Training And Development


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Training And Development

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Training And Development

  1. 1. Chapter Ten Training, Development, and Organizational Learning
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Purposes of Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>New Employee Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Training and Development Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Training and Development Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Development Techniques and Methods </li></ul>10 -
  3. 3. Chapter Outline (cont’d) <ul><li>Management Development </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Development and Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Training and Development </li></ul>10 -
  4. 4. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Identify and describe the purposes of training and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss new employee orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how training and development needs are assessed. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss common training and development techniques and methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the unique considerations in management development. </li></ul>10 -
  5. 5. Chapter Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Discuss how organizations, as well as individuals, can learn and develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how organizations can evaluate the effectiveness of their training and development programs. </li></ul>10 -
  6. 6. Purposes of Training and Development <ul><li>Employee training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A planned attempt by an organization to facilitate employee learning of job-related knowledge, skills, and behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for both present and future jobs </li></ul></ul>10 -
  7. 7. The Nature of Training <ul><li>Training usually involves teaching operational or technical employees how to do their jobs more effectively and/or efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities for training are generally assigned to the HR function. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, training is intended to help the organization function more effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers must be sure that productivity can be increased through training and that productivity gains are possible with existing resources. </li></ul>10 -
  8. 8. The Nature of Development <ul><li>Development is generally aimed at helping managers better understand and solve problems, make decisions, and capitalize on opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Development is often considered a HR function. </li></ul>10 -
  9. 9. Learning Theory and Employee Training <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential that results from direct or indirect experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organization whose employees continuously attempt to learn new information and to use what they learn to improve product or service quality </li></ul></ul>10 -
  10. 10. Learning and Employee Training and Development 10 -
  11. 11. New Employee Orientation <ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of introducing new employees to the organization so that they can become effective contributors more quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce anxiety and uncertainty for new employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ease the burden of socializing newcomers for supervisors and coworkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide favorable initial job experiences </li></ul></ul>10 -
  12. 12. Basic Issues in Orientation <ul><li>Content of orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work hours, compensation, schedules, who can answer questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview and introduction to the business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Length of orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May include initial orientation and follow-up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who will conduct orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR, managers, union officials, employees </li></ul></ul>10 -
  13. 13. Sample New Employee Orientation Schedule 10 -
  14. 14. Assessing Training and Development Needs <ul><li>Needs analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The assessment of the organization’s job-related needs and the capabilities of the current workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The manager must carefully assess the company’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources available for training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General philosophy regarding training and development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision must be made about training employees for current jobs versus for future jobs </li></ul>10 -
  15. 15. Setting Training and Development Goals <ul><li>The organization should know in advance what it expects of its employees prior to training. </li></ul><ul><li>The HR manager planning the training must look at the current state of affairs, decide what changes are necessary, and formulate these changes into specific training development goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should be objective, verifiable, and specific. </li></ul>10 -
  16. 16. In-House Versus Outsourced Programs <ul><li>In-house training or development program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is conducted on the organization’s premises primarily by the organization’s employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content can be tailored to the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling can be flexible </li></ul></ul>10 -
  17. 17. In-House Versus Outsourced Programs (cont’d) <ul><li>Outsourced training or development program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves having people from outside the organization perform the training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost can be lower than in-house training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional trainers assure quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program may be generic rather than tailored to the organization </li></ul></ul>10 -
  18. 18. Designing Training and Development Programs <ul><li>The first steps are outlining and defining training and development program content. </li></ul><ul><li>Then define the content, which specifies the material that is intended to be taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Another approach is to focus on what is to be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>More complex training requires a more complex definition of content. </li></ul>10 -
  19. 19. 10 -
  20. 20. Selecting Training and Development Instructors <ul><li>The most common choices regarding instructors are whether to use full-time professional trainers (who might be hired from an external firm or are part of an in-house training staff) or use operating managers. </li></ul><ul><li>These individuals may be experts on the task to be taught, but poor instructors. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional trainers is the other choice. </li></ul>10 -
  21. 21. Training and Development Techniques and Methods <ul><li>Work-based programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie the training and development activities directly to the performance of the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-job training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having employees learn their job while they are actually performing it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of on-the-job and classroom instruction </li></ul></ul></ul>10 -
  22. 22. Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d) <ul><li>Work-based programs (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibule training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A work-simulation situation in which the job is performed under a condition that closely simulates the real work environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic job rotation and transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systematically rotating or transferring the employee from one job to another </li></ul></ul></ul>10 -
  23. 23. Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d) <ul><li>Instructional-based programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach training and development from a teaching and learning perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture or discussion approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A trainer presents the material to those attending the program in a descriptive fashion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-assisted instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A trainee sits at a personal computer and operates software that has been developed specifically to impart certain information to the individual </li></ul></ul></ul>10 -
  24. 24. Training and Development Techniques and Methods (cont’d) <ul><li>Instructional-based programs (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The material to be learned is prepared in a manual or training booklet, which the individual studies at his or her pace </li></ul></ul></ul>10 -
  25. 25. 10 - Training Technology Computer-assisted instruction Team-building and group-based methods Video teleconferencing Interactive videos
  26. 26. Special Needs for Management Development <ul><li>Rather than attending a single training program, managers may need to participate in different programs that span a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Management development may be subject to different opportunities and limitations regarding materials, training methods, and modes of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner may need to be an active participant in a development program. </li></ul>10 -
  27. 27. Special Techniques for Management Development <ul><li>In-basket exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The trainee must play the role of manager in dealing with a hypothetical in-basket of letters, memos, reports, phone messages, and e-mail messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaderless group exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of trainees are placed together in a group setting and told to make a decision or solve a problem. </li></ul></ul>10 -
  28. 28. Organizational Development <ul><li>An effort that is planned systemwide and managed from the top of the organization to increase the organization’s overall performance through planned interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Relies heavily on behavioral science technology </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques: diagnostic OD, survey feedback OD, third-party peacemaking, process consultation </li></ul>10 -
  29. 29. Organizational Learning <ul><li>The process by which an organization “learns” from past mistakes and adapts to its environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with individual learning and change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on social processes and sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The collective, institutional record of past events </li></ul></ul>10 -
  30. 30. Evaluating Training and Development <ul><li>Performance before training should be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>When training has been completed, all trainees should be able to demonstrate capabilities from the training. </li></ul><ul><li>For management development, organizations can rely on evaluations completed by the trainees after a particular training program. </li></ul>10 -
  31. 31. Design of Training Programs <ul><li>General training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing trainees with skills and abilities that can be applied in any organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May result in increased turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing trainees with skills or information that is of use only to the present organization </li></ul></ul>10 -