Communication and Consumer Behavior Chapter 9 Communication and Consumer Behavior
Chapter Outline <ul><li>Components of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>The Communication Process </li></ul><ul><li>Designin...
Basic Communication Model Figure 9.1
The Communications Process <ul><li>The Message Initiator (the Source) </li></ul><ul><li>The Sender </li></ul><ul><li>The R...
The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </l...
Discussion Question <ul><li>How have informal sources affected your decision as a consumer? </li></ul><ul><li>Which inform...
The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </l...
The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </l...
This ad has strong synergy between the endorser and the type of product.
Discussion Question <ul><li>Who do you consider credible spokespeople? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you th...
The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </l...
Sleeper Effect The idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.
The Target Audience (receivers) <ul><li>Personal characteristics and comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement and congr...
Feedback  The Receiver’s Response <ul><li>Feedback should be gathered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promptly </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Advertising Effectiveness Research <ul><li>Media and message exposure measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many consumers re...
Comscore Media Metrix weblink
Nielson Ratings at Zap2it.com weblink
A People Meter for Television Measurement
Advertising Effectiveness Research <ul><li>Message Attention and Interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological measur...
Eye Tracking Research weblink
Comprehensive Communication Model - Figure 9-6
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Communications strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must include objectives </li></u...
The Three Phases and Flow  Figure 9-7
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Target Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation is key </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Magazines) <ul><li>Highly selective </li><...
Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Television) <ul><li>Low costs per contact ...
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Message Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement theory </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative adve...
Wordplay on SUV
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative adve...
This ad uses negative framing.
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative adve...
A comparative ad
Discussion Question <ul><li>You are a marketer for your college/university. </li></ul><ul><li>How could you use comparativ...
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative adve...
Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative adve...
Emotional Advertising Appeals <ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasive advertising </li></ul><ul><l...
Table 9.2 Impact of Humor on Advertising <ul><li>Humor attracts attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor does not harm comprehen...
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Chapter 9 Communication And Consumer Behavior

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Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

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Chapter 9 Communication And Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. Communication and Consumer Behavior Chapter 9 Communication and Consumer Behavior
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Components of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>The Communication Process </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Persuasive Communications </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Communication Model Figure 9.1
  4. 4. The Communications Process <ul><li>The Message Initiator (the Source) </li></ul><ul><li>The Sender </li></ul><ul><li>The Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>The Medium </li></ul><ul><li>The Message </li></ul><ul><li>The Target Audience (the Receivers) </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback - the Receiver’s Response </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers </li></ul><ul><li>Message Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Includes word of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>These sources also called opinion leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Informal sources may not always be credible </li></ul>Issues with Credibility
  6. 6. Discussion Question <ul><li>How have informal sources affected your decision as a consumer? </li></ul><ul><li>Which informal sources are the most powerful? Why? When? </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers </li></ul><ul><li>Message Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral sources have the greatest credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Source credibility judged on past performance, reputation, service, quality, spokesperson image, retailers, social responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional advertising used to promote favorable company image </li></ul>Issues with Credibility
  8. 8. The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers </li></ul><ul><li>Message Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness related to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergy between endorser and type of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic characteristics of endorser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsement wording </li></ul></ul>Issues with Credibility
  9. 9. This ad has strong synergy between the endorser and the type of product.
  10. 10. Discussion Question <ul><li>Who do you consider credible spokespeople? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of certain ads with credible spokespeople? </li></ul><ul><li>Ads with spokespeople who are NOT credible? </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Message Initiator (source) <ul><li>Credibility of Informal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Formal Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers </li></ul><ul><li>Message Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of retailers </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of the medium that carries the ad </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer’s previous experience with product </li></ul>Issues with Credibility
  12. 12. Sleeper Effect The idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.
  13. 13. The Target Audience (receivers) <ul><li>Personal characteristics and comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement and congruency </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective exposure to messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological noise </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Feedback The Receiver’s Response <ul><li>Feedback should be gathered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promptly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurately </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Advertising Effectiveness Research <ul><li>Media and message exposure measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many consumers received the message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which consumers received the message </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Comscore Media Metrix weblink
  17. 17. Nielson Ratings at Zap2it.com weblink
  18. 18. A People Meter for Television Measurement
  19. 19. Advertising Effectiveness Research <ul><li>Message Attention and Interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theater tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readership surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudinal measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message Recall Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day after recall </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Eye Tracking Research weblink
  21. 21. Comprehensive Communication Model - Figure 9-6
  22. 22. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Communications strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must include objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes cognitive models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer models include perception, experience, and memory </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Three Phases and Flow Figure 9-7
  24. 24. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Target Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation is key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience profiles </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Magazines) <ul><li>Highly selective </li></ul><ul><li>Selective binding possible </li></ul><ul><li>High quality production </li></ul><ul><li>High credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Long message life </li></ul><ul><li>High pass-along rate </li></ul><ul><li>Long lead time </li></ul><ul><li>High clutter </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed and indirect feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Rates vary based on circulation and selectivity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Excerpts from Table 9.1 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Television) <ul><li>Low costs per contact </li></ul><ul><li>Long lead time </li></ul><ul><li>High clutter </li></ul><ul><li>Short message life </li></ul><ul><li>Viewers can avoid exposure with zapping, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Day-after recall tests for feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Large audiences possible </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals to many senses </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion and attention possible </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration possible </li></ul><ul><li>Very high costs overall </li></ul>
  27. 27. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Message Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central and peripheral routes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Order effects </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Wordplay </li></ul><ul><li>Used to create a double meaning when used with a relevant picture </li></ul>Message Structure and Presentation
  29. 29. Wordplay on SUV
  30. 30. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Order effects </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Positive framing </li></ul><ul><li>Negative framing </li></ul><ul><li>One-sided vs. two-sided </li></ul>Message Structure and Presentation
  31. 31. This ad uses negative framing.
  32. 32. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Order effects </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Marketer claims product superiority over another brand </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for positioning </li></ul>Message Structure and Presentation
  33. 33. A comparative ad
  34. 34. Discussion Question <ul><li>You are a marketer for your college/university. </li></ul><ul><li>How could you use comparative advertising? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think it would be effective? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Order effects </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy </li></ul><ul><li>Recency </li></ul><ul><li>Order of benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Brand name </li></ul>Message Structure and Presentation
  36. 36. Designing Persuasive Communications <ul><li>Resonance </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Order effects </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Important for learning </li></ul>Message Structure and Presentation
  37. 37. Emotional Advertising Appeals <ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasive advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Sex in advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Audience participation </li></ul>
  38. 38. Table 9.2 Impact of Humor on Advertising <ul><li>Humor attracts attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor does not harm comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor does not enhance source credibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor enhances liking. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorous advertising appeals. </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humorous treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products. </li></ul><ul><li>Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products. </li></ul>
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