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Strategic Management …

Strategic Management

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  • 1. CHAPTER 6 Formulating Long-Term Objectives and Grand Strategies
  • 2. Chapter Topics
    • Long-Term Objectives
    • Generic Strategies
    • Grand Strategies
    • Corporate Combinations
    • Selection of Long-Term Objectives and Grand Strategy Sets
    • Sequence of Objectives and Strategy Selection
  • 3. Types of Long-Term Objectives
    • Profitability
    • Productivity
    • Competitive position
    • Employee development
    • Employee relations
    • Technological leadership
    • Public responsibility
  • 4. Qualities of Long-Term Objectives Criteria used in preparing objectives Acceptable Flexible Measurable Motivating Suitable Understandable Achievable
  • 5. What is the Balanced Scorecard? The Balanced Scorecard is a set of measures that are directly linked to the company’s strategy. It directs a company to link its own long-term strategy with tangible goals and actions.
  • 6. The Four Perspectives in a Balanced Scorecard
    • Financial performance
    • Customer knowledge
    • Internal business processes
    • Learning and growth
  • 7. Exhibit 6-2: The Balanced Scorecard Vision and Strategy Financial ‘ To succeed financially, how should we appear to our shareholders?” Customer “ To achieve our vision, how should we appear to our customers?” Internal Business Process “ To satisfy our shareholders and customers, what business processes must we excel at?” Learning and Growth ‘ To achieve our vision, how will we sustain our ability to change and improve?”
  • 8. The Value Disciplines
    • Strategies must center on delivering superior customer value through one of three value disciplines:
      • Operational excellence
      • Customer intimacy
      • Product leadership
    • Companies that specialize in one of these disciplines, while simultaneously meeting industry standards in the other two, gain a sustainable lead in their markets.
  • 9. Generic Strategies Low-cost Leadership Differentiation Focus
  • 10. Ex. 6-3: Requirements for Generic Competitive Strategies
    • Tight cost control
    • Frequent, detailed
    • control reports
    • Structured
    • organization and
    • responsibilities
    • Incentives based on
    • meeting strict
    • quantitative targets
    • Sustained capital investment
    • and access to capital
    • Process engineering skills
    • Intense supervision of labor
    • Products designed for ease in
    • manufacture
    • Low-cost distribution system
    Overall Cost Leadership Common Organizational Requirements Commonly Required Skills and Resources Generic Strategy
  • 11. Ex. 6-3 (contd.) Combination of above policies directed at the particular strategic target Combination of above policies directed at the particular strategic target Focus
    • Strong coordination
    • among functions in
    • R&D, product
    • development, and
    • marketing
    • Subjective measurement and incentives instead of quantitative measures
    • Amenities to attract highly skilled labor, scientists, or creative people
    • Product engineering
    • Creative flare
    • Strong capability in basic research
    • Corporate reputation for quality or
    • technological leadership
    • Unique combination of skills
    • Strong cooperation from channels
    • Strong marketing abilities
    Differentiation Common Organizational Requirements Commonly Required Skills and resources Generic Strategy
  • 12. Ex. 6-4: Risks of the Generic Strategies
    • Focus strategy is imitated
    • Target segment becomes unattractive
    • Structure erodes
    • Demand disappears
    • Broadly target competitors overwhelm segments
    • Segment’s differences from others narrow
    • Advantages of broad line increase
    • Differentiation is not sustained
    • Competitors imitate
    • Bases for differentiation become less important to buyers
    • Cost proximity is lost
    • Differentiation focusers achieve greater differentiation in segments
    • Cost leadership is not sustained
    • Competitors imitate
    • Technology changes
    • Other bases for cost leadership erode
    • Proximity in differentiation is lost
    • Cost focusers achieve even lower cost in segments
    Risks of Focus Risks of Differentiation Risks of Cost Leadership
  • 13. Types of Grand Strategies
    • Concentrated growth
    • Market development
    • Product development
    • Innovation
    • Horizontal integration
    • Vertical integration
    • Concentric diversification
    • Conglomerate diversification
    • Turnaround
    • Divestiture
    • Liquidation
    • Bankruptcy
    • Joint ventures
    • Strategic alliances
    • Consortia
  • 14. Characteristics of a Concentrated Growth Strategy
    • Involves focusing resources on the profitable growth of a single product, in a single market, with a single dominant technology
    • Rationale – Firm develops and exploits its expertise in a delimited competitive arena
    • Determinants of competitive market success
      • Ability to assess market needs
      • Knowledge of buyer behavior
      • Customer price sensitivity
      • Effectiveness of promotion
  • 15. Conditions Favoring a Concentrated Growth Strategy
    • Firm’s industry is resistant to major technological advancements
    • Firm’s target markets are not product saturated
    • Firm’s markets are sufficiently distinctive to dissuade competitors in adjacent markets from entering firm’s segment
    • Firm’s inputs are stable in price and quantity and available in the amounts and at the times needed
    • Firm’s industry is stable
    • Firm’s competitive advantages are based on efficient production or distribution channels
    • Success of market generalists
  • 16. Strategies of Market and Product Development
    • Market development
      • Consists of marketing present products, often with only cosmetic modifications to customers in related market areas by
        • Adding channels of distribution or
        • Changing content of advertising or promotion
    • Product development
      • Involves substantial modification of existing products or creation of new but related products
      • Based on penetrating existing market by
        • Incorporating product modifications into existing items or
        • Developing new products connected to existing products
  • 17. Exhibit 6-4: Specific Options for Selected Grand Strategies
    • Concentration (Increasing use of present products in present markets)
    • Increasing present customers’ rate of use
      • Increasing size of purchase
      • Increasing the rate of product obsolescence
      • Advertising other uses
      • Giving price incentives for increased use
    • Attracting competitors’ customers
      • Establishing sharper brand recognition
      • Increasing promotional effort
      • Initiating price cuts
    • Attracting nonusers to buy the product
      • Introducing trial use thru’ sampling, price incentives, etc.
