Significance of climatology in architecture By, Deepratick biswas Barc/1001/2008 Semester iii
CONTENTS•INTRODUCTION•ARCHITECTURAL CLIMATOLOGY•SIGHT PLANNING•TOPOGRAPHY•PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN•DAYLIGHTING•VENTILATION•MOISTURE•NOISE CONTROL SYSTEM
INTRODUCTIONClimate means a region with a certain condition of temperature, dryness, wind, light,etc..It is rather an integration in time of physical states of atmospheric environment,characteristics of geographical location.Weather is the momentary state of atmospheric environment at a certain location .Climate can be called the integration of time of weather condition.Climate has 4 major elements:- EARTH – soil WATER – humidity FIRE – sun and temperature AIR – wind Climatology is all about the study of these elements
ARCHITECTURAL CLIMATOLOGY Architecture is all about ART and TECHNOLOGY. It includes public services, water supply and drainage, air conditioning, ventilation, lighting, etc. it is the basic science a designer is concerned about. It involves majorly on:- climatic elements how they are behaving on us how to be benefited by these climatic elements how to protect ourselves from the adverse effect of climatic elements The major steps in architectural climatology are:- climatology-study of climatic elements biology-study of human comfort level with respect to climatology technology-creating of built environment architecture -the combination of the above and the final product
Site planning in landscape architecture and architecture refers to the organizational stage ofthe design process.It involves the organization of land use zoning, access, circulation, privacy, security,shelter, land drainage, and other factors.This is done by arranging the compositional elements of landform, planting, water,buildings and paving and building.Site planning generally begins by assessing a potential site for development through siteanalysis.Information about slope, soils, hydrology, vegetation, parcel ownership, orientation, etc.are assessed and mapped.By determining areas that are poor /better for development, the architect can assessoptimal location and design a structure that works there.So the major concerns of planning are:-TopographyAir temperatureHumidityPrecipitation Air movement Vegetation and local factors
TOPOGRAPHY topography is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also vegetative and human-made features, and even local history and culture. TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING In its contemporary definition, topographic mapping shows relief. In the United States, USGS topographic maps show relief using contour lines. These maps show not only the contours, but also any significant streams or other bodies of water, forest cover, built-up areas or individual buildings (depending on scale), and other features and points of interest
PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDING DESIGNPassive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout thesuns daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating andcooling systems.
DAY LIGHTINGDay lighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparentmedia, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day ,natural lightprovides effective internal illumination.
ORIENTATION OF BUILDING DESIGNThe orientation of the larger faceof the building towards northsouth direction is considered tobe the best as it avoids the deeplypenetrating rays of east and west .It avoids heating up of the largerside at evening time maintainingtemperature balance.
Windows are the most common way to admit daylight into a space. Theirvertical orientation means that they selectively admit sunlight and diffusedaylight at different times of the day and year. Three ways to improve the amount of light available from a window:: Place window close to a light colored wall. Slant the sides of window openings so the inner opening is larger than the outer opening. Use a large light colored window sill to project light into the room.
Skylights are often used for daylighting. They are horizontal windows placed at the roof of buildings. FIG.1Light tubes also called solar tubes, placed into a roof and admitting light to afocused area of the interior. These somewhat resemble recessed light fixtures inthe ceiling. FIG.2
HUMIDITY AND BUILDING DESIGN Moisture can be a liability if it comes in the form ofhumidity, causing such stickiness that one cannotevaporative cool (cooling by perspiring) in summer strategies to reduce the discomfort of high humidity : maximizing ventilation, inducing air flow around facilities venting or moving moisture-producing functions such as kitchens and shower rooms to outside areas nature can be an asset by evaporating in hot, dry climates to cool and humidify the air (a natural air- conditioning) techniques for evaporative cooling include placing facilities where breezes will pass over water features before reaching the facility, and providing fountains, pools, and plants
OTHER CLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS•Rainfall can be a liability if any concentrated runoff fromdeveloped surfaces is not managed to avoid erosion•Rainfall can be an asset if it is collected off roofs for use asdrinking waterFor storms/hurricanes/monsoons/typhoons : 1. provide or make arrangements for emergency storm shelters 2. avoid development in floodplain and storm surge areas 3. consider wind effects on walls and roofs 4. provide storm shutters for openings 5. use appropriate wind bracing and tie-downs 6. design facilities to be light enough and of readily available and renewable materials to be safely sacrificial to large storms, or of sufficient mass and detail to prevent loss of life and material
SOUND AND BUILDING DESIGNNoise control systemNoise control is an active or passive means of reducing sound emissions, oftenincentivized by personal comfort, environmental considerations or legalcompliance.
Four basic principles of noise control: Sound insulation : prevent the transmission of noise by the introduction of a mass barrier. Common materials have high-density properties such as brick, concrete, metal etc. Sound absorption : a porous material which acts as a ‘noise sponge’ by converting the sound energy into heat within the material. Common sound absorption materials include open cell foams and fiberglass Vibration damping : applicable for large vibrating surfaces. The damping mechanism works by extracting the vibration energy from the thin sheet and dissipating it as heat. A common material is Sound Deadened Steel (SDS). Vibration isolation : prevents transmission of vibration energy from a source to a receiver by introducing a flexible element or a physical break. Common vibration isolators are springs, rubber mounts, cork etc.
ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICSAcoustical wall and ceiling panels can be constructed of many differentmaterials and finishes. The ideal acoustical panels are those without a face orfinish material that interferes with the acoustical infill or substrate. Fabriccovered panels are one way to maximize the acoustical absorption.
BIBLIOGRAPHY www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.istockphoto.com Eco House- a design guide by Sue Roaf Manual of tropical housing and building by O.H. Koenigsberger
PRESENTED BY:DEEPRATICK BISWASBARC/1001/2008SEMESTER III