CHAPTER 13
QUANTUM THEORY
Problems with Planetary Atomic Model
The electron, in orbiting the nucleus,
undergoes an acceleration and should
therefore...
Photoelectric Effect

When light shines on a metal
surface, the surface emits
electrons.

For example, you can measure a c...
The current flow varies with the
wavelength of light such that there was a
sharp cutoff and no current flow for long
wavel...
Einstein successful explained the
photoelectric effect within the context of
quantum physics.
Einstein proposed that light...
Each photon carries a specific energy related to its
wavelength, such that photons of short wavelength (blue
light) carry ...
Light made of two colors (two frequencies) shines on a metal
surface whose photoelectric threshold frequency is 6.2 x 1014...
1. The energy for the orange frequency is:
E = hf = (6.6 x 10-34) x (5 x 1014)
E = 3.3 x 10-19 J.
The energy for the viole...
The human eye can detect as few as 10,000 photons per second
entering the pupil. About how much energy is this, per second...
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/applets/twoslitsa.html
Regular old classical
physics

Newtonian
Physics

When things get small

Quantum
physics

When things get fast

Special
re...
Classical Physics: Newtonian Physics

Modern Physics: Relativity, quantum physics,
and any other field that employs these ...
Quantum Physics: the “quantum” comes
from quantization: we need to understand
the origin of this.
The Photoelectric Effect...
Actual Experimental Observations:
[1] There is no delay between the light hitting the surface and
the electrons being ejec...
# of electrons
ejected

Many emitted
electrons

Threshold frequency

No emitted
electrons

Red orange yellow green blue in...
Energy

Before Planck: the
particle could have
any energy

Vibrating
particle
Energy

After Planck: the
particle could have
only specific,
quantized energies

Vibrating
particle
Energy

E1

This means that if a
particle is in some energy
state, if it is to give up
energy in the form of light,
it has...
Einstein argued that the emission of the light must occur
in instantaneous bursts of radiation.
He then took this one step...
How do we explain why there is a threshold frequency?

# of electrons
ejected

Many emitted
electrons
The electron must ge...
Radiation: waves or particles?
Radiation is made up of particles called photons
Evidence of the wave nature from interfere...
What is Light?
Is it a WAVE?

Remember the interference pattern with the laser going through
two apertures?

It definitely...
So which one is it? Does it behave like a wave or a
particle?!!
Answer: It behaves like BOTH! We call this the wave-partic...
What is the universe made of?

Matter and radiation (as far as we know
anyway).

How do matter and radiation interact with...
Electrons

Interference: Wave-like
behavior!!
De Broglie, a Ph.D. student at the University of Paris in
1923, felt that if radiation exhibits wave-particle duality,
mat...
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/index.pl
Every material particle has wave properties with a wavelength
equal to:
λ = h/ms (De Broglie)
m: mass of particle
s: its s...
In-class Problem
Calculate the de Broglie Wavelength of a basketball (m = 1 kg) moving at a speed of 1
m/s. How does this ...
sand

electrons
sand

electrons
sand

Two overlapping
piles of sand

electrons

Not just two
overlapping “piles”
of electrons
sand

Two overlapping
piles of sand

electrons

Interference pattern
Since the wavelength of the electron is so small, the apertures have to be
very narrow for us to see the interference. The...
Note: J. J. Thompson discovered the electron in 1900 and
called it a “charged particle.”

In 1927, G. P. Thomson did the “...
The Strange World of Quantum Physics
The Strange World of Quantum Physics

Photons (particles!)
The Strange World of Quantum Physics

One Photon

Where does it hit the screen??
Let’s watch one at a time…
Screen
Screen

Given ONE photon, we cannot predict exactly where it will hit.
We can only predict the PROBABILITY that it will hi...
We can only predict the PROBABILITY that it will hit a certain place
on the screen: i.e., we can predict the pattern that ...
The pattern we observed can be predicted through the
application of quantum theory. Erwin Schroedinger
came up with an equ...
One of quantum theory’s main applications: describing the atom

One type of spectroscope:
aperture
screen

prism

Gas
tube...
What energy transitions are possible?
Energy

E4—E3, E4—E2, E4—E1
If these energy differences are:
E5
E4
E3

E2

E1

2 x 1...
Not only can these atom only
EMIT photons of a certain
frequency, but they can only
ABSORB light of a certain
frequency.

