Training And Development
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Training And Development



Training And Development

Training And Development



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    Training And Development Training And Development Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Ten Training, Development, and Organizational Learning
    • Chapter Outline
      • Purposes of Training and Development
      • New Employee Orientation
      • Assessing Training and Development Needs
      • Designing Training and Development Programs
      • Training and Development Techniques and Methods
      10 -
    • Chapter Outline (cont’d)
      • Management Development
      • Organizational Development and Learning
      • Evaluating Training and Development
      10 -
    • Chapter Objectives
      • Identify and describe the purposes of training and development.
      • Discuss new employee orientation.
      • Describe how training and development needs are assessed.
      • Discuss common training and development techniques and methods.
      • Discuss the unique considerations in management development.
      10 -
    • Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
      • Discuss how organizations, as well as individuals, can learn and develop.
      • Describe how organizations can evaluate the effectiveness of their training and development programs.
      10 -
    • Purposes of Training and Development
      • Employee training
        • A planned attempt by an organization to facilitate employee learning of job-related knowledge, skills, and behaviors
      • Development
        • Teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for both present and future jobs
      10 -
    • The Nature of Training
      • Training usually involves teaching operational or technical employees how to do their jobs more effectively and/or efficiently.
      • Responsibilities for training are generally assigned to the HR function.
      • In general, training is intended to help the organization function more effectively.
      • Managers must be sure that productivity can be increased through training and that productivity gains are possible with existing resources.
      10 -
    • The Nature of Development
      • Development is generally aimed at helping managers better understand and solve problems, make decisions, and capitalize on opportunities.
      • Development is often considered a HR function.
      10 -
    • Learning Theory and Employee Training
      • Learning
        • A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential that results from direct or indirect experience
      • Learning organization
        • An organization whose employees continuously attempt to learn new information and to use what they learn to improve product or service quality
      10 -
    • Learning and Employee Training and Development 10 -
    • New Employee Orientation
      • Orientation
        • The process of introducing new employees to the organization so that they can become effective contributors more quickly
      • Goals of orientation
        • To reduce anxiety and uncertainty for new employees
        • To ease the burden of socializing newcomers for supervisors and coworkers
        • To provide favorable initial job experiences
      10 -
    • Basic Issues in Orientation
      • Content of orientation
        • Policies and procedures
        • Work hours, compensation, schedules, who can answer questions
        • Overview and introduction to the business
      • Length of orientation
        • Depends on content
        • May include initial orientation and follow-up
      • Who will conduct orientation
        • HR, managers, union officials, employees
      10 -
    • Sample New Employee Orientation Schedule 10 -
    • Assessing Training and Development Needs
      • Needs analysis
        • The assessment of the organization’s job-related needs and the capabilities of the current workforce
      • The manager must carefully assess the company’s:
        • Strategy
        • Resources available for training
        • General philosophy regarding training and development
      • Decision must be made about training employees for current jobs versus for future jobs
      10 -
    • Setting Training and Development Goals
      • The organization should know in advance what it expects of its employees prior to training.
      • The HR manager planning the training must look at the current state of affairs, decide what changes are necessary, and formulate these changes into specific training development goals.
      • Goals should be objective, verifiable, and specific.
      10 -
    • In-House Versus Outsourced Programs
      • In-house training or development program
        • Is conducted on the organization’s premises primarily by the organization’s employees
        • Content can be tailored to the organization
        • Scheduling can be flexible
      10 -
    • In-House Versus Outsourced Programs (cont’d)
      • Outsourced training or development program
        • Involves having people from outside the organization perform the training
        • Cost can be lower than in-house training
        • Professional trainers assure quality
        • Program may be generic rather than tailored to the organization
      10 -
    • Designing Training and Development Programs
      • The first steps are outlining and defining training and development program content.
      • Then define the content, which specifies the material that is intended to be taught.
      • Another approach is to focus on what is to be learned.
      • More complex training requires a more complex definition of content.
      10 -
    • 10 -
    • Selecting Training and Development Instructors
      • The most common choices regarding instructors are whether to use full-time professional trainers (who might be hired from an external firm or are part of an in-house training staff) or use operating managers.
      • These individuals may be experts on the task to be taught, but poor instructors.
      • Professional trainers is the other choice.
      10 -
    • Training and Development Techniques and Methods
      • Work-based programs
        • Tie the training and development activities directly to the performance of the task
        • On-the-job training
          • Having employees learn their job while they are actually performing it
        • Apprenticeship
          • A combination of on-the-job and classroom instruction
      10 -
    • Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d)
      • Work-based programs (cont’d)
        • Vestibule training
          • A work-simulation situation in which the job is performed under a condition that closely simulates the real work environment
        • Systematic job rotation and transfer
          • Systematically rotating or transferring the employee from one job to another
      10 -
    • Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d)
      • Instructional-based programs
        • Approach training and development from a teaching and learning perspective
        • Lecture or discussion approach
          • A trainer presents the material to those attending the program in a descriptive fashion
        • Computer-assisted instruction
          • A trainee sits at a personal computer and operates software that has been developed specifically to impart certain information to the individual
      10 -
    • Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d)
      • Instructional-based programs (cont’d)
        • Programmed instruction
          • The material to be learned is prepared in a manual or training booklet, which the individual studies at his or her pace
      10 -
    • 10 - Training Technology Computer-assisted instruction Team-building and group-based methods Video teleconferencing Interactive videos
    • Special Needs for Management Development
      • Rather than attending a single training program, managers may need to participate in different programs that span a long time.
      • Management development may be subject to different opportunities and limitations regarding materials, training methods, and modes of instruction.
      • The learner may need to be an active participant in a development program.
      10 -
    • Special Techniques for Management Development
      • In-basket exercise
        • The trainee must play the role of manager in dealing with a hypothetical in-basket of letters, memos, reports, phone messages, and e-mail messages.
      • Leaderless group exercise
        • A group of trainees are placed together in a group setting and told to make a decision or solve a problem.
      10 -
    • Organizational Development
      • An effort that is planned systemwide and managed from the top of the organization to increase the organization’s overall performance through planned interventions
      • Relies heavily on behavioral science technology
      • Techniques: diagnostic OD, survey feedback OD, third-party peacemaking, process consultation
      10 -
    • Organizational Learning
      • The process by which an organization “learns” from past mistakes and adapts to its environment
        • Begins with individual learning and change
        • Depends on social processes and sharing
      • Organizational memory
        • The collective, institutional record of past events
      10 -
    • Evaluating Training and Development
      • Performance before training should be measured.
      • When training has been completed, all trainees should be able to demonstrate capabilities from the training.
      • For management development, organizations can rely on evaluations completed by the trainees after a particular training program.
      10 -
    • Design of Training Programs
      • General training
        • Providing trainees with skills and abilities that can be applied in any organization
        • May result in increased turnover
      • Specific training
        • Providing trainees with skills or information that is of use only to the present organization
      10 -