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  • 2.
    • Effective communication requires the message source to create (encoding) a message that can be interpreted (decoding) by the intended message receiver. 
    • In advertising, the act of creating a message is often considered the creative aspect of carrying out an advertising campaign. 
    • And because it is a creative process, the number of different ways a message can be generated is limited only by the imagination of those responsible for developing the message. 
  • 3.
    • When creating an advertising message the marketer must consider such issues as:
    • General Message Factors
    • Message Structure
    • Message Testing
  • 4.
    • General Message Factors
    • When developing the message the marketer must take into consideration several factors including:
    • Characteristics of the Target Audience –
    • The makeup of the target audience (e.g., age, location, attitudes, etc.) impacts what is conveyed in the message.
    • Type of Media Used – The media outlet (e.g., television, print, Internet, etc.) used to deliver the message impacts the way a message will be created.
  • 5.
    • Persuasive communication that presents only one point of view; also called one-sided appeal . Most mass media advertising messages are one-sided.
    • A one-sided message is more appropriate for an audience that is favorably inclined toward the view being presented or is unlikely to be exposed to the other side.
    • A religious fund-raising appeal is usually one-sided on the assumption that the targeted audience is favorably feeling like toward the view being expounded and is unlikely to be receptive to other religious beliefs.
    • With a more skeptical audience, a one-sided message is less effective than a two-sided message which presents both points of view and then arguments to counter the opposing view
  • 6.
    • Persuasive communication that presents two points of view and then presents arguments to counter the opposing view; also called two-sided appeal .
    • A two-sided message for a service bureau might acknowledge that a competitor is located closer to the prospect and then assert that proximity is irrelevant if the service bureau is doing a good job.
    • A two-sided message is more appropriate to an audience that is favorably feeling like toward the opposing view or is likely to be exposed to strong arguments for the other side.
  • 7.
    • An audience that favors another brand or point-of-view must be persuaded to abandon that view before a new view can be accepted.
    • Two-sided messages work best with an educated audience that tends to make informed choices like industrial buyers.
    • The order in which the views are presented in a two-sided appeal can affect the impact of each message depending upon the audience characteristics.
  • 8.
    • Product Factors –
    • Products that are highly complex require a different message than simpler products. 
    • the target market’s familiarity with a product affects what is contained in a message. 
    • For instance, a new product attempting to gain awareness in the market will have a message that is much different than a product that is well-known.
  • 9.
    • Overall Advertising Objective
    • the objective of the advertising campaign can affect the type of ad that is designed. 
    • For example, an advertisement with the objective of stimulating immediate sales for an existing product will be different than an advertisement that seeks to build initial awareness of a new product.
  • 10.
    • Message Structure
    • Most advertising messages share common components within the message including:
    • The Appeal – This refers to the underlying idea that captures the attention of a message receiver.  Appeals can fall into such categories as emotional, fearful, humorous, and sexual.
    • Value Proposition – The advertising message often contains a reason for customers to be interested in the product which often means the ad will emphasize the benefits obtained from using the product.
  • 11.
    • Slogan – To help position the product in a customer’s mind and distinguish it from competitors’ offerings, advertisements will contain a word or phrase that is repeated across several different messages and different media outlets.
  • 12.
    • Message Testing
    • Before choosing a specific message marketers running large advertising campaigns will want to have confidence in their message by having potential members of the targeted audience provide feedback. 
    • The most popular method of testing advertising for the marketer (or their ad agency) is to conduct focus groups where several advertising messages are presented. 
    • On the Internet, advertising delivery technology allows for testing of ads by randomly exposing website visitors to different ads and then measuring their response. 
  • 13.
    • Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising .
    • “ It may focus on a specific ad or campaign, or may be directed at a more general understanding of how advertising works or how consumers use the information in advertising.
    • It can entail a variety of research approaches, including psychological, sociological, economic, and other perspectives.”
  • 14.
    • Research can be conducted to optimize advertisements for any medium: radio, television, print (magazine, newspaper or direct mail), outdoor billboard (highway, bus, or train), or Internet.
    • Different methods would be applied to gather the necessary data appropriately.
    • There are two types of research, customized and syndicated.
    • Customized research is conducted for a specific client to address that client’s needs. Only that client has access to the results of the research.
    • Syndicated research is a single research study conducted by a research company with its results available, for sale, to multiple companies.
  • 15.
    • Pre-testing, also known as copy testing, is a form of customized research that predicts in-market performance of an ad, before it airs, by analyzing audience levels of attention, brand linkage, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad’s Flow of Attention and Flow of Emotion.
    • Pre-testing is also used on ads still in rough form – e.g., animatics.
    • Pre-testing is also used to identify weak spots within an ad to improve performance, to more effectively edit 60’s to 30’s or 30’s to 15’s, to select images from the spot to use in an integrated campaign’s print ad, to pull out the key moments for use in ad tracking, and to identify branding moments.
  • 16.
    • Post-testing
    • Post-testing/Ad tracking studies can be customized or syndicated.
    • Tracking studies provide either periodic or continuous in-market research monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage and attitudes.
    • Advertising tracking can be done by telephone interviews or online interviews—with the two approaches producing fundamentally different measures of consumer memories of advertising, recall versus recognition.
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