearch and Beijing Normal University, theMinistry of Education led 16 technical groupsthrough the preparations. The collaborativeeffort by a multitude of stakeholders, withtechnical support from UNICEF, resulted inthe completion of standards in 2008. Theywill be tested in at least six provinces in 2008and will be promoted in more provinces andschools beginning in 2009.The vision, purpose and scope of the ChineseNational Standards for child-friendly schoolsare contained in the opening paragraph of theﬁnal document:“The ultimate aim of CFS in China is theall-rounded development of all childrenand the full ﬂowering of creative humanpotentials of each pupil. Children at ChineseCFS will learn to learn, with motivation andcapability of learning well; they will learn todo, developing problem-solving, knowledge-application and life/social skills; they willlearn to be, developing human competencies,respecting teachers, parents, peers andothers, and building moral characters andpsychological as well as physical health;and they will learn to live together, pursuingcooperative learning, ready for helpingothers, and working with others in team spirit.In sum, Chinese CFS pupils shall be enabledto develop in an all rounded way, in ethical,intellectual, physical, aesthetical and life-skillsdimensions.”Child-friendly school vision1. Safeguardchildren’s equalrights2. Show respectfor differencesand diversity3. Create genderequality inteaching andlearningenvironments1. Encourageteachers todemonstrate loveof work2. Develop acurriculuminfused with lifeskills education3. Implementstudent-centredteaching4. Develop an open,sustainable teachersupport system1. Createa safe, friendlyenvironment2. Developskills-basedsafety education3. Adopt healthygrowth standards4. Organize qualityphysical education1. Create means forchild participation2. Create schoolmanagementsystem and culturefor teacher/studentparticipation3. Develop harmoni-ous partnershipsbetween family,community andschool4. Improve schoolleadershipDimension IInclusivenessand equalityDimension IIEffective teachingand learningDimension IIISafe, healthy andproductiveDimension IVParticipation andharmonizationA FRAMEWORK OF NATIONAL CFS STANDARDS