...
To get atoms to EMIT light, we use the discharge tube. We had to
give it energy to “pump up” the electrons in the atoms so...
One of quantum theory’s main applications: describing the atom

aperture
screen
Volume of
atoms (gas)

prism

White
light
...
Parts of the spectrum are absorbed, i.e., those
at frequencies of allowed transitions.
4
3
2

1

A certain type of atom has only four energy
levels, as shown in the diagram. The "spectral
lines" produces by th...
4
3
2

1

Continuing the preceding question, the total
number of spectral lines produced by this
element is
(a) 3.
(b) 4.
...
Comparing a radio photon with an infrared photon,
(a) they both have the same wavelength, and the infrared
photon moves fa...
Quantum theory ppt
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Quantum theory ppt

  1. 1. CHAPTER 13 QUANTUM THEORY
  2. 2. Problems with Planetary Atomic Model The electron, in orbiting the nucleus, undergoes an acceleration and should therefore continuously emit electromagnetic radiation The predictions are completely wrong!!! The successful model which came out of these attempts is now called the Bohr model and will be discussed in more detail later on
  3. 3. Photoelectric Effect When light shines on a metal surface, the surface emits electrons. For example, you can measure a current in a circuit just by shining a light on a metal plate
  4. 4. The current flow varies with the wavelength of light such that there was a sharp cutoff and no current flow for long wavelengths. The photocurrent increases when the light intensity increases but the wavelength is held constant.
  5. 5. Einstein successful explained the photoelectric effect within the context of quantum physics. Einstein proposed that light delivers its energy in chunks; light consists of little particles, or quanta, called photons, each with an energy of Planck's constant times its frequency. E=hf h: Planck’s constant F: Frequency of Radiation E: Energy h = 6.6 x 10-34 J.s.
  6. 6. Each photon carries a specific energy related to its wavelength, such that photons of short wavelength (blue light) carry more energy than long wavelength (red light) photons Photons when they impact a metal, if their frequency is large enough, can liberate an electron by overcoming the work function of the metal
  7. 7. Light made of two colors (two frequencies) shines on a metal surface whose photoelectric threshold frequency is 6.2 x 1014 Hz. The two frequencies are 5 x 1014 Hz (orange) 7 x 1014 Hz (violet). (1) Find the energies of the orange and violet photons. (2) Find the amount of energy a photon needs to knock electrons out of this surface. (3) Do either the orange photons or the violet photons have this much energy?
  8. 8. 1. The energy for the orange frequency is: E = hf = (6.6 x 10-34) x (5 x 1014) E = 3.3 x 10-19 J. The energy for the violet light is: E = hf = (6.6 x 10-34) x (7 x 1014) E = 4.6 x 10-19 J. 2. The threshold energy is E = hf = (6.6 x 10-34) x (6.2 x 1014) = 4.1 x 10-19 J. 3. The blue photons have sufficient energy to knock electrons out, but the orange photons do not.
  9. 9. The human eye can detect as few as 10,000 photons per second entering the pupil. About how much energy is this, per second? (Make an estimate) Solution 10,000 = 104 The energy of 10,000 visible photons is: (104) (hf) = 104 x (6.6 x 10-34 J-s) x (1015 Hz) = 6.6 x 10-15 joules.
  10. 10. http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/applets/twoslitsa.html
  11. 11. Regular old classical physics Newtonian Physics When things get small Quantum physics When things get fast Special relativity Small & fast Quantum field theory
  12. 12. Classical Physics: Newtonian Physics Modern Physics: Relativity, quantum physics, and any other field that employs these theories.
  13. 13. Quantum Physics: the “quantum” comes from quantization: we need to understand the origin of this. The Photoelectric Effect electrons metal light Electron detector
  14. 14. Actual Experimental Observations: [1] There is no delay between the light hitting the surface and the electrons being ejected [2] Electrons are ejected only if the incident light has a frequency above some threshold value (i.e., it depend on the color of the light!!) electrons metal light Electron detector
