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Waste Management at Medical Laboratories
 

Waste Management at Medical Laboratories

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  • Good Day ladies and gentleman/ Goeie dag dames en here This presentation will be dealt with how to handle laboratory waste, Hoe om laboratoriumafval te hanteer.
  • Everyone wants to work in a safe, healthy and productive workplace environment and it also everyone’s responsibility to ensure that it is so. “word gehandhaaf”. One of the key elements in a laboratory set up is the responsible and effectively handling of hazardous waste. Die onus val op u om te sorg dat die korrekte riglyne vir die hantering van gevaarlike afval gevolg word. Good lab etiquette includes proper handling of waste. Municipal and government laws exist to regulate and control hazardous waste disposal
  • To manage waste responsible you need to do the following: First –characterization of your waste You must know what type of waste do you have, What type of danger or hazard does it cause Does it react with other agents Second –Packaging Is the waste properly package – if not ,it can lead to spills and explosions. Third- Strorage Proper storage of the waste. Fourth- Labeling -is the labeling effective Fifth- Is there a proper procedure/ protocol in place in collecting the waste and remove it.
  • First you need to know that there are different type of waste that labs can generate such as Non-hazardous waste,-normal Municipal waste-paper,drink bottles of which can be recycle Broken Glass can be recycle but if it is contaminated it is handle as chemical waste. Hazardous waste which include dangerous Chemicals, biological waste ,sharps , radioactive and electronics/ computers I will only talk about chemical, biological and sharp waste
  • What is hazardous waste ?. Hazardous waste is any waste that directly or indirectly represents a threat to human health or to the environment by introducing one or more of the following risks: Explosion or fire Infections, pathogens, parasites or their vectors Chemical instability, reactions or corrosion Acute or chronic toxicity Cancer, mutations or birth defects Toxicity or damage to the ecosystems or natural resources Accumulation in the biological food chain, persistence in the environment or multiple effects
  • The next few slides will be how to handle chemical waste.
  • The South African Beaura of standards code 0028 is a system which classify chemicals in different class of hazard. You must be aware of which class the reagents you work with, belongs to.
  • When you know what class type you worked with, you must segregate your waste properly. Proper segregation of Lab waste is essential to good chemical hygiene and a safe workplace environment.. Therefore proper segregation of wastes involves making sure that wastes within a bottle are compatible but it also means that you NEVER store the following types of waste near each other Acids and bases Organics and acids Powdered or reactive metals and combustible materials Cyanide, sulfide or arsenic compounds and acids Mercury or silver and ammonium containing compounds Do not mix solids and liquids Halogenated with non-halogenated chemicals
  • As mentioned before incompatible chemical waste must not be mixed or store together If it must be store in same area, the waste must be separated with a second container. Container must be compatible with the waste for instance: Mineral acids - plastic Bases -Plastic Oxidizers - Glass Organics (including Acetic acid) - Glass
  • Take special care when you worked with Nitric acid – it can reacts with organics which will cause heat and gas Make sure that the container you use is rinsed thoroughly Another danger is Perchloric acid and organic peroxides It is highly reactive with organics and organic material such as wood , it may also react with metals. And hydrofluoric acid dissolves glass containers.
  • Place hazardous waste in sealable containers Enviroserv supply different plastic and metal containers Sized from 25L to 200L in plastic or metal. Containers must be kept closed at all times. Do not leave a hazardous waste container with a funnel in it. Glass bottles with waste must be packed with vermiculite into bigger containers Example of improper storage: Storage of waste in a fume hood where reactions are being carried out. Always remove waste bottles from hoods where reactions are being performed. Using metal cans for waste Storing flammable waste containers on a bench or floor. Storing waste bottles in or near a sink or floor drain. Only small amount of waste is allowed in the lab. Extra waste has be in a ventilated store room, preferably far from the labs, on the ground floor.
  • The container should not react with the waste being stored (e.g. NO hydrofluoric acid in glass) Similar wastes may be mixed if they are compatible Wastes from incompatible hazard classes should not be mixed (e.g. organic solvents with oxiders) Be aware that certain metals also cause disposal problems when mixed with flammable liquid or other organic liquids .
  • It is very important to label every thing you used and more important for waste. Waste must be labeled as Hazardous waste The labels must be accurate, legible and full explained Smaller waste bottles must contain your name, content, concentration and the date. Storage waste containers must contain name of the department, contact person, content, type of hazard, date. Enviroserv supply self adhesive labels that can be put on the bigger waste containers. If something isn’t really waste, don’t put the word waste on the bottle but label it as “used”. Do not leave old labels on the bottles- prevent confusion.
