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Training And Development


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Training And Development

Training And Development

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  • 1. Chapter Ten Training, Development, and Organizational Learning
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Purposes of Training and Development
    • New Employee Orientation
    • Assessing Training and Development Needs
    • Designing Training and Development Programs
    • Training and Development Techniques and Methods
    10 -
  • 3. Chapter Outline (cont’d)
    • Management Development
    • Organizational Development and Learning
    • Evaluating Training and Development
    10 -
  • 4. Chapter Objectives
    • Identify and describe the purposes of training and development.
    • Discuss new employee orientation.
    • Describe how training and development needs are assessed.
    • Discuss common training and development techniques and methods.
    • Discuss the unique considerations in management development.
    10 -
  • 5. Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
    • Discuss how organizations, as well as individuals, can learn and develop.
    • Describe how organizations can evaluate the effectiveness of their training and development programs.
    10 -
  • 6. Purposes of Training and Development
    • Employee training
      • A planned attempt by an organization to facilitate employee learning of job-related knowledge, skills, and behaviors
    • Development
      • Teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for both present and future jobs
    10 -
  • 7. The Nature of Training
    • Training usually involves teaching operational or technical employees how to do their jobs more effectively and/or efficiently.
    • Responsibilities for training are generally assigned to the HR function.
    • In general, training is intended to help the organization function more effectively.
    • Managers must be sure that productivity can be increased through training and that productivity gains are possible with existing resources.
    10 -
  • 8. The Nature of Development
    • Development is generally aimed at helping managers better understand and solve problems, make decisions, and capitalize on opportunities.
    • Development is often considered a HR function.
    10 -
  • 9. Learning Theory and Employee Training
    • Learning
      • A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential that results from direct or indirect experience
    • Learning organization
      • An organization whose employees continuously attempt to learn new information and to use what they learn to improve product or service quality
    10 -
  • 10. Learning and Employee Training and Development 10 -
  • 11. New Employee Orientation
    • Orientation
      • The process of introducing new employees to the organization so that they can become effective contributors more quickly
    • Goals of orientation
      • To reduce anxiety and uncertainty for new employees
      • To ease the burden of socializing newcomers for supervisors and coworkers
      • To provide favorable initial job experiences
    10 -
  • 12. Basic Issues in Orientation
    • Content of orientation
      • Policies and procedures
      • Work hours, compensation, schedules, who can answer questions
      • Overview and introduction to the business
    • Length of orientation
      • Depends on content
      • May include initial orientation and follow-up
    • Who will conduct orientation
      • HR, managers, union officials, employees
    10 -
  • 13. Sample New Employee Orientation Schedule 10 -
  • 14. Assessing Training and Development Needs
    • Needs analysis
      • The assessment of the organization’s job-related needs and the capabilities of the current workforce
    • The manager must carefully assess the company’s:
      • Strategy
      • Resources available for training
      • General philosophy regarding training and development
    • Decision must be made about training employees for current jobs versus for future jobs
    10 -
  • 15. Setting Training and Development Goals
    • The organization should know in advance what it expects of its employees prior to training.
    • The HR manager planning the training must look at the current state of affairs, decide what changes are necessary, and formulate these changes into specific training development goals.
    • Goals should be objective, verifiable, and specific.
    10 -
  • 16. In-House Versus Outsourced Programs
    • In-house training or development program
      • Is conducted on the organization’s premises primarily by the organization’s employees
      • Content can be tailored to the organization
      • Scheduling can be flexible
    10 -
  • 17. In-House Versus Outsourced Programs (cont’d)
    • Outsourced training or development program
      • Involves having people from outside the organization perform the training
      • Cost can be lower than in-house training
      • Professional trainers assure quality
      • Program may be generic rather than tailored to the organization
    10 -
  • 18. Designing Training and Development Programs
    • The first steps are outlining and defining training and development program content.
    • Then define the content, which specifies the material that is intended to be taught.
    • Another approach is to focus on what is to be learned.
    • More complex training requires a more complex definition of content.
    10 -
  • 19. 10 -
  • 20. Selecting Training and Development Instructors
    • The most common choices regarding instructors are whether to use full-time professional trainers (who might be hired from an external firm or are part of an in-house training staff) or use operating managers.
    • These individuals may be experts on the task to be taught, but poor instructors.
    • Professional trainers is the other choice.
    10 -
  • 21. Training and Development Techniques and Methods
    • Work-based programs
      • Tie the training and development activities directly to the performance of the task
      • On-the-job training
        • Having employees learn their job while they are actually performing it
      • Apprenticeship
        • A combination of on-the-job and classroom instruction
    10 -
  • 22. Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d)
    • Work-based programs (cont’d)
      • Vestibule training
        • A work-simulation situation in which the job is performed under a condition that closely simulates the real work environment
      • Systematic job rotation and transfer
        • Systematically rotating or transferring the employee from one job to another
    10 -
  • 23. Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d)
    • Instructional-based programs
      • Approach training and development from a teaching and learning perspective
      • Lecture or discussion approach
        • A trainer presents the material to those attending the program in a descriptive fashion
      • Computer-assisted instruction
        • A trainee sits at a personal computer and operates software that has been developed specifically to impart certain information to the individual
    10 -
  • 24. Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d)
    • Instructional-based programs (cont’d)
      • Programmed instruction
        • The material to be learned is prepared in a manual or training booklet, which the individual studies at his or her pace
    10 -
  • 25. 10 - Training Technology Computer-assisted instruction Team-building and group-based methods Video teleconferencing Interactive videos
  • 26. Special Needs for Management Development
    • Rather than attending a single training program, managers may need to participate in different programs that span a long time.
    • Management development may be subject to different opportunities and limitations regarding materials, training methods, and modes of instruction.
    • The learner may need to be an active participant in a development program.
    10 -
  • 27. Special Techniques for Management Development
    • In-basket exercise
      • The trainee must play the role of manager in dealing with a hypothetical in-basket of letters, memos, reports, phone messages, and e-mail messages.
    • Leaderless group exercise
      • A group of trainees are placed together in a group setting and told to make a decision or solve a problem.
    10 -
  • 28. Organizational Development
    • An effort that is planned systemwide and managed from the top of the organization to increase the organization’s overall performance through planned interventions
    • Relies heavily on behavioral science technology
    • Techniques: diagnostic OD, survey feedback OD, third-party peacemaking, process consultation
    10 -
  • 29. Organizational Learning
    • The process by which an organization “learns” from past mistakes and adapts to its environment
      • Begins with individual learning and change
      • Depends on social processes and sharing
    • Organizational memory
      • The collective, institutional record of past events
    10 -
  • 30. Evaluating Training and Development
    • Performance before training should be measured.
    • When training has been completed, all trainees should be able to demonstrate capabilities from the training.
    • For management development, organizations can rely on evaluations completed by the trainees after a particular training program.
    10 -
  • 31. Design of Training Programs
    • General training
      • Providing trainees with skills and abilities that can be applied in any organization
      • May result in increased turnover
    • Specific training
      • Providing trainees with skills or information that is of use only to the present organization
    10 -