  15. 15. # of electrons ejected Many emitted electrons Threshold frequency No emitted electrons Red orange yellow green blue indigo violet ultraviolet frequency
  16. 16. Energy Before Planck: the particle could have any energy Vibrating particle
  17. 17. Energy After Planck: the particle could have only specific, quantized energies Vibrating particle
  18. 18. Energy E1 This means that if a particle is in some energy state, if it is to give up energy in the form of light, it has to give up a definite amount Light with energy equal to E1-E2!! E2 Vibrating particle Same diagram as last slide except “blown up” to see the spacing better.
  19. 19. Einstein argued that the emission of the light must occur in instantaneous bursts of radiation. He then took this one step further: he said that all light had the following properties: [1] All radiation occurs as tiny bundles (particles). [2] The bundles always move a lightspeed (c). [3] They have zero rest-mass. [4] The energy of a photon is given by E = hf h = Planck’s constant = 6.6 x 10-34 J x s
  20. 20. How do we explain why there is a threshold frequency? # of electrons ejected Many emitted electrons The electron must get this much energy (E = hf) from the photon. This energy is different for all metals and is called the work function of the metal. Threshold frequency No emitted electrons 0 Red orange yellow green blue indigo violet ultraviolet frequency
  21. 21. Radiation: waves or particles? Radiation is made up of particles called photons Evidence of the wave nature from interference Essentially, wave/particle duality employs the notion that an entity simultaneously possesses localized (particle) and distributed (wave) properties. Close inspection shows that an interference pattern is formed by individual photons hitting all over a screen!!! Interference  light were made up of waves. Pattern "speckled“  individual particle impacts
  22. 22. What is Light? Is it a WAVE? Remember the interference pattern with the laser going through two apertures? It definitely BEHAVES like a wave! Is it a PARTICLE? Photoelectric effect: It BEHAVES like a particle. So which one is it? Does it behave like a wave or a particle?!!
  23. 23. So which one is it? Does it behave like a wave or a particle?!! Answer: It behaves like BOTH! We call this the wave-particle duality of radiation (light).
  24. 24. What is the universe made of? Matter and radiation (as far as we know anyway). How do matter and radiation interact with each other?? Examples: Reflection Refraction Absorption Photoelectric effect Burning/melting (lasers) …
  25. 25. Electrons Interference: Wave-like behavior!!
  26. 26. De Broglie, a Ph.D. student at the University of Paris in 1923, felt that if radiation exhibits wave-particle duality, matter should have a dual nature too!!!!! This was confirmed using a double-slit experiment with particles of matter, such as electrons.
  27. 27. http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/index.pl
  28. 28. Every material particle has wave properties with a wavelength equal to: λ = h/ms (De Broglie) m: mass of particle s: its speed h: Planck’s constant
  29. 29. In-class Problem Calculate the de Broglie Wavelength of a basketball (m = 1 kg) moving at a speed of 1 m/s. How does this wavelength compare with the size of an atom (~ 1 x 10-9m)? Solution: λ = h/mv = (6.6 x 10-34 J·s)/(1 kg · 1 m/s) = 6.6 x 10-34 m (MUCH smaller than the atom!) What is the de Broglie wavelength of an electron (m = 9 x 10-31 kg) moving at a speed of 1 x 107 m/s? Solution: λ= h/mv = (6.6 x 10-34 J·s)/{(9 x 10-31 kg · 1 x 107 m/s) = (6.6/9)(10-34)/ (10-31 · 107 ) ( J · s · kg · m/s) = 0.7 x 10-10 m (about the same size as an atom!)
  30. 30. sand electrons
  31. 31. sand electrons
  32. 32. sand Two overlapping piles of sand electrons Not just two overlapping “piles” of electrons
  33. 33. sand Two overlapping piles of sand electrons Interference pattern