      • Pricing up or down
      • Advertising new uses
  • 18. Ex. 6-4 (contd.)
    • Market Development (Selling present products in new markets.)
    • Opening additional geographic markets
      • Regional expansion
      • National expansion
      • International expansion
    • Attracting other market segments
      • Developing product versions to appeal to other segments
      • Entering other channels of distribution
      • Advertising in other media
  • 19. Ex. 6-4 (contd.)
    • Product Development (Developing new products for present markets)
    • Developing new product features
      • Adapt (to other ideas, developments)
      • Modify (change color, motion, sound, odor, form, shape)
      • Magnify (stronger, longer, thicker, extra value)
      • Minify (smaller, shorter, lighter)
      • Substitute (other ingredients, process, power)
      • Rearrange (other patterns, layout, sequence, components)
      • Reverse (inside out)
      • Combine (blend, alloy, assortment, ensemble, combine units, etc.)
    • Developing quality variations
    • Developing additional models and sizes (product proliferation)
  • 20. Innovation Strategy Involves creating a new product life cycle, thereby making similar existing products obsolete
  • 21. Horizontal and Vertical Integration Strategies
    • Horizontal Integration
    • Based on growth via acquisition of one or more similar firms operating at the same stage of the production-marketing chain
    • Vertical Integration
    • Involves acquiring firms
      • That supply acquiring firm with inputs ( backward integration) or
      • Are customers for firm’s outputs ( forward integration)
  • 22. Ex. 6-7: Vertical and Horizontal Integrations Textile producer Textile producer Shirt manufacturer Shirt manufacturer Clothing store Clothing store Acquisitions or mergers of suppliers or customer businesses are vertical integration Acquisitions or mergers of competing businesses are horizontal integrations
  • 23. Motivations for Diversification
    • Increase firm’s stock value
    • Increase growth rate of firm
    • Investment is better use of funds than using them for internal growth
    • Improves stability of earnings and sales
    • Balance or fill out product line
    • Diversify product line
    • Acquire a needed resource quickly
    • Achieve tax savings
    • Increase efficiency and profitability
  • 24. Diversification Strategies
    • Concentric Diversification
    • Involves acquisition of businesses related to acquiring firm in terms of technology, markets, or products
    • Conglomerate Diversification
    • Involves acquisition of a business because it represents a promising investment opportunity
      • Primary motivation is profit pattern of venture
    • Difference between the approaches
      • Concentric diversification emphasizes commonality whereas conglomerate diversification emphasizes profits for each individual unit
  • 25. Turnaround Strategy Involves a concerted effort over a period of time to fortify a firm’s distinctive competencies, returning it to profitability
  • 26. Turnaround Strategy A turnaround strategy is done through Cost reduction Asset reduction
  • 27. Terms Used in Turnaround Strategy
    • A turnaround situation represents absolute and relative-to-industry declining performance of a sufficient magnitude to warrant explicit turnaround actions
    • The immediacy of the resulting threat to company survival posed by the turnaround situation is known as situation severity
    • Turnaround responses typically include two stages of strategic activities
      • Retrenchment
      • Recovery response
  • 28. Divestiture and Liquidation Strategies
    • Divestiture Strategy
      • Involves selling a firm or a major component of a firm
      • Reasons for divestiture
        • Partial mismatches between acquired firm and parent firm
        • Corporate financial needs
        • Government antitrust action
    • Liquidation Strategy
      • Involves selling parts of a firm, usually for its tangible asset value and not as a going concern
  • 29. The Strategy of Bankruptcy
    • Two approaches
      • Liquidation – Involves complete distribution of a firm’s assets to creditors, most of whom receive a small fraction of amount owed
      • Reorganization – Involves creditors temporarily freezing their claims while a firm reorganizes and rebuilds its operations more profitably
    • Advantage of a reorganization bankruptcy
      • Proactive option offering maximum repayment of a firm’s debt in the future if a recovery strategy is successful
  • 30. Corporate Combination Strategies
    • Joint Ventures
    • Involves establishing a third company (child), operated for the benefit of the co-owners (parents)
    • Strategic Alliance
    • Involves creating a partnership between two or more companies that contribute skills and expertise to a cooperative project
      • Exists for a defined period
      • Does not involve the exchange of equity
  • 31. Corporate Combination Strategies (contd.)
    • Consortia are defined as large interlocking relationships between businesses of an industry. In Japan such consortia are known as keiretsus , in South Korea as chaebols
    • A Japanese keiretsu is an undertaking involving up to 50 different firms that are joined around a large trading company or bank and are coordinated through interlocking directories and stock exchanges
    • Chaebols are typically financed through government banking groups and largely are run by professional managers trained by participating firms expressly for the job
  • 32. Ex. 6-13: The Top Five Strategic Reasons for Outsourcing
    • Improve business focus
    • Access to world-class capabilities
    • Accelerated reengineering benefits
    • Shared risks
    • Free resources for other purposes