  • Enviroserv has also a waste classification system for each department/ building. This is an example for the JC Smuts . The number 6 is allocated to the department and the letter describe what hazard type the waste is. These codes must be put on the labels of the containers that Enviroserv picks up. The abbreviation I , E TC means the method of destruction by Envirnoserv.
  • Select the correct container for storage Use original containers if possible Container must be compatible with chemical being stored Use appropriate sized container Do not make containers too heavy to lift by the contractors All containers must be tightly sealed and not leak All containers must be correctly labeled Use separate containers for each type of waste Avoid combining chemicals Do not store longer than 90 days Always remove waste bottles from hoods where reaction are being performed Store flammable waste containers in a cabinet, preferably an –explosion resistant solvent cabinet Do not store waste bottles in or near a sink or floor drain.
  • Pack all waste in drums provided by the contractors Ensure glass bottles are prevented from breaking by adding vermiculite All drums must be properly classified and labelled as HAZARDOUS WASTE When drums are full, fill in a pick-up form to forward to USBD (Piet van Deventer, email pjvd@sun.ac.za) USBD will arrange for contractors (Enviroserv) to pick up the drums at your department
  • I just want to mention some disposal methods of some reagents that most of you used everyday. Ethidium bromide_ Especially used in the molecular labs, When the concentration of Etbr is less than 0.1% - it can go into the trash? –on a website, for gels with a content of more than 0.1% Etbr, it goes in the biohazard box for incineration. Etbr solution can be deactivated chemically or by charcoal filtration -the recommended method. Mercury Spilled droplets from say broken thermometers are pooled and with a pipette put in paper-puncture resistant container. Gloves & paper used to clean up the waste is put together in a plastic bag and –label as “mercury spill debris”.
  • Silica gel Not grossly contaminated – normal lab trash Heavy contaminated- disposed as hazardous waste Batteries Classified as universal waste rather than hazardous waste Contain mercury, cadmium, lead, silver, lead-acid Alkaline (no Hg) - not to be put in the normal trash. South Africa Recycle program?
  • Chemicals that cannot be identified should be considered unknown hazardous waste. Unknown waste cannot be legally transported or disposed. To dispose them safely and properly it need to be characterised by Enviroserv which is a costly affair. Find out as much as possible about how the waste was generated. Please DO NOT Pour unknown chemicals down the drain Mix unknown chemicals with any other chemicals Bring unknown chemicals to a regular waste pick up Abandon unknown chemicals in the work area.
  • Definition: Waste generated from biologically-cultured stocks and plates, molecular material, blood, animal and plant tissues etc. All sharps e.g. glass implements, needles, syringes, blades, glass Pasteur pipettes Separate biological waste from chemical hazardous waste Treat to eliminate biohazard by sterilization or incineration Label correct, use biohazard tape
  • Animal Bedding waste Bagged – not be mixed with other waste Labelled as animal bedding waste Are to be autoclaved before being placed in medical waste boxes – disposed in the medical waste stream Animal carcasses Are kept frozen Get an order number from Elmarie King –USBD (ek2@sun.ac.za) Department took the carcasses themselves to the Western Province Veterinary lab , Stb for incineration
  • Sanumed supplies a range of containers, specific for the type of biohazard waste. This is cardboard boxes lined with a 45 mikron plastic bag –this is suitable for the disposal of non-sharp biohazardous waste such as gloves, tubes, culture plates. The bags are filled to 3/4 and then sealed with a cable tie and the box sealed with biohazard tape. The waste boxes are destroy by high temperature incineration
  • This containers are for all the biohazard sharps. They are all 100% puncture proof, Available in 4, 7.6, 10, 15 and 25 litre Destroy by high temp. incineration
  • Specimen bins are safe for human and animal tissue disposal. Ideal for wet waste Available as a 2.5, 5 and 10 litre bins Destruction by high temp
  • No bio-hazardous waste shall be stored for longer than 24 hours without being decontaminated Decontaminated bio-hazardous waste may be stored up to 30 days if the material is red bagged and in a labeled closed container No containers of bio-hazardous waste to be stored in public areas Store under refrigeration if necessary to prevent odors Sharps containers treated as regular bio-hazardous waste
  • Seal red bags when ¾ full with cable ties provided by contractor Seal Biohazard/Medical waste boxes with biohazard tape Complete chemical/biological waste pick-up request form Forward electronically to USBD USBD will arrange for contractor (Sanumed) to pick up waste and to replace the necessary containers.
