Water Pollution• The primary natural sources and basic need of living things is water• It is existed in mainly• Marine 97%• Fresh water 03%
Supply of water• Agriculture 69% Industry 23% Domestic 08% About 1.3billion people were unable to access water worldwide.• Total volume of water in India 1850Km3 , which 4 % fresh water resources of world
• 70% all available sources of waters of India are polluted 80% domestic waste water is causing pollution. In India 70 million people live by the sewerage system. The water is contaminated by human activities.
Important words• Aquifers - natural rock formations, which contain ground water.• Eutrophication - The process of slowly filling in a water body with sediments and organic matter and lowering of oxygen.• Point source - occurs when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water. i.g. One way in which this occurs, is when someone throws a coke can into a body of water.
• Non point source - delivers pollutants indirectly through environmental changes. One way in, which this occurs, is through run- off.• Pathogens - or disease producing organism.• Pollution - to make foul or unclean; dirty.• Sediments - minerals or organic matter deposited by water, air, or ice...matter which settles to the bottom .
The sources of pollution categorized into• Point sources: e.g. A pipe spewing toxic chemicals directly discharge into a river at a particular point.
Point Source - Example• LUST - Leaky Underground Storage Tanks• 22% of the 1.2 million UST are LUSTy• Look at water pollution from gasoline...
• Oil pollution of waterways can have devastating effects on aquatic vegetation and animal life.• Oil contains toluene and benzene which are toxic, but these compounds evaporate quickly and do not do most of the damage.• It is other compounds in crude oil - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - that are the source of most of the environmental problems.•
• These compounds persist in the environment much longer (do not evaporate) and coat shorelines and estuaries severely impacting ecosystems by blocking light and gas exchange.• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons also negatively effect sea mammals and sea birds and can kill them.• Interestingly, while big oil spills make the headlines, most oil pollution comes from runoff - used engine oil, industrial and commercial waste, etc.
Garbage in polluted stream. TrinidadFacts: Increasing economic an social development in Trinidad contributes to the degradation of the islandsenvironment. Water pollution from agricultural, domestic, industrial and municipal sources is a particularly significant problem. Residential areas produce raw sewage and household wastes.
Polluted river running through a slum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Facts: Water pollution may pose significant health threats such as diseases like typhoid, cholera and dysentery.Aquatic life in the river may also be affected by pollution, and some polluted rivers (like the one in the photo in Malaysia) are still fished.
Tilings settling pond with Sycrude processing plant in background. Photographed in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
• Syncrude utilizes the Clark hot water process which uses hot water to separate the bitumen from the sand after it is mined from the surface.• The leftover water is dumped in the tailings ponds, which contain a mixture of clay, sand, water and hydrocarbons.• Tailings ponds can be dangerous as the wastes are sometimes toxic and/or corrosive and detrimental to the environment.
Pollution - Sewage & Trash Location: Tijuana River Estuary San Diego CaliforniaWinter storms flush huge quantities of raw sewage and floating trash from Tijuana Mexico down the Tijuana River to be deposited in the river estuary and ultimately in the ocean.
Pollution - Sign Warning of Sewage Spill Location: Imperial Beach San Diego CaliforniaOn the beach next to Imperial Pier a family watches as a surfer who choose to ignore the warnings exits the water.
Pollution - Spilled Gasoline and/or Oil Forms Patterns on Water Surface
• Location: Salton Sea Imp. County California The Salton Sea has been in decline for years.• Large scale fish die offs have become annual summer events since the late nineties.• The major causes are believed to be the ever increasing salinity pollution from Mexico via the New River and agricultural runoff from the surrounding farmland on the southern end of the Sea.• The pollutants include huge quantities of raw sewage industrial waste farm fertilizers and pesticides.
Blocks of ice on the Sainte Anne River, Quebec.The village called Sainte Anne de la Perade is famous for ice fishing in winter. January 2004
Mining pollution Facts: Sludge flowing from a pipe at a copper mine. Photographed in Chile
• Def: Water pollution may be defined as the addition of any substance to water, which may change the physical and chemical characters in any way, which may interfere with use for legitimate purposes.• Pollutants .Dissolved solids, minerals, dust, fibers etc.• Dissolved gases• Suspended matter• Microbes
The effect of Pollutants on river water quality depends on-The type of pollutant-concentration of pollutant in the water-the length of exposure to the communityEffect of water pollution-Depletion of dissolved oxygen in surface water bodies affecting the fish and other water bodies
-The toxic substance render the water unfit for the down stream use.-the pathogens from the domestic sewage contaminate the water and causes the transmission of water borne diseases-The increased temperature due to discharge of effluent from thermal power stations cause direct responses.i. Heat stress or death sensitive speciesii. Enhanced microorganisms respiration.
Effects• When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed.• This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems.• Pollutants can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits.
Sources• Water pollution has many sources.• The most polluting of them are the city sewage and• Industrial waste discharged into the rivers. The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate in any city in India.
• Domestic sewage refers to waste water that is discarded from households. Also referred to as sanitary sewage, such water contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended impurities.• Wastewater from Domestic and Canteens, Hotels and Restaurants. ex. Bio- waste
Industrial effluentsDuring the last fifty years, the number of industries in India has grown rapidly.Waste water from manufacturing or chemical processes in industries contributes to water pollution.Industrial waste water usually contains specific and readily identifiable chemical compounds.
• Effluents from Industries: e.g. textiles, chemicals, dyeing, paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, tanneries, dairy forms, nuclear power plants, thermal power plants, meat packing, sugar, refineries, mining, petroleum drilling wells and drainages -Pathogens: Bacteria, Warms• Ecological Pollution: e.g. large animal deer drowns in a flood large amount of organic material added to the water. Land slide Farming: e.g. fertilizers increase the amount of nitrates and phosphates
• Pollen grains from water plants Flooding during rainy season -Disposal of human and animal waste -Agriculture Waste -Untreated Sewage
• Most of these defaulting industries are sugar mills, distilleries, leather processing industries, and thermal power stations.• Most of the major industries have treatment facilities for industrial effluents.• Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated; the rest is discharged as it is into our water bodies. Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies.
• Agricultural run-off, or the water from the fields that drains into rivers, is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides.
Path ways of water Pollution• Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat.• Petroleum often pollutes water bodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil spills.• The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution.• These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution.• One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported. This is equal to about 0.0001 percent.
• Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials.• Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining. The last form of water pollution is heat.• Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms.• These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs.
Major PollutantsOrganic Compounds• Phenols• Hydrocarbons• Proteins• Carbohydrates• Dye stuffs• Organic acids• Detergents• Organic pesticides• Fats and Oils• CFCs etc
Water quality Parameters• Colour, pH, Odour,• Temperature TSS, TDS, DO, BOD, COD SO2, S, Cl, F,Br, I, P, N, NO3, N, Tra ces of metals
• Definition of pH• pH can be viewed as an abbreviation for power of hydrogen or more completely, power of the concentration of hydrogen ion.• The mathematical definition of pH is a bit less intuitive, but with a calculator in hand, more useful. It says that the pH is equal to the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration, or pH = -log [H+].• Range for pH 1-14• Acidic: 1-6.5• Neutral: 7• Alkali: 7.5 -14
• Dissolved oxygen• Dissolved oxygen (Science: biochemistry) The concentration of oxygen dissolved in water, expressed in mg/l or as percent saturation, where saturation is the maximum amount of oxygen that can theoretically be dissolved in water at a given altitude and temperature.
• Total suspended solids is a water quality measurement usually abbreviated TSS.• This parameter was at one time called non- filterable residue (NFR).• Definitions, "filterable" means just the opposite: the material passed by a filter, usually called "Total dissolved solids" or TDS.• Thus in chemistry the non-filterable solids are the retained material called the residue.
• Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): laboratory measurement of the amount of oxygen used in chemical reactions that occur in water as a result of the addition of wastes.• A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds, both organic and inorganic, in water.• A measure of the oxygen-consuming capacity of inorganic and organic matter present in water or wastewater. the amount of oxygen consumed from a chemical oxidant in a specific test
• Biochemical Oxygen Demand - the rate at which microorganisms use the oxygen in water or wastewater while stabilizing decomposable organic matter under aerobic conditions.• In decomposition, organic matter serves as food for the bacteria and energy results from this oxidation.• www.alken-murray.com/glossarybug.html
Characterization of waste waters• Physical Characters: Colour, odour,• Dissolved Oxygen• Insoluble substances• Corrosive properties• Radio activity• Temperature range• Foamability
Chemical characters• pH• Chemical oxygen demand(COD)• Acidity• Alkalinity• Hardness• Total carbon• Total Dissolved solids• Chlorine demand• Known organic and inorganic components• E.g.Cr,S2,SO42-,N,Pb,Cd,Hg,As, are inorganic• phenols, hydrocarbon, oils and greases are organic
Chemical characters• Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)• Pathogenic bacteria,• Toxicity to man• Aquatic organisms• Plants and other forms
Waste water treatment• Physical methods• Removing floating or suspended solids or liquid pollutants based on their density difference from water.• Reverser osmosis• Filtration• Form separation• Porous bed filtration, adsorption• Crystalization
Chemical methods• Industrial effluents contains• Acids• Alkalis• Undesirable chlorides• Phenols• Sulphates• Chromates• Phosphates• Salts of mercury, lead, calcium, barium, zinc• Acid and base neutralization before they discharge into water bodies
• Biological treatment method• Colloidal or dissolved solids are converted into settleable solids by microorganisms under favourable conditions.• Anaerobic treatment takes place in the total absence of oxygen and is a slow process.• Aerobic biological treatment methods include the activated sludge process, trickling filter process and stabilization pond
• Raw sewage includes waste from• Sinks, toilets, and industrial processes.• Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or released back into local water systems.• In a treatment plant, the waste is passed through a series of screens, chambers, and chemical processes to reduce its bulk and toxicity.
• The three general phases of treatment are primary, secondary, and tertiary. During primary treatment, a large percentage of the suspended solids and inorganic material is removed from the sewage.• The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic material by accelerating natural biological processes.• Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be reused;• 99 percent of solids are removed and various chemical processes are used to ensure the water is as free from impurity as possible.
Case study. e.g.Texas• The causes of surface water pollution. Collected water from 190 segments impacted high bacteria levels, 103 segments low dissolved oxygen18 segments high metal contents 19 segments organics (dioxins) 12 segments dissolved solids 8 segments chlorides 7 segments metals They found in fish and shellfish
Pie diagram showing contaminants in water DO pH Met als 5%2% 5% Pat hogens pest icides 11% Chlorides pest icides Pat hogens Met als Chlorides 16% 61% DO pH
There is no pipe line to surface water run off into rivers. EPA estimated non point sources• Pollution at Texas Rivers 65% Lakes 76% Estuaries 45% Texas Commission of Environment Quality identified 220 out of 238 water bodies or 92% damaged.• State Funded Project has taken up Clean River project
Wastewater Treatment ProcessContaminant Treatment system Treatment process plants/UnitPathogenic Chlorination, Chlorinator,organisms ozonation ozonatorTurbidity and Screening, Screeners/clarifiers,suspended solids sedimentation, filters Filtration Coagulation/floccul Clariflocculator and ation/ filter Sedimentation/ filtrationColor Adsorption, Ion- Adsorption towers exchange, coagulation and flocculation/ Clariflocculator and sedimentation/ filter filtration
Dissolved gases Aeration, Vacuum Aerator deaeration Degassifier ChlorinatorHeavy metals Chemical precipitation, Clariflocculator ion-exchange Ion-exchange columnIron and manganese Ion exchange, Oxidation Ion exchangeprecipitation/ filtration Aerator/settler/filterDissolved solids Reverse osmosis, Reverse osmosis Plant Distillation Evaporator
Residents of the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls were forced to evacuate when hazardous wastes leaking from a former disposal site threatened their health and homes in the late 1970s. One of the most notorious cases of toxic waste leakage, the crisis received attentionon both local and national levels. Investigation spurred by public outrage revealed that many waste disposal sites like Love Canal existed nationwide. New York alone had several hundred. Several states have since passed stricter regulations on industrial waste disposal and allocated billions of dollars for the cleanup of contaminated areas.
• Industrial Pollution• In the United States industry is the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants.• Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds.• The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is discharged into streams, lakes, or oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances.• In its National Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996,• the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that approximately 40% of the nations surveyed lakes, rivers, and estuaries were too polluted for such basic uses as drinking supply, fishing, and swimming.• The pollutants include grit, asbestos, phosphates and nitrates, mercury, lead, caustic soda and other sodium compounds, sulfur and sulfuric acid, oils, and petrochemicals.
• In addition, numerous manufacturing plants pour off undiluted corrosives, poisons, and other noxious byproducts.• The construction industry discharges slurries of gypsum, cement, abrasives, metals, and poisonous solvents.• Another pervasive group of contaminants entering food chains is the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds, components of lubricants, plastic wrappers, and adhesives.
• In yet another instance of pollution, hot water discharged by factories and power plants causes so-called thermal pollution by increasing water temperatures.• Such increases change the level of oxygen dissolved in a body of water, thereby disrupting the waters ecological balance, killing off some plant and animal species while encouraging the overgrowth of others.
http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/water-pollution.jsp dt 16/4/10• Legislation and Control• The United States has enacted extensive federal legislation to fight water pollution.• In the United States in 1996, nearly $10 billion was spent on water and wastewater treatment alone.
• Laws include the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972),• The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (1972),• The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974), and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended in 1988.
• Limitation of ocean dumping was proposed at the 80-nation London Conference of 1972, and in the same year 12 European nations meeting in Oslo adopted rules to regulate dumping in the North Atlantic.
Effects of water pollution on living things• Water-borne diseases affect around 3.4 million people globally.• In India around 5, 63, 000 people are affected annually.• One fourth of children affected according to Ministry of Health and Family Planning Report Government Of India
• The depletion of dissolved oxygen in surface water bodies thus affecting the fish and other aquatic life• The toxic substances render the water unfit for down stream use.• The pathogens from the domestic sewage contaminate the water and cause the transmission of water borne diseases.• Thermal power stations discharge heated effluent in to the water bodies, which increase temperature in the water bodies and causes heat stress or death of sensitive species.
• In the mid 1950s the people of Minamata, Japan, on the coast of the Shiranui Sea, began to notice something wrong with the cats in their town.• The cats appeared to be going insane, and were falling into the sea.• The people thought the cats were committing suicide.•
• Soon the people in the town were also contracting a strange illness.• Individuals began to have numbness in their limbs and lips. Some had difficulty hearing or seeing.• Others developed shaking (tremors) in their arms and legs, difficulty walking, even brain damage.• Others seemed to be going crazy, shouting uncontrollably.
• Unknown syndrome called Minamata disease In 1956, researchers worked to find the source of the illness, which they termed Minamata disease.• Something was affecting the nervous systems of the people.• One thing people in this fishing town had in common was that they all ate fish, so scientists suspected that the fish in Minamata Bay were being poisoned.
• Chisso Corporation source of environmental pollution A large petrochemical plant in Minamata run by Chisso Corporation was immediately suspect.• Chisso denied the allegations and continued its manufacturing with no changes to the method of production.• Finally, in July 1959 researchers from Kumamoto University found that organic mercury was the cause of Minamata disease.• Chisso continued to refuse the information and any link of its mercury waste to the illness.• It was later discovered that Chisso Corporation had dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay.
• People severely affected As the mercury dumping continued, babies were born to poisoned mothers.• The children were born with severe deformities, including gnarled limbs, mental retardation, deafness, and blindness.• A photographer, W. Eugene Smith, traveled to Minamata in the 1970s, and his series of photographs of the suffering of the people there were published and seen around the world.
• A poisoning epidemic Chisso finally quit poisoning the waters in Minamata in 1968.• According to Japanese government figures, 2,955 people contracted Minamata disease, and 1,784 people have since died.• Researchers believe, however, that the criteria the government uses to diagnose Minamata disease is too strict, and that anyone who showed any impairment in his/her senses should be certified as a victim.• A group of these yet-to-be-recognized victims plans to file a compensation suit against the government.
• In April 2001 the Osaka High Court determined that the governments Health and Welfare Ministry should have begun taking regulatory action to stop the poisoning
• at the end of 1959, after it concluded that Minamata disease was caused by mercury poisoning.• The court also ordered Chisso to pay $2.18 million in damages to the plaintiffs.
• On October 16, 2004, the Supreme Court of Japan ordered the government to pay 71.5 million yen ($703,000) in damages to the Minamata disease victims.• The Environment Minister bowed in apology to the plaintiffs.
• After 22 years, the plaintiffs achieved their goal of making those responsible for Japans worst case of industrial pollution pay for their negligence.• No amount of money, though, can ever make up for the lives needlessly lost to Minamata disease.• http://rarediseases.about.com/od/raredisease s1/a/102304.htm
• Conclusions: The water pollution creates various health problems and damaging public property. The people should strictly follow regulations. Then we can achieve zero pollution.