  34. 34. Since the wavelength of the electron is so small, the apertures have to be very narrow for us to see the interference. The experiment originally devised to observe this interference was to force electrons through a metallic foil. The separation of atoms in the foil was the aperture size. Electrons Metal foil
  35. 35. Note: J. J. Thompson discovered the electron in 1900 and called it a “charged particle.” In 1927, G. P. Thomson did the “electron interference” experiment to show that electrons behaved like waves. G. P. was J. J.’s son! The wave theory of matter: Every particle has wave properties with a wavelength equal to h/mv, where m is the particle’s mass, v its speed, and h is Planck’s constant.
  36. 36. The Strange World of Quantum Physics
  37. 37. The Strange World of Quantum Physics Photons (particles!)
  38. 38. The Strange World of Quantum Physics One Photon Where does it hit the screen?? Let’s watch one at a time…
  39. 39. Screen
  40. 40. Screen Given ONE photon, we cannot predict exactly where it will hit. We can only predict the PROBABILITY that it will hit a certain place on the screen: i.e., we can predict the pattern that many photons will make!!
  41. 41. We can only predict the PROBABILITY that it will hit a certain place on the screen: i.e., we can predict the pattern that many photons will make!! This is where Einstein had a problem with quantum mechanics, and also the origin of his famous quote: “ … God does not play dice with the universe.”
  42. 42. The pattern we observed can be predicted through the application of quantum theory. Erwin Schroedinger came up with an equation that predicts the “probability wave” Ψ (psi). We call it a psi-wave. This mathematical term psi, is used predict all kinds of physical phenomena at the atomic level—from interference patterns to light emitted from atoms. A physicist will have had 2 to 3 full years of quantum mechanics classes just to be functional with the theory!!
  43. 43. One of quantum theory’s main applications: describing the atom One type of spectroscope: aperture screen prism Gas tube Why LINES?
  44. 44. What energy transitions are possible? Energy E4—E3, E4—E2, E4—E1 If these energy differences are: E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 2 x 10-19J, 5 x 10-19J, 9 x 10-19J, Respectively, what are the frequencies of the emission lines that we should see? E = hf so f = E/h where (f = frequency, h = 6.6 x 10-34 J·s) For E4—E3, f = (2 x 10-19J) / (6.6 x 10-34 J·s) = 0.3 x 1015 Hz f = 3.0 x 1014 Hz Similarly, f = 7.5 x 1014 Hz (for E4—E2) f = 13.5 x 1014 Hz (for E4—E1)
  45. 45. Not only can these atom only EMIT photons of a certain frequency, but they can only ABSORB light of a certain frequency. Energy E5 E4 E3 E2 Photon E1
  46. 46. To get atoms to EMIT light, we use the discharge tube. We had to give it energy to “pump up” the electrons in the atoms so that they could fall back into lower rungs on the ladder and emit photons. aperture prism Gas tube screen
  47. 47. One of quantum theory’s main applications: describing the atom aperture screen Volume of atoms (gas) prism White light What should we see??!!
  48. 48. Parts of the spectrum are absorbed, i.e., those at frequencies of allowed transitions.
  49. 49. 4 3 2 1 A certain type of atom has only four energy levels, as shown in the diagram. The "spectral lines" produces by this element are all visible, except for one ultra-violet line. The quantum jump that produces the UV line is (a) state 2 to 1. (b) state 4 to 1. (c) state 4 to 3. (d) state 1 to 4 (e) impossible to determine without further information.
  50. 50. 4 3 2 1 Continuing the preceding question, the total number of spectral lines produced by this element is (a) 3. (b) 4. (c) 6. (d) 10. (e) impossible to determine without further information.
  51. 51. Comparing a radio photon with an infrared photon, (a) they both have the same wavelength, and the infrared photon moves faster. (b) the radio photon has the longer wavelength, and the infrared photon moves faster. (c) the radio photon has the shorter wavelength, but they both move the same speed. (d) the radio photon has the longer wavelength, but they both move the same speed. (e) the radio photon has the longer wavelength and it also moves faster.
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