  • Good housekeeping enables the efficient use of material and time, minimizes accidents, reduce the need for repeating experiments Include waste disposal procedures in your documentation of experimental procedures . It makes it easier to see what waste is generated when looking for waste minimization and pollution prevention opportunities. Knowledge of the kinds and amount of reagents in storage is necessary for efficient use of these resources – chemical inventory Centralize purchasing if possible to avoid duplicate or excessive purchases Spills are occasional events, but cause significant sources of waste from labs. In labs where spill preparedness is addressed, spills are less likely to occur and waste is minimized. Neutralize corrosives for acids and bases that do not have other hazardous constituents Minimize the use of solvents for cleaning or drying glassware- use chromic acid alternatives detergents Use alternative products which are not harmful.

Waste Management at Medical Laboratories Waste Management at Medical Laboratories Presentation Transcript

  • How to handleLaboratory waste? Ravi Kumudesh BSc/PG Dip(SMgt)/Dip(MLT) Ministry Of Health, Sri Lanka SLSMLS/RK
  • Introduction Safe, healthy & productive workplace environment Responsible and effectively handling of hazardous waste Good lab etiquette Municipal and government laws exist to regulate and control hazardous waste disposal SLSMLS/RK 2
  • Waste managementManage waste responsible: Classification/ Characterizing hazardous waste Proper packaging Proper storage of waste Effective labeling Waste collection protocol in place SLSMLS/RK 3
  • Types of waste Normal Municipal waste (general) Recyclable waste Broken Glass Biological / Medical waste Chemical waste Sharps, Broken Glass Radioactive material waste Electronic and computer waste SLSMLS/RK 4
  • Hazardous Waste Any waste that directly or indirectly represents a threat to human health or to the environment by introducing one or more of the following risks:  Explosion or fire  Infections, pathogens, parasites or their vectors  Chemical instability, reactions or corrosion  Acute or chronic toxicity  Cancer, mutations or birth defects  Toxicity or damage to the ecosystems or natural resources  Accumulation in the biological food chain, persistence in the environment or multiple effects SLSMLS/RK 5
  • CHEMICAL WASTE SLSMLS/RK 6
  • Classification dangerous goods and substances Class 1 Explosives Class 2 Gases Class 3 Flammable liquids Class 4 Flammable solids Class 5 Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides Class 6 Toxic and infectious substances Class 7 Radioactive Substances Class 8 Corrosives Class 9 Other miscellaneous substances SLSMLS/RK 7
  • Segregate chemical waste Proper segregation = good chemical hygiene + safe workplace environment Only put compatible chemicals in a container Also do not store the following near each other  Acids and bases  Organics and acids  Powdered or reactive metals and combustible materials  Cyanide, sulfide or arsenic compounds and acids  Mercury or silver and ammonium containing compounds Do not mix solids and liquids Halogenated with non-halogenated chemicals SLSMLS/RK 8
  • Chemical Waste Compatibility (1) Incompatible chemical waste not be mixed or store together If it must be store in same area – separated secondary containment Container must be compatible with the waste:  Mineral acids - plastic  Bases -Plastic  Oxidizers - Glass  Organics (incl Acetic acid) - Glass SLSMLS/RK 9
  • Chemical Waste Compatibility (2)Take special care Nitric acid: Reacts with organics-heat & gas Be sure container is rinse thoroughly Perchloric acid, Organic Peroxides: Highly reactive with organics and organic material (wood). May react with metals Hydrofluoric acid: Dissolves glass containers SLSMLS/RK 10
  • Packaging of chemical waste (1) Place hazardous waste in sealable containers Enviroserv supply different plastic and metal containers Sized from 25L to 200L, plastic or metal. Containers must be kept closed. Do not leave a hazardous waste container with a funnel in it. Glass bottles with waste must be packed with vermiculite into bigger containers. SLSMLS/RK 11
  • Packaging of chemical waste (2) The container should not react with the waste being stored (e.g. NO hydrofluoric acid in glass) Similar wastes may be mixed if they are compatible Wastes from incompatible hazard classes should not be mixed (e.g. organic solvents with oxiders) Be aware that certain metals also cause disposal problems when mixed with flammable liquid or other organic liquids. SLSMLS/RK 12
  • Labeling Must be labeled as HAZARDOUS WASTE Should be accurate, legible and fully explained Contain name of the department, lab group name, contact person details, content and concentration, hazard class, date Use Enviroserv /Sanumed self adhesive labels or your own. Waste vs. used No old labels SLSMLS/RK 13
  • Waste classification by EnviroservSpecific codes for different departments (BOTZOO)Code Type Disposal Method 3A Flammables ABW 3B Toxic compounds E 3C Polyethelene Glycols TA 3D Contaminated Broken Glass TC 3E Contaminated tips, tubes TC 3F Mineral acids ITP with Lime 3G Concentrated organic acids TWC SLSMLS/RK 14
  • StorageSelect the correct container (glass / polyethylene) for storageUse original containers if possibleUse appropriate sized containerDo not make containers too heavy to lift by the contractorsContainers must be tightly sealed and not leakContainers correctly labeledContainer compatible with chemical being stored -separate containers for each type of wasteDo not store longer than 90 days SLSMLS/RK 15
  • Collection Procedures Pack all waste in drums provided by contractors Ensure glass bottles are prevented from breaking by adding vermiculite All drums must be properly classified and labelled as HAZARDOUS WASTE When drums are full, fill in a pick-up form and forward to USBD (Piet van Deventer, email pjvd@sun.ac.za) USBD will arrange for contractors (Enviroserv) to pick up the drums at your department SLSMLS/RK 16
  • Special waste (1) Ethidium Bromide  Electrophoresis gels < 0.1% - trash  Electrophoresis gels >0.1% - biohazard box  EtBr solution- charcoal filtration Mercury  Spilled-pooled droplets, gloves & paper-puncture resistant container –label “mercury spill debris” SLSMLS/RK 17
  • Special waste (2) Silica gel  Not grossly contaminated – normal lab trash  Heavy contaminated- disposed as hazardous waste Batteries  Classified as universal waste rather than hazardous waste  Contain mercury, cadmium, lead, silver, lead-acid  Alkaline (no Hg) - not to be put in the normal trash.  South Africa Recycle program? SLSMLS/RK 18
  • Unidentified Chemical waste Should be considered unknown hazardous waste. Unknown waste cannot be legally transported or disposed. To dispose them safely and properly it need to be characterised by Enviroserv which is a costly affair. Find out as much as possible about how the waste was generated. Please DO NOT Pour unknown chemicals down the drain Mix unknown chemicals with any other chemicals Bring unknown chemicals to a regular waste pick up Abandon unknown chemicals in the work area. SLSMLS/RK 19
  • BIOLOGICAL WASTE Definition: Waste generated from biologically- cultured stocks and plates, molecular material, blood, animal and plant tissues etc. All sharps e.g. glass implements, needles, syringes, blades, glass Pasteur pipettes Separate biological waste from chemical hazardous waste Treat to eliminate biohazard by sterilization or incineration Label correct, use biohazard tape SLSMLS/RK 20
  • Biological waste cont. Animal Bedding waste  Bagged – not be mixed with other waste  Labelled as animal bedding waste  Are to be autoclaved before being placed in medical waste boxes – disposed in the medical waste stream Animal carcasses  Are kept frozen  Get an order number from Elmarie King –USBD (ek2@sun.ac.za)  Department took the carcasses themselves to the Western Province Veterinary lab , Stb for incineration SLSMLS/RK 21
  • Containers (1) –Biological Biohazard/medical waste boxes  Disposal of non-sharp bio hazardous waste  Cardboard box lined with a red 45 micron plastic bag  Two sizes 50 and 142 litre- max 15kg  Seal bag with cable tie, seal box with biohaz .tape  Sanumed destruct it by high temp. incineration SLSMLS/RK 22
  • Containers (2) –Biological Biohazard Sharp containers  Disposal sharp bio- hazardous waste  100% puncture proof  Available in 4, 7.6, 10, 15 and 25 l  Destruction by high temp SLSMLS/RK 23
  • Containers (3) –Biological Specimen bins  For safe human and animal tissue disposal.  Ideal for wet waste  Available in 2.5, 5 and 10 l bin  Destruction by high temp SLSMLS/RK 24
  • Points to remember No bio-hazardous waste shall be stored for longer than 24 hours without being decontaminated Decontaminated bio-hazardous waste stored up to 30 days No storage public areas Store under refrigeration if necessary to prevent odors Sharps containers treated as regular bio-hazardous waste SLSMLS/RK 25
  • Bio-hazardous waste Pick-up Procedures Seal red bags when ¾ full with cable ties provided by contractor Seal Biohazard/Medical waste boxes with biohazard tape Complete chemical/biological waste pick-up request form Forward electronically to USBD USBD will arrange for contractor (Sanumed) to pick up waste and replace containers as needed SLSMLS/RK 26
  • Ways to minimize waste Good housekeeping Document Procedures Maintain Chemical inventory Centralize purchasing Spill Preparedness Neutralize corrosives Minimize use of solvents Use alternative products SLSMLS/RK 27
  • SLSMLS/RK 28
  • k You ThanSLSMLS